Omni was a science and science fiction magazine published in the US and the UK. It contained articles on science and short works of science fiction and fantasy, it was published as a print version between October 1978 and 1995. The first Omni e-magazine was published on CompuServe in 1986 and the magazine switched to a purely online presence in 1996, it ceased publication following the death of co-founder Kathy Keeton. Omni was founded by Kathy Keeton and her long-time collaborator and future husband Bob Guccione, the publisher of Penthouse magazine; the initial concept came from Keeton, who wanted a magazine "that explored all realms of science and the paranormal, that delved into all corners of the unknown and projected some of those discoveries into fiction."Dick Teresi, an author and former Good Housekeeping editor, wrote the proposal for the magazine, from which a dummy was produced. In pre-launch publicity it was referred to as Nova but the name was changed before the first issue went to print to avoid a conflict with the PBS science show of the same name.
Guccione described the magazine as "an original if not controversial mixture of science fact, fiction and the paranormal". The debut edition had an exclusive interview with Freeman Dyson, a renowned physicist, the second edition carried an interview with Alvin Toffler and author of Future Shock. In its early run, Omni published a number of stories that have become genre classics, such as Orson Scott Card's "Unaccompanied Sonata", William Gibson's "Burning Chrome", "New Rose Hotel" and "Johnny Mnemonic", George R. R. Martin's "Sandkings"; the magazine published original science fiction and fantasy by William S. Burroughs, Joyce Carol Oates, Jonathan Carroll, Julio Cortazar, T. Coraghessan Boyle, other mainstream writers; the magazine excerpted Stephen King's novel Firestarter, featured his short story "The End of the Whole Mess". Omni brought the works of numerous painters to the attention of a large audience, such as H. R. Giger, De Es Schwertberger and Rallé. In the early 1980s, popular fiction stories from Omni were reprinted in The Best of Omni Science Fiction series and featured art by space artists like Robert McCall.
Omni entered the market at the start of a wave of new science magazines aimed at educated but otherwise "non-professional" readers. Science Digest and Science News served the high-school market, Scientific American and New Scientist the professional, while Omni was arguably the first aimed at "armchair scientists" who were well informed about technical issues; the next year, Time introduced Discover while the AAAS introduced Science'80. Advertising dollars were spread among the different magazines, those without deep pockets soon folded in the 1980s, notably Science Digest, while Science'80 merged with Discover. Omni appeared to weather this storm better than most due to its wider selection of contents. In early 1996 publisher Bob Guccione suspended publication of the print edition of Omni, attributing the decision to the rising price of paper and postage. At the end of its print run the circulation was still reported to be more than 700,000 copies a month. In September 1997, Keeton died of complications from surgery for an intestinal obstruction.
The staff of Omni Internet was laid off, no new content was added to the website after April 1998. General Media shut the site down and removed the Omni archives from the Internet in 2003. Omni magazine was published in at least six languages; the content in the British editions followed the North American editions, but with a different numbering sequence. This was accomplished by wrapping the American edition in a new cover which featured British advertising on the inside. At least one British edition was unique and was shipped under the banner of Omni UK. An Italian edition was edited by Alberto Peruzzo and ran for 20 issues from 1981 to 1983, when Peruzzo detached the name Omni from his local edition; the Italian spin-off continued with the name Futura, while maintaining the same graphical style and with an unchanged intended audience, for another twenty issues, up to July 1985. The Japanese edition ran from 1982 to the summer of 1989 and included entirely different content to the American edition.
The German edition began in 1984 and ended in early 1986. The first Spanish edition appeared in November 1986 and ran until the summer of 1988. A Russian edition was published in the Soviet Union beginning in September 1989 in conjunction with the USSR Academy of Sciences; these editions featured both Russian and English advertising. Publisher Guccione arranged for 20,000 copies of the Russian edition to be placed on news stands and onboard internal Aeroflot flights in the Soviet Union in exchange for an equivalent number of copies of Science in Russia being distributed in the USA. Omni ran subscription adverts beginning in August 1989 for Science in Russia; this arrangement was intended to last for one year and was made possible by the Glasnost events in the Soviet Union. Omni first began its online presence as part of Compuserve in the summer of 1986. On September 5, 1993 Omni became part of the America Online service; the AOL unveiling took place at the 51st World Science Fiction Convention in San Francisco.
AOL subscribers had access to much of the Omni printed archive as well as forums, chat groups and new fiction. After the print magazine folded, the Omni Internet webzine was launched on September 15, 1996. For the first few months the new website was integrated into the AOL service, replacing the existing AOL Omni interface. Now free of pressure to focus on fringe science areas, Omni returned to its roots as the ho
Dave Winer is an American software developer and writer who resides in New York City. Winer is noted for his contributions to outliners, content management, web services, as well as blogging and podcasting, he is the founder of the software companies Living Videotext, Userland Software and Small Picture Inc. a former contributing editor for the Web magazine HotWired, the author of the Scripting News weblog, a former research fellow at Harvard Law School, current visiting scholar at New York University's Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute. Winer was born on May 2, 1955, in Queens, New York City, the son of Eve Winer, Ph. D. a school psychologist, Leon Winer, Ph. D. a former professor of the Columbia University Graduate School of Business. Winer is the grandnephew of German novelist Arno Schmidt and a relative of Hedy Lamarr, he graduated from the Bronx High School of Science in 1972. Winer received a BA in Mathematics from Tulane University in New Orleans in 1976. In 1978 he received an MS in Computer Science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
In 1979 Dave Winer became an employee of Personal Software, where he worked on his own product idea named VisiText, his first attempt to build a commercial product around an "expand and collapse" outline display and which established outliners as a software product. In 1981 he founded Living Videotext to develop this still-unfinished product; the company was based in Mountain View, CA, grew to more than 50 employees. ThinkTank, based on VisiText, was released in 1983 for Apple II and was promoted as an "idea processor." It became the "first popular outline processor, the one that made the term generic." A ThinkTank release for the IBM PC followed in 1984, as well as releases for the Macintosh 128K and 512K. Ready, a RAM resident outliner for the IBM PC released in 1985, was commercially successful but soon succumbed to the competing Sidekick product by Borland. MORE, released for Apple's Macintosh in 1986, combined a presentation program, it became "uncontested in the marketplace" and won the MacUser's Editor's Choice Award for "Best Product" in 1986.
In 1987, at the height of the company's success, Winer sold Living Videotext to Symantec for an undisclosed but substantial transfer of stock that "made his fortune." Winer continued to work at Symantec's Living Videotext division, but after six months he left the company in pursuit of other challenges. Winer founded UserLand Software in 1988 and served as the company's CEO until 2002. UserLand's original flagship product, was a system-level scripting environment for the Mac, Winer's pioneering weblog, Scripting News, takes its name from this early interest. Frontier was an outliner-based scripting language, echoing Winer's longstanding interest in outliners and anticipating code-folding editors of the late 1990s. Winer became interested in web publishing while helping automate the production process of the strikers' online newspaper during San Francisco's newspaper strike of November 1994, According to Newsweek, through this experience, he "revolutionized Net publishing." Winer subsequently shifted the company's focus to online publishing products, enthusiastically promoting and experimenting with these products while building his websites and developing new features.
One of these products was Frontier's NewsPage Suite of 1997, which supported the publication of Winer's Scripting News and was adopted by a handful of users who "began playing around with their own sites in the Scripting News vein." These users included notably Chris Gulker and Jorn Barger, who envisaged blogging as a networked practice among users of the software. Winer was named a Seybold Fellow in 1997, to assist the executives and editors that comprised the Seybold Institute in ensuring "the highest quality and topicality" in their educational program, the Seybold Seminars. Keen to enter the "competitive arena of high-end Web development," Winer came to collaborate with Microsoft and jointly developed the XML-RPC protocol; this led to the creation of SOAP, which he co-authored with Microsoft's Don Box, Bob Atkinson, Mohsen Al-Ghosein. In December 1997, acting on the desire to "offer much more timely information," Winer designed and implemented an XML syndication format for use on his Scripting News weblog, thus making an early contribution to the history of web syndication technology.
By December 2000, competing dialects of RSS included several varieties of Netscape's RSS, Winer's RSS 0.92, an RDF-based RSS 1.0. Winer continued to develop the branch of the RSS fork originating from RSS 0.92, releasing in 2002 a version called RSS 2.0. Winer's advocacy of web syndication in general and RSS 2.0 in particular convinced many news organizations to syndicate their news content in that format. For example, in early 2002 The New York Times entered an agreement with UserLand to syndicate many of their articles in RSS 2.0 format. Winer resisted calls by technologists to have the shortcomings of RSS 2.0 improved. Instead, he turned its ownership over to Harvard University. With products and services based on UserLand's Frontier system, Winer became a leader in blogging tools from 1999 onwards, as well as a "leading evangelist of weblogs." In 2000 Winer developed the Outline Processor Markup Language OPML, an XML format for outlines, which served as the native file format for Radio UserLand's outliner application and has since been adopted for other uses, the most common being to exchange lists of web feeds between web feed aggregators.
UserLand was the first to add an "enclosure" tag in its RSS, modifying its blog software and its aggregator
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco and has been in publication since March/April 1993. Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, Wired Germany. Condé Nast's parent company Advance Publications is the major shareholder of Reddit, an internet information conglomeration website. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan as its "patron saint." From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand and his associate Kevin Kelly. From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine and Wired News, which publishes at Wired.com, had separate owners. However, Wired News remained responsible for republishing Wired magazine's content online due to an agreement when Condé Nast purchased the magazine.
In 2006, Condé Nast bought Wired News for $25 million. Wired contributor Chris Anderson is known for popularizing the term "the Long Tail", as a phrase relating to a "power law"-type graph that helps to visualize the 2000s emergent new media business model. Anderson's article for Wired on this paradigm related to research on power law distribution models carried out by Clay Shirky in relation to bloggers. Anderson widened the definition of the term in capitals to describe a specific point of view relating to what he sees as an overlooked aspect of the traditional market space, opened up by new media; the magazine coined the term "crowdsourcing", as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products and other nerdy tidbits pitched and hyped, but never delivered". The magazine was founded by American journalist Louis Rossetto and his partner Jane Metcalfe, along with Ian Charles Stewart, in 1993 with initial backing from software entrepreneur Charlie Jackson and eclectic academic Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab, a regular columnist for six years, wrote the book Being Digital, founded One Laptop per Child.
The founding designers were John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, beginning with a 1991 prototype and continuing through the first five years of publication, 1993–98. Wired, which touted itself as "the Rolling Stone of technology", made its debut at the Macworld conference on January 2, 1993. A great success at its launch, it was lauded for its vision, originality and cultural impact. In its first four years, the magazine won two National Magazine Awards for General Excellence and one for Design; the founding executive editor of Wired, Kevin Kelly, was an editor of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Whole Earth Review and brought with him contributing writers from those publications. Six authors of the first Wired issue had written for Whole Earth Review, most notably Bruce Sterling and Stewart Brand. Other contributors to Whole Earth appeared in Wired, including William Gibson, featured on Wired's cover in its first year and whose article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in issue 1.4 resulted in the publication being banned in Singapore.
Wired cofounder Louis Rossetto claimed in the magazine's first issue that "the Digital Revolution is whipping through our lives like a Bengali typhoon," yet despite the fact that Kelly was involved in launching the WELL, an early source of public access to the Internet and earlier non-Internet online experience, Wired's first issue de-emphasized the Internet and covered interactive games, cell-phone hacking, digital special effects, military simulations, Japanese otaku. However, the first issue did contain a few references to the Internet, including online dating and Internet sex, a tutorial on how to install a bozo filter; the last page, a column written by Nicholas Negroponte, was written in the style of an email message but contained fake, non-standard email addresses. By the third issue in the fall of 1993, the "Net Surf" column began listing interesting FTP sites, Usenet newsgroups, email addresses, at a time when the numbers of these things were small and this information was still novel to the public.
Wired was among the first magazines to list the email address of its contributors. Associate publisher Kathleen Lyman was brought on board to launch Wired with an advertising base of major technology and consumer advertisers. Lyman, along with Simon Ferguson, introduced revolutionary ad campaigns by a diverse group of industry leaders—such as Apple Computer, Sony, Calvin Klein, Absolut—to the readers of the first technology publication with a lifestyle slant; the magazine was followed by a companion website, a book publishing division, a Japanese edition, a short-lived British edition. Wired UK was relaunched in April 2009. In 1994, John Battelle, cofounding editor, commissioned Jules Marshall to write a piece on the Zippies; the cover story broke records for being one of the most publicized stories of the year and was used to promote Wired's HotWired news service. HotWired spawned websites Webmonkey, the search engine HotBot, a weblog, Suck.com. In June 1998, the magazine launched a stock index, the Wired Index, called the Wired 40 since July 2003.
The fortune of the magazine and allied enterprises corresponded to that of the dot-com bubble. In 1996, Rossetto and the other participants in Wired Ventures attempted to take the company public with an IPO; the initial attempt had to be withdraw
WXDU is a non-commercial campus radio station broadcasting a college radio format. Licensed to Durham, North Carolina, United States, the station serves the Research Triangle area; the station is owned by Duke University. 1950 - WDBS Student radio at Duke began in the late 1940s when the Undergraduate Men's Student Government Association formed a "radio council" to look into the possibility of establishing a campus radio station. Their efforts produced WDBS, which signed on the air in 1950 on AM frequency 560. WDBS's offices and studios were located in the basement of the Gray building, it used carrier current AM. With carrier current, wires are placed in these buildings, any radio plugged into an outlet in one of the buildings could receive AM 560. In the 1950s, this was the state-of-the-art way to broadcast; the music shows featured hits of the day, as well as classical and jazz shows. The WDBS news and sports departments were nationally acclaimed, winning "Best College News Department" awards from 1956-1959.
David Hartman, former host of "Good Morning America," got his start at WDBS. WDBS continued its broadcasting during the student activism of the 1960s, with its music programming changing to reflect students' changing tastes. WDBS was the first station to initiate a program exchange with Radio Moscow; each week, the two stations would air the other's show, with complete translation of news and editorial comments. This program brought with it a lot of interest from the CIA, it was stopped. While the WDBS sports staff was covering national championship teams, the news department was busy reporting on-campus events; the years 1967-69 were tumultuous ones on the Duke campus, the WDBS news team was always there with live news coverage when the main quad was tear-gassed. In 1969, when student protesters took over both the Allen Building and the President's home, WDBS reporters were inside sending out the only live reports from the scene. WDBS sent a reporter to the Republican and Democratic conventions in 1968.
FM radio had begun to achieve popularity in the late 1960s, as students were attracted to the advantages of stereo radio. The management of WDBS did not want to be left behind with its now-outdated carrier current system. In 1969, WDBS managers and University officials began the search for an FM frequency. With a $200,000 loan from the University, WDBS purchased the frequency 107.1 from the near-bankrupt WSRC. WDBS-FM signed on as Duke's new radio station in May 1971, they moved the studios into the once-condemned Bivins Building on East Campus. In order to repay the loan, WDBS intended to operate as a commercial, profit-making station, while maintaining a student staff. However, the realities of commercial radio soon necessitated an professional staff, as former student volunteers stayed on to become employees. By 1973, there was only a handful of student station members left, WDBS was, for all practical purposes, no longer the Duke station. In the early years, WDBS attracted a substantial following in the Triangle.
It was one of the first free-form album rock stations in the Southeast, its reputation grew as it expanded its programming to include blocks of classical and jazz music every day. The early WDBS defined "alternative" radio. WDBS was not without a major problem, though; the former students now managing it had no previous business experience, in no time, WDBS was losing money by the truckload. The University continued to loan the station money just to meet its operating expenses. In the meantime, Duke students were without their own radio station. In the fall of 1974, with the help of WDBS and the University, a group of students resurrected the antiquated carrier current system, turned an old classroom next door to the Bivins building into their studios. WDUR signed on the air at 1600 AM. 1974 - WDUR/WDUKWDUR received constant trouble from the old transmission system. The station's small budget prevented them from buying any new equipment, the old system had been allowed to deteriorate. Only a few dorms could receive an acceptable signal.
Station engineers spent much of their time repairing the old transmission wires, only to have them go out again before too long. WDUR's fortunes brightened during the 1975-76 school year when the station became a student activity, began receiving funding from the Associated Students of Duke University. Reception was improved, the station set up a direct line to the CI; the station grew, developed into a tight Top 40 format. "Duke Radio 16", as it was called added progressive rock and jazz shows, a juke box named "Otto", which automatically played singles at night, keeping the station on the air 24 hours a day. Otto would insert taped messages to identify the station at regular intervals; this sort of operation was legal because of WDUR's carrier-current status. During the summer of 1977, a local commercial station petitioned the FCC for the call letters WDUR. Since a carrier current station is unlicensed, makes up its own call letters, the FCC granted the commercial station's request; the Duke station became WDUK.
While all this was happening, WDBS continued to pile up a huge debt, losing much favor with the administration in the process. By 1978, this debt was said to be over $400,000. Progressive rock grew to make up half of WDUK's programming, but the continued weak reception prompted management to look into alternatives; the decision was made to research the possibility of going FM. 1980 ended with two significant anno