Docent is a title at some European universities to denote a specific academic appointment within a set structure of academic ranks at or below the full professor rank, similar to a British readership and equal or above the title of "associate professor". Docent is used at some universities generically for a person who has the right to teach; the term is derived from the Latin word docēns, the present active participle of docēre. Becoming a docent is referred to as Habilitation or Doctor of Science and is an academic evidence that proves that a holder is capable of appointment at the level of associate or full professor. Docent is the highest academic title in several countries and the qualifying criteria are research output that corresponds to 3-5 doctoral dissertations, supervision of PhD students, concrete evidence of teaching at undergraduate and graduate level. In the Flemish universities of Belgium docent is the first of four university professor ranks, the others being hoofddocent and gewoon hoogleraar.
To be awarded the docent title at the Flemish universities, a candidate has to have a Doctorate. In the French-speaking universities, the word docent is not used in their titles. In Germany, Austria and in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, Dozent or Hochschuldozent denotes an academic appointment at a university or similar institution, at a mid-level ranking of seniority; the title of Privatdozent is used by those who have completed a Habilitation, thereby denoting that its holder has the right to independently teach without being supervised by a professor. In this way, a Privatdozent may for instance hold an appointment as Hochschuldozent. In countries with academic traditions that stem from German-speaking countries, "docent" is an academic appointment below that of a full professor; this is the situation in Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia. Docent is considered equal to or above the title "associate professor" as used in Western European countries. In the Czech Republic, a "docent" holder is considered capable of conducting research independently as well as giving lectures.
In Russia and Belarus docent is an academic title below professor. In Poland, the title of docent used to be mandatory; this is no longer a requirement, the title nearly vanished in the last 20 years. It may be given to a teacher or instructor not engaged in research. Only a scientific researcher may apply for the title of professor, therefore docent is the highest title for teachers and instructors. In countries such as Lithuania, Bulgaria, "docent" is used as an academic title equivalent to associate professor in German-speaking countries. In most former Yugoslav countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia, the system of academic ranks is similar to that of North America; the academic rank of docent corresponds to associate professor. In Armenia, the title of Docent -equivalent to Associate professor- is awarded to either a Candidate of Sciences or a Doctor of Sciences before becoming a full Professor. In Denmark and Norway, docent is traditionally a title ranking between associate professor and professor, similar to a readership in the United Kingdom.
All docents in universities became full professors in 1985, when the traditional docent title was abolished. In 2006 the title docent was introduced as the new title of the former teaching docents in Norway. In Finland, Sweden and Latvia docent is an academic title conferred to a person fulfilling requirements similar to German Privatdozent; such persons are expected to give lectures on their specialties if their professional activities permit this. Most docents are employed at the university where they are docents, but in a different position; the Scandinavian title docent as used in e.g. Sweden is translated into English as Reader to avoid confusion with foreign uses of the term docent. In Finland, the Docents' Union of Finland and the Finnish Ministry of Education recommend the term adjunct professor in English, while the term used by the University of Helsinki is Title of Docent. In Sweden, there used to be both stipendiary and non-stipendiary docent positions. A stipendiary docent both held the docent title, benefited from a stipend that paid for his or her salary at the university for up to six years.
The non-stipendiary alternative was an academic title. Today, most universities only confer a non-stipendiary docent title; the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Chalmers university of technology still maintains the stipendiary. The title is in most cases awarded to people employed as assistant professor/Lecturer with a distinguished international reputation after a rigorous review of their research. Docent translates as First Lecturer or Reader/Senior Lecturer; the title of docent is the second highest grade in the Swedish academic system, the highest being professor. A docentship should be regarded as an educational title not connected with the employment pyramid as such; this is rather an assurance of the level of expertise, to enable the person to advance further in his/her academic career. A docent qualification is required of all head doctoral student supervisors. For conferment of the title, there is a requirement that the researcher has a goo
Sneek is a railway station in Sneek, Netherlands. The station is located on the Leeuwarden -- Stavoren railway; until the line was finished in 1885, this station was the terminus. In 1921 a connection was made with the tramway running between Sneek and Bolsward, which stopped in 1968; the train services are operated by Arriva. The following services call at Sneek: 2x per hour local service Leeuwarden - Sneek 1x per hour local service Leeuwarden - Sneek - Stavoren The following bus services depart from the bus station outside the station: 33 - Sneek - Scharnegoutum - Boazum - Wiuwert - Easterlittens - Baard - Winsum - Wjelsryp - Tzum - Franeker. - Arriva, 1x per hour, Monday to Friday 42 - Sneek - N354 - Lemmer - Rutten / Creil - Espel - Emmeloord. - Arriva, 2x per hour, Daily. 1x per hour via Rutten and 1x per hour via Creil and Espel. 45 - Sneek - Hommerts - Woudsend - Elahuizen - Oudega - Hemelum. - Arriva, 1x per hour, not between 9am and 14.30, Daily 46 - Sneek - Hommerts - - Oudega. - Arriva, 1x per hour, Monday - Saturday 47 - Sneek - Hommerts - Woudsend - Balk - Sondel - Nijemirdum - Rijs - Hemelum.
- Arriva, 1-3x per hour, Daily 93 - Leeuwarden - Deinum - Boksum - Jellum - Bears - Weidum - Jorwert - Mantgum - Easterwierrum - Sneek. - Arriva, 1x per hour, Monday to Saturday 94 - Sneek - Goenga - Raerd - Reduzum - Leeuwarden - Arriva, 1x per hour, Monday to Friday 98 - Makkum - Wons - Bolsward - Sneek - Joure - Oudehaske - Heerenveen NS. - Arriva, 2x per hour, 1x per hour, Daily 99 - Harlingen - Kimswerd - Arum - Witmarsum - Bolsward - Sneek - Joure - Heerenveen NS. - Arriva, 2x per hour, Daily List of railway stations in Friesland
Pacquiao vs. Larios billed as Mano-A-Mano and Thrilla in Manila 2, was a professional boxing super featherweight fight held on July 2, 2006 at the Araneta Coliseum, Quezon City, in the Philippines and was a production of ABS-CBN Sports and promoted by Manny Pacquiao Promotions and Golden Boy Promotions; the judges were Humbert Furgoni from France, Daniel van de Wiele from Belgium, Noppharat Srichharoen from Thailand with referee Bruce McTavish and ring announcer Michael Buffer. It was aired live in free-to-air television network ABS-CBN, worldwide through The Filipino Channel, through pay per view on In Demand, HBO, DirecTV, SkyCable. Pacquiao won the fight via unanimous decision; the three judges scored the fight 117 -- 118 -- 108 and 120 -- 106 all for Pacquiao. On July 3, 2006, the day after winning the fight against Larios, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo bestowed the Order of Lakandula with the rank of "Champion for Life" and the plaque of appreciation to Pacquiao in a simple ceremony at the Presidential Study of Malacañang Palace.
Many people criticized the bout for its expensive tickets. A few days before the fight, more than half of the seats were not sold; because of this, ABS-CBN gave away millions worth of tickets for free and offered the remaining tickets directly to Filipino celebrities and businessmen. In the end, the tickets were sold out with an earning of 96.2 million pesos. The fight sold 120,000 pay per view in the United States generating a total of US$4.79 million. The bout is the 17th most watched television broadcasts in the Philippines with a rating of 54.4% based on the data of AGB Nielsen Philippines