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Dobson unit

The Dobson unit is a unit of measurement of the amount of a trace gas in a vertical column through the Earth's atmosphere. It originated, continues to be used in respect to, atmospheric ozone, whose total column amount termed "total ozone", sometimes "column abundance", is dominated by the high concentrations of ozone in the stratospheric ozone layer; the Dobson unit is defined as the thickness of that layer of pure gas which would be formed by the total column amount at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. This is sometimes referred to as a'milli-atmo-centimeter.' A typical column amount of 300 DU of atmospheric ozone therefore would form a 3 mm layer of pure gas at the surface of the Earth if its temperature and pressure conformed to STP. The Dobson unit is named after Gordon Dobson, a researcher at the University of Oxford who in the 1920s built the first instrument to measure total ozone from the ground, making use of a double prism monochromator to measure the differential absorption of different bands of solar ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer.

This instrument, called the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer, has formed the backbone of the global network for monitoring atmospheric ozone and was the source of the discovery in 1984 of the Antarctic ozone hole. The Dobson unit is not part of the International System of Units. To address this shortcoming, a brief study in 1982 examined a number of alternative SI-based units suitable for column amounts of not only ozone but any gas in any planetary atmosphere and proposed the use of the unit of mole per square metre for all cases. Examples range from Earth's trace gases at levels of micro moles per square meter to Venus' carbon dioxide at mega moles per square meter: One mmol/m2 is equivalent to 2.241 DU. One DU is equivalent to 0.4462 mmol/m2. One DU is equivalent to 2.687×1020 molecules per square metre. Typical values of total ozone in the Earth's atmosphere are conveniently represented in millimoles per square metre. A examination in 1995 of units for use in atmospheric chemistry by the Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry, a part of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, discouraged the use of special names and symbols for units that are not part of the SI and are not products of powers of SI base units.

Although it overlooked the 1982 article it concurred with the view that the Dobson unit should be replaced by an appropriate SI unit and that the unit mmol/m2 was the most convenient and least cumbersome option. It expressed the hope that this unit would supplant the Dobson unit. However, as of March 2017, there is little evidence. NASA uses a baseline value of 220 DU for ozone; this was chosen as the starting point for observations of the Antarctic ozone hole, since values of less than 220 Dobson units were not found before 1979. From direct measurements over Antarctica, a column ozone level of less than 220 Dobson units is a result of the ozone loss from chlorine and bromine compounds. In addition, Dobson units are used to describe total column densities of sulfur dioxide, which occurs in the atmosphere in small amounts due to the combustion of fossil fuels, from biological processes releasing dimethyl sulfide, or by natural combustion such as forest fires. Large amounts of sulfur dioxide may be released into the atmosphere as well by volcanic eruptions.

The Dobson unit is used to describe total column amounts of sulfur dioxide because it appeared in the early days of ozone remote sensing on ultraviolet satellite instruments. The Dobson unit arises from the ideal gas law P V = n R T, where P and V are pressure and volume and n, R and T are the number of moles of gas, the gas constant, T is temperature in kelvins; the number density of air is the number of molecules or atoms per unit volume: n air = A a v n V, when plugged into the real gas law, the number density of air is found by using pressure and the real gas constant: n air = A a v P R T. The number density of air at standard temperature and pressure is, by using this equation, n air = A a v P R T = ⋅ 8.314 J mol K ⋅ 273 K. With some unit conversions of joules to pascal cubic metres, the equation for molecules/volume is ⋅

Holland, New York

Holland is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 3,401 at the 2010 census; the name is derived from the Holland Land Company, the original title-holder to most of the land of Western New York. Holland is one of the "Southtowns" of Erie County, located in the southeast part of the county, to the southeast of Buffalo; the town was first settled along its northern border called "Humphrey Valley", in 1807. The town of Holland was established in 1818 from part of the town of Willink, which once included all the southern part of Erie County; the name was derived from Willem Willink, one of the original investors of the Holland Land Company, which owned most of the land in western New York and sold it off to cities and townships that exist today. The name "Holland" is one of many surviving remnants of the Dutch investors who once owned this region; as with the town of Willink, the locations named. Many of the original town buildings met their fate due to fire. Today the Holland Historical Society resides in the original fire hall on Main Street.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which 35.8 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.10%, is water. The east town line is the border of the town of Java in Wyoming County. New York State Route 16 is a major north-south highway through the town; the East Branch of Cazenovia Creek flows northward through Holland. Established in 1933, the school was centralized and a new building was put up on 103 Canada Street. Students left the old school, located today where the town hall resides, after Christmas break of 1932, moved into the new establishment in January; the Harold O. Brumstead elementary building was added in 1960, a middle school was built in 1973 on the corner of Partridge and Route 16; the original building on Canada Street is the Holland Junior/Senior High School. In November 1982, Holland's boys varsity soccer team tied Mattituck, 1-1, in the state Class C soccer finals, earning the school's first state title in any sport.

As of 2010, only one other Section 6 boys soccer team since 1978 had won a NYSPHSAA crown. In 2008, for the 75th anniversary celebration, a group of sixth grade students created a video which documents the history of Holland Central Schools. Dave Hack, former CFL playerGeoff Hack, brother of Dave Hack James M. Humphrey, former US congressman Laura Ingalls, mother of Charles Ingalls and grandmother of Laura Ingalls Wilder, was born here on November 5, 1810 Frank E. Wheelock, a founder and first mayor of Lubbock, born in Holland in 1863 Gerry Helper, Senior Vice President of Communications & Public Relations of the Nashville Predators. Kip Palmateer, Bon Vivant/Local Legend, former Avon Lady Camp Seven Hills Girl Scout Camp Holland Farmers Market Holland Motorsports Complex Holland Tulip Festival As of the census of 2000, there were 3,603 people, 1,332 households, 981 families residing in the town; the population density was 100.7 people per square mile. There were 1,408 housing units at an average density of 39.3 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the town was 98.17% White, 0.50% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.36% of the population. There were 1,332 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.3% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,708, the median income for a family was $55,885.

Males had a median income of $40,670 versus $25,886 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,196. About 8.0% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.0% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Dutchtown – A hamlet in the southeastern part of the town. East Holland – A location in the northeast part of the town. Holland – This hamlet, sometimes called Holland Village, is the principal community and the location of the town government; the community is located on NY-16. Mountain Meadows Lake – A small lake by the east town line. Protection – A hamlet on the border of the town of Sardinia in the southeast part of the town. Vermont Hill – A small elevation in the northern part of Holland. Bank of Holland Holland, New York, a census district corresponding to Holland hamlet Town of Holland official website Holland Central Schools ePodunk - Holland NY Photos from Holland's past Town of Holland 175th Anniversary History book

Gray sanddragon

Progomphus borealis is a species of dragonfly in the family Gomphidae. This dragonfly species is known as the gray sanddragon; the gray sanddragon is a medium to large dragonfly with a maximum length of 2.25 to 2.44 inches. Its face and thorax are grayish to yellowish brown, its thorax may be marked with black; the abdomen of this dragonfly marked with yellow on the top of every segment. Under the tip of the abdomen is marked with yellow as well, the abdominal tip is swollen as in other members of this family; the nymph of the gray sanddragon is large in size with a length of 1 inch. This dragonfly nymph has short legs covered with stiff bristles, its abdomen turns up at the tip, there is a single, rear-facing spine on every side of abdominal segments three through nine. Gray sanddragons can be found in Arizona, Chihuahua, Jalisco, New Mexico, Texas, U. S. Virgin Islands, Washington. In Idaho these dragonflies can be found at desert streams in the southwest corner of the state; the gray sanddragon found along sandy streams and lakes in desert areas.

Gray sanddragons are fly from early June to September. They will fly from April to October; this species of dragonfly will eat any soft-bodied flying insect such as mosquitoes, butterflies, moths and flying ants or termites. The nymphs of gray sanddragon feed on a wide variety of aquatic insects, including mosquito larvae, other aquatic fly larvae, mayfly larvae, freshwater shrimp, they will sometimes eat small fish and tadpoles. Nymphs can be selective in choosing their habitat choices and will occur only in certain stretches of a particular river or stream; the upturned tip of their abdomen is exposed. This strategy allows them to breathe while buried by pumping water in and out of the tip of the abdomen. Unlike most other species, the gray sanddragon nymphs emerge as adults during the day. Although many records are sparse, the adults are believed to fly from early June to September. Gray sanddragons can't tolerate cooler temperatures and are seen flying on cool or cloudy days. After both male and female mate, the female flies singly, without the male attached to her, she lays her eggs by dipping the tip of her abdomen in the shallows of small streams while hovering above it.

Many sanddragons are identifiable because of the bright yellow cerci. The gray sanddragon looks similar to the smaller common sanddragon which has two dark lateral thoracic stripes and more brown basally in the wings. Ordonates Frame - Gray Sanddragon Progomphus borealis Dragonflies, Anisoptera, of California OdonataCentral

Drab Majesty

Drab Majesty is an American, Los Angeles-based musical project, founded by musician Deb Demure while working as the drummer for the band Marriages, in 2011. The project's first record was the 2012 EP Unarian Dances, first self-released and re-released in 2014 on Lolipop Records. Since signing to Dais Records, Drab Majesty has released three albums - Careless,The Demonstration, Modern Mirror. Drab Majesty combine androgynous aesthetics and commanding vocals with futuristic and occult lyrics, a style Demure refers to as, "tragic wave." To create his imposing stage presence, Demure employs costumes and props to accompany his lush,'80s-influenced soundscapes. Since 2016, when performing live, Demure is joined onstage by keyboardist and vocalist Mona D; the idea for Drab Majesty had come to Andrew Clinco in 2011 while drumming for the Los Angeles-based group Marriages. Interested in creating music where he performed all of the instruments himself, Clinco wrote and recorded several songs alone in his bedroom.

Clinco stated that he felt some sense of alarm while playing back the music he had recorded, claiming that it was as if another person had made it. "Listening back I just didn’t feel like I was listening to myself It sounded like someone else". This experience provided the inspiration for Clinco to create Deb Demure. Drab Majesty's first effort, the EP Unarian Dances, was self-released in 2012. Limited to 100 cassette copies, the EP was picked up and released by Lollipop Records; the record's title was inspired by the Unarian Academy, a UFO cult whose appearances on public-access television Demure described as being "intoxicating". The EP, which features some contributions from Emma Ruth Rundle, was described as a "space-age pastiche" and likened to the work of bands such as Slowdive. Drab Majesty signed with Dais Records in Spring of 2015 and shortly thereafter released the single "Unknown to the I", described as a "lo-fi take on the 80s". Careless, Drab Majesty's first full-length album, was released that year.

Recorded at Demure's home studio over the course of 2 years, Careless was inspired by a song a close friend of Demure's had written. "It affected me deeply, so I wanted to make a record, a nod to ". The album features what was described by Tiny Mix Tapes writer Grant Purdum as "mechanical beats, isolated ruminations, stimulating guitar arpeggios that equate to more than the sum of their parts". Drab Majesty toured with Dais cohorts King Dude that year. Westword contributor Tom Murphy described Drab Majesty's stage show as "more than just a rock show" and likened Demure to an "unconventional religious figure". In 2016, Drab Majesty expanded into a duo with the addition of keyboardist Mona D; the son of horror director Ted Nicolaou, Mona D helped to enhance the group's theatrics while touring North America and Europe in 2016. The Demonstration, Drab Majesty's second studio album, was released in January 2017 to favorable reviews; the Demonstration is a concept album that deals with the psychology of Mass Suicide, referencing in particular the ideology of Marshall Applewhite, the leader of the Heaven's Gate cult..

Zaina Abujebarah of SLUG Magazine called The Demonstration a "perfect" album that "transcends the glamour of nightlife and illustrates the complexities of feeling blue". Susana Meza of Spill Magazine gave the album a 9 out of 10, saying that the album was "a phenomenal record by exceptional performers and quite the proper introduction to Drab Majesty for the uninitiated". CVLT Nation said that the album was "more than everything you dreamed it would be" and called it "a blend of postpunk vocals, sophisticated lyrics, ethereal synth sound, shoegaze influence"; the duo toured North America with Dais counterparts Cold Cave, toured Europe alongside King Dude, with whom they collaborated on the single "Who Taught You How to Love?" the year before. In late 2017, the duo released a 7-inch single, titled "Oakwood", for the 10th anniversary celebration of Dais Records; the song was written in honor of Cash Askew, co-founder of the band Them Are Us Too, who died in the 2016 Oakland warehouse fire. The title "Oakwood", according to Demure, is a direct translation of Askew's name.

The single featured a B-side called an instrumental guitar piece. The duo embarked on their North American Fall From the Sky tour in September, they extended their tour to Europe in Winter of 2018. Deb Demure - Vocals, percussion Mona D - Keyboards, vocals Careless The Demonstration Modern Mirror Unarian Dances "Unknown to the I" "The Heiress/The Demon" "Oak Wood" "Ellipsis" "Long Division" "Oxytocin" "Out of Sequence" Completely Careless

Selwyn, Ontario

Selwyn is a township in central-eastern Ontario, located in Peterborough County. Known as Smith-Ennismore-Lakefield, the township passed a by-law changing its name to Selwyn in 2012; the change became official on January 15, 2013. The township comprises the communities of: Bridgenorth, Chemong Heights, Chemong Park, Connaught Shore, Deer Bay, Emerald Isle, Fife's Bay, Flood's Landing, Fowlers Corners, Gannon Beach, Gannon Village, Kawartha Park, Kimberley Park, Selwyn, Selwyn Shores, Stewart Heights, Tera View Heights, Tindle Bay, Victoria Springs, Village Meadowa, Windward Sands, Woodland Acres, Young's Cove, Young's Point and Youngstown; the township is 67 percent rural including small villages and hamlets, along with the urban areas of Lakefield, Bridgenorth - Chemong Park, Woodland Acres. Farms have been established on most of the flat areas, which are intermixed between the rolling hills and lakes; the Trent-Severn Waterway passes through the township. On January 1, 1998, Ennismore and Smith Townships were merged to form the Township of Smith-Ennismore.

On January 1, 2001, a Minister's Order created the township in its current form by amalgamating the independent Village of Lakefield with the Township of Smith-Ennismore and part of Douro–Dummer Township. On December 11, 2012 the township council voted to select a new name after Canada Post notified many residents that addresses would have to be changed to reflect the municipality due to a phasing out of its rural route system. By a vote of 3 to 2, the township council voted to adopt the new name of Selwyn; the region is in the heart of Ontario's eastern cottage country, where urban residents have cottages on many of the small lakes. Many of the retail and services offered in the region cater to this seasonal market. Small scale farms are a large industry, dairy and meat production are some of the notable goods. In the 2010 municipal election, Mary Smith won the position of reeve from former reeve Ron Millen by 1,355 votes. Former federal Member of Parliament Andy Mitchell succeeded Smith as deputy reeve.

Mother tongue: English as first language: 92.4% French as first language: 1.3% English and French as first language: 0% Other as first language: 6.3%Population prior to amalgamation: Population total in 1996: 16,109 Ennismore: 4,465 Lakefield: 2,444 Smith: 9,200 Population in 1991: Ennismore: 4,284 Lakefield: 2,555 Smith: 8,997 Near the village is Lakefield College School which Prince Andrew, Duke of York attended in 1977. The campus was the filming location for the 1977 Canadian film Age of Innocence/Ragtime Summer. In the village itself is the Lakefield District Public School, which opened in 2018 after the Ridpath Junior Public School, named after James William Ridpath, publisher in the late 19th century and early 20th century of the Lakefield News, local businessman and dignitary, was closed. LDPS took over the building used for the now closed Lakefield District Secondary School. St. Paul's Catholic School, situated close to the high school, is the area parochial school. In Paul Nicholas Mason's novel Battered Soles, Lakefield is the site of a pilgrimage, begun in July 1997, which sees thousands of pilgrims from all over the world walk from Peterborough along the Rotary Greenway Trail to St. John's Anglican Church in the village.

The focus of the pilgrimage is a life-sized statue of a blue-skinned Jesus in the basement of the church. Mason's second novel, The Red Dress, is set in Lakefield, although this time the community is thinly-disguised as Greenfield. Lakefield and Lakefield College School were used as the location for the 1977 Canadian film Age of Innocence starring David Warner, Honor Blackman and Trudy Young. One memorable scene was shot at the location of the old Lakefield train station on Stanley St; the first four letters were removed on the Lakefield sign and replaced with the name Rockfield. In the winter of 2010 Verizon made a commercial at Lakefield's Ontario Speed Skating Oval outdoor speed skating rink. Unheralded, a National Film Board documentary directed by Aaron Hancox, is about the Lakefield Herald, it focuses on this community paper's journalists as they cover newsworthy events taking place in and around the town. Charles Arkoll Boulton, former councillor and reeve, Senator for Marquette, Manitoba Ronnie "The Hawk" Hawkins, country musician Margaret Laurence, novelist Leahy Family, band Susanna Moodie, pioneer and newspaper editor Paul Nicholas Mason, writer Paul Reddick, blues-rock artist and harp player Bruce Ridpath, professional ice hockey player who played on several Stanley Cup teams in the early 20th century Catharine Parr Traill, English-born pioneer, naturalist Mike Fisher, professional hockey player for the Nashville Predators, grew up in Bridgenorth Thomas Toth, Canadian runner.

Tyler Ardron, Canadian international rugby player, Super Rugby player, ITM Cup player. List of townships in Ontario


PicoDragon is a small satellite that followed the 1U type of CubeSat program built by Vietnam National Satellite Center belong to VAST and operated in space for 3 months. It was the first product to be built in Vietnam in the space technology field; the target for this project is to co-operate in space technology development between Vietnam and Japan. It is the first Vietnamese satellite to launch to space. Before, there had been 4 satellites launched including: VNREDSat 1A, F-1, Vinasat-1 and Vinasat-2 but F-1 which failed when launching. Vinasat-1, Vinasat-2, VNREDSat 1A were all built by foreign companies. Size: 10 × 10 × 11,35 cm Weight: 0.983 kg Time operating: About 3 months Orbit * High: 410 km * Inclination: 51.6 degrees Senses devices: * CMOS camera to take picture about Earth Contact by wireless link * Broadcast station frequency about 437.250 MHz * Telemetry downlink 1k2 bit/s AFSK 800 mW AX.25 about 437.365 MHz * Very high frequency uplink use for control. 2:48 AM 4 August 2013, PicoDragon followed by ArduSat-1, ArduSat-X, TechEdSat-3 of USA and Kirobo robot of Japan were launched at Tanegashima by Kounotori of Japan.

Before the launch into orbit to operate by ISS, it was held back to check. 19 November 2013 PicoDragon was launch into orbit by ISS. 4 hours some first signals were received by the ground station in Japan. After that, the ground station of VNSC received signals from PicoDragon. Before, 4 August, PicoDragon was launch into ISS through the transport spacecraft HTV-4 of Japan. After more than 3 months in the orbit, PicoDragon completed the mission but burned when it entered the atmosphere. Follow doctor Pham Anh Tuan, director of Vietnam National Satellite Center, after PicoDragon, Vietnam will build more satellites and in 2020 will launch a 500 kg satellite to observing the Earth from space. HTV4 Mission Press Kit Pico Dragon PicoDragon completed its mission Gunter Krebs. "PicoDragon". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 4 August 2013. PicoDragon - Vietnam National Satellite Center