English National Opera
English National Opera is an opera company based in London, resident at the London Coliseum in St Martin's Lane. It is one of the two principal opera companies in London, along with Covent Garden. ENO's productions are sung in English; the company's origins were in the late 19th century, when the philanthropist Emma Cons assisted by her niece Lilian Baylis, presented theatrical and operatic performances at the Old Vic, for the benefit of local people. Baylis subsequently built up both the opera and the theatre companies, added a ballet company. Baylis acquired and rebuilt the Sadler's Wells theatre in north London, a larger house, better suited to opera than the Old Vic; the opera company grew there into a permanent ensemble in the 1930s. During the Second World War, the theatre was closed and the company toured British towns and cities. After the war, the company returned to its home. By the 1960s, a larger theatre was needed. In 1968, the company moved to the London Coliseum and adopted its present name in 1974.
Among the conductors associated with the company have been Colin Davis, Reginald Goodall, Charles Mackerras, Mark Elder and Edward Gardner. The current music director of ENO is Martyn Brabbins. Noted directors who have staged productions at ENO have included David Pountney, Jonathan Miller, Nicholas Hytner, Phyllida Lloyd and Calixto Bieito. ENO's current artistic director is Daniel Kramer. In addition to the core operatic repertoire, the company has presented a wide range of works, from early operas by Monteverdi to new commissions and Broadway shows. In 1889, Emma Cons, a Victorian philanthropist who ran the Old Vic theatre in a working-class area of London, began presenting regular fortnightly performances of opera excerpts. Although the theatre licensing laws of the day prevented full costumed performances, Cons presented condensed versions of well-known operas, always sung in English. Among the performers were noted singers such as Charles Santley; these operatic evenings became more popular than the dramas that Cons had been staging separately.
In 1898, she recruited her niece Lilian Baylis to help run the theatre. At the same time she appointed Charles Corri as the Old Vic's musical director. Baylis and Corri, despite many disagreements, shared a passionate belief in popularising opera, hitherto the preserve of the rich and fashionable, they worked on a tiny budget, with an amateur chorus and a professional orchestra of only 18 players, for whom Corri rescored the instrumental parts of the operas. By the early years of the 20th century, the Old Vic was able to present semi-staged versions of Wagner operas. Emma Cons died in 1912, leaving her estate, including the Old Vic, to Baylis, who dreamed of transforming the theatre into a "people's opera house". In the same year, Baylis obtained a licence to allow the Old Vic to stage full performances of operas. In the 1914 -- 1915 season, Baylis staged 16 plays. In the years after the First World War, Baylis's Shakespeare productions, which featured some of the leading actors from London's West End, attracted national attention, as her shoe-string opera productions did not.
The opera, remained her first priority. The actor-manager Robert Atkins, who worked with Baylis on her Shakespearean productions, recalled, "Opera, on Thursday and Saturday nights, played to bulging houses." By the 1920s, Baylis concluded that the Old Vic no longer sufficed to house both her theatre and her opera companies. She noticed the empty and derelict Sadler's Wells theatre in Rosebery Avenue, Islington, on the other side of London from the Old Vic, she sought to run it in tandem with her existing theatre. Baylis made a public appeal for funds in 1925. With the help of the Carnegie Trust and many others, she acquired the freehold of Sadler's Wells. Work started on the site in 1926. By Christmas 1930, a new 1,640-seat theatre was ready for occupation; the first production there, a fortnight's run from 6 January 1931, was Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. The first opera, given on 20 January, was Carmen. Eighteen operas were staged during the first season; the new theatre was more expensive to run than the Old Vic, as a larger orchestra and more singers were needed, box office receipts were at first inadequate.
In 1932, the Birmingham Post commented that the Vic-Wells opera performances did not reach the standards of the Vic-Wells Shakespeare productions. Baylis strove to improve operatic standards, while at the same time fending off attempts by Sir Thomas Beecham to absorb the opera company into a joint enterprise with Covent Garden, where he was in command. At first, the apparent financial security of the offer appeared attractive, but friends and advisers such as Edward J. Dent and Clive Carey convinced Bayliss that it was not in the interests of her regular audience; this view received strong support from the press. Any kind of amalgamation which made it the poor relation of the'Grand' season would be disastrous. At first, Baylis presented both opera at each of her theatres; the companies were known as the "Vic-Wells". However, for both aesthetic and financial reasons, by 1934, the Old Vic had become the home of the spoken drama, while Sadler's Wells housed both the opera and a ballet company, the latter co-founded by Baylis and Ninette de Valois in 1930.
Lawrance Collingwood joined the company as resident conductor alongside Corri. With the increased number of productions, guest conductors
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
The Death of Klinghoffer
The Death of Klinghoffer is an American opera, with music by John Adams to an English-language libretto by Alice Goodman. First produced in Brussels and New York in 1991, the opera is based on the hijacking of the passenger liner Achille Lauro by the Palestine Liberation Front in 1985, the hijackers' murder of a 69-year-old Jewish-American passenger, Leon Klinghoffer, wheelchair-bound; the concept of the opera originated with theatre director Peter Sellars, a major collaborator, as was choreographer Mark Morris. It was commissioned by five American and European opera companies, the Brooklyn Academy of Music; the opera has generated controversy, including allegations by Klinghoffer's two daughters and others that the opera is antisemitic and glorifies terrorism. The work's creators and others have disputed these criticisms. Theatre director Peter Sellars developed the concept of this opera and was a major collaborator, as was choreographer Mark Morris; the opera was commissioned through a consortium of six entities: the Brussels opera company La Monnaie, the San Francisco Opera, the Opéra de Lyon in France, the Los Angeles Festival, the Glyndebourne Festival in England, the Brooklyn Academy of Music.
The first performance took place at the Théatre Royal de la Monnaie, Belgium, on March 19, 1991, directed by Sellars. The next month, the Lyon premiere took place; this was followed by a Nonesuch studio recording in that French city with the same cast. The first US performance was at the Brooklyn Academy of Music on September 5, 1991. Controversy ensued. An opening scene depicting a suburban family, the Rumors, was permanently cut from the score on grounds that it caused offense; the Nonesuch recording, released in 1992, does not include this music. Because of the reaction to the subject matter and philosophy of the opera, planned stagings at Glyndebourne and in Los Angeles were cancelled; when the original production was staged by San Francisco Opera in November 1992, the Jewish Information League mounted protests. The first staging in Germany took place in 1997 in Nürnberg, followed by a second German production at the Opernhaus Wuppertal in 2005. Another European production was given in Helsinki at Finnish National Opera.
The first complete UK performance was a 2002 concert in London by the BBC Symphony Orchestra. Penny Woolcock directed a British television version of the opera, in revised form, for Channel 4, with the London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Adams; the first Australasian performance took place in February 2005 at the Auckland Festival, New Zealand. The first staged UK production was given in August 2005 at the Edinburgh Festival by Scottish Opera; the opera received a new production at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in December 2003. The Curtis Institute of Music, through its Curtis Opera Theatre and Curtis Symphony Orchestra, gave a performance in Philadelphia in February 2005. Four years students at the Juilliard Opera Center performed a semi-staged concert version with Adams conducting; the Death of Klinghoffer received its second full American staging in June 2011 at Opera Theatre of Saint Louis, conducted by Michael Christie, directed by James Robinson, starring Christopher Magiera as the Captain and Brian Mulligan as Klinghoffer.
The opera received its first London production on February 25, 2012, starring Alan Opie as Klinghoffer and Christopher Magiera as the Captain, conducted by Baldur Brönnimann and staged by Tom Morris at the English National Opera, in a co-production with the Metropolitan Opera. In June 2014, the Met's general manager Peter Gelb announced that after discussions with the Anti-Defamation League the planned Live in HD transmission of the production would be cancelled; the opera was set for seven performances at the Met in October and November 2014 and performed at the Met as scheduled."The Death of Klinghoffer" Metropolitan Opera Accessed October 21, 2014</ref> After being dropped from production by the Los Angeles Opera, the opera received its Los Angeles area premiere in March 2014 with Long Beach Opera, conducted by Andreas Mitisek and staged by James Robinson. The prologue consists of two choruses, the "Chorus of Exiled Palestinians" and the "Chorus of Exiled Jews", each of, a general reflection about the respective peoples and their history.
Scene 1 The unnamed captain of the MS Achille Lauro recalls the events of the hijacking. Prior to that, most of the passengers had disembarked in Egypt for a tour of the Pyramids, the ship set out to sea to return for the touring passengers; the hijackers had boarded during the disembarkation. When the hijackers commandeer the ship, the passengers still on board are collected in the ship's restaurant; the narrative shifts to a Swiss grandmother, traveling with her grandson while the boy's parents are touring the pyramids. The ship's first officer, given the fictitious name of Giordano Bruno, informs the Captain that terrorists are on the ship and one waiter has been wounded; the Captain and First Officer try to keep the passengers calm. Molqi, one of the hijackers, explains the situation to the passengers at gunpoint; the Captain and Molqi have an encounter, where the Captain orders food and drink to be brought, offers to let Molqi choose the food for the Captain to eat. Scene 2 Following the "Ocean Chorus", another hijacker, keeps guard over the Captain.
Mamoud recalls his youth and songs. The Captain and Mamoud have a dialogue, in which the Captain pleads that individuals on the two sides of the Palestinian–Israeli conflict could meet and try to understand each other. Mamoud dismisses this idea. During this scene is a passenger n
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States with the support of Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs; the Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District. Along the way, the project absorbed Tube Alloys; the Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billion. Over 90% of the cost was for building factories and to produce fissile material, with less than 10% for development and production of the weapons. Research and production took place at more than 30 sites across the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada. Two types of atomic bombs were developed concurrently during the war: a simple gun-type fission weapon and a more complex implosion-type nuclear weapon.
The Thin Man gun-type design proved impractical to use with plutonium, therefore a simpler gun-type called Little Boy was developed that used uranium-235, an isotope that makes up only 0.7 percent of natural uranium. Chemically identical to the most common isotope, uranium-238, with the same mass, it proved difficult to separate the two. Three methods were employed for uranium enrichment: electromagnetic and thermal. Most of this work was performed at the Clinton Engineer Works at Tennessee. In parallel with the work on uranium was an effort to produce plutonium. After the feasibility of the world's first artificial nuclear reactor was demonstrated in Chicago at the Metallurgical Laboratory, it designed the X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge and the production reactors in Hanford, Washington, in which uranium was irradiated and transmuted into plutonium; the plutonium was chemically separated from the uranium, using the bismuth phosphate process. The Fat Man plutonium implosion-type weapon was developed in a concerted design and development effort by the Los Alamos Laboratory.
The project was charged with gathering intelligence on the German nuclear weapon project. Through Operation Alsos, Manhattan Project personnel served in Europe, sometimes behind enemy lines, where they gathered nuclear materials and documents, rounded up German scientists. Despite the Manhattan Project's tight security, Soviet atomic spies penetrated the program; the first nuclear device detonated was an implosion-type bomb at the Trinity test, conducted at New Mexico's Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on 16 July 1945. Little Boy and Fat Man bombs were used a month in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. In the immediate postwar years, the Manhattan Project conducted weapons testing at Bikini Atoll as part of Operation Crossroads, developed new weapons, promoted the development of the network of national laboratories, supported medical research into radiology and laid the foundations for the nuclear navy, it maintained control over American atomic weapons research and production until the formation of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947.
The discovery of nuclear fission by German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in 1938, its theoretical explanation by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch, made the development of an atomic bomb a theoretical possibility. There were fears that a German atomic bomb project would develop one first among scientists who were refugees from Nazi Germany and other fascist countries. In August 1939, Hungarian-born physicists Leó Szilárd and Eugene Wigner drafted the Einstein–Szilárd letter, which warned of the potential development of "extremely powerful bombs of a new type", it urged the United States to take steps to acquire stockpiles of uranium ore and accelerate the research of Enrico Fermi and others into nuclear chain reactions. They had it delivered to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt called on Lyman Briggs of the National Bureau of Standards to head the Advisory Committee on Uranium to investigate the issues raised by the letter. Briggs held a meeting on 21 October 1939, attended by Szilárd, Wigner and Edward Teller.
The committee reported back to Roosevelt in November that uranium "would provide a possible source of bombs with a destructiveness vastly greater than anything now known."The Advisory Committee on Uranium became the National Defense Research Committee Committee on Uranium when that organization was formed on 27 June 1940. Briggs proposed spending $167,000 on research into uranium the uranium-235 isotope, the discovered plutonium. On 28 June 1941, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8807, which created the Office of Scientific Research and Development, with Vannevar Bush as its director; the office was empowered to engage in large engineering projects in addition to research. The NDRC Committee on Uranium became the S-1 Section of the OSRD. In Britain and Rudolf Peierls at the University of Birmingham had made a breakthrough investigating the critical mass of uranium-235 in June 1939, their calculations indicated that it was within an order of magnitude of 10 kilograms, small enough to be carried by a bomber of the day.
Their March 1940 Frisch–Peierls memorandum initiated the British atomic bomb project and its Maud Committee, which unanimously recommended pursuing the development of an atomic bomb
Swami Prabhavananda was an Indian philosopher, monk of the Ramakrishna Order, religious teacher. Born in India, he joined the Ramakrishna Order after graduating from Calcutta university in 1914, he was initiated by Swami Brahmananda, the spiritual son of Sri Ramakrishna, the first president of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission, headquartered in Belur, West Bengal. In 1923, he was sent to the United States of America, he worked as an assistant minister of the Vedanta Society of San Francisco. After two years, he established the Vedanta Society of Portland. In December 1929, he moved to Los Angeles where he founded the Vedanta Society of Southern California in 1930. Under his administration the Vedanta Society of Southern California grew over the years to become the largest Vedanta Society in the West, with monasteries in Hollywood and Trabuco Canyon and convents in Hollywood and Santa Barbara. Prabhavananda was a scholar who wrote a number of books on Vedanta and Indian religious scriptures and commentary.
He was assisted on several of the projects by Frederick Manchester. His comprehensive knowledge of philosophy and religion attracted such disciples as Aldous Huxley and Gerald Heard. Prabhavananda died on the bicentennial of America's independence, July 4, 1976, on the 74th anniversary of the death, or mahasamadhi, of Swami Vivekananda, the founder of the Ramakrishna Order in India and many of the Vedanta centers in America and Europe. Prabhavananda's book The Spiritual Heritage of India was reviewed in the academic journal Philosophy; the review stated that "Swami Prabhavananda has written a charming and authoritative book on the spiritual heritage of India, by which he means that heritage in consonance with the Vedic tradition and its culmination in Vedanta". The reviewer stated that "throughout the book breathes an air of relaxed simplicity and conviction.... I was refreshed by the absence of attacks on science, materialism and other such means to spiritual fulfilment". Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood's translation of the Bhagavad Gita was reviewed by Time Magazine in 1945.
Time described the translation as "a distinguished literary work", "simpler and freer than other English translations.... It may help U. S. readers to understand not only the Gita itself, but its influence on American letters through one of its greatest U. S. admirers, Ralph Waldo Emerson". The Spiritual Heritage of India. Vedanta Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87481-035-3 Editions: Doubleday, 1962. Vedic Religion and Philosophy The Eternal Companion The Sermon on the Mount according to Vedanta Religion in Practice Yoga and Mysticism The Wisdom of God, ISBN 81-7823-315-0 Shankara's Crest-jewel of discrimination - with Christopher Isherwood, ISBN 0-87481-038-8 The Upanishads - with Frederick Manchester, ISBN 0-451-52848-4 The Song of God: Bhagavad Gita - with Christopher Isherwood, ISBN 0-451-52844-1 How to know God, the Yoga aphorisms of Patanjali - with Christopher Isherwood, ISBN 0-87481-041-8 Memories of a Loving Soul: Swami Premananda and Reminiscences Narada's Way of Divine Love What is Religion? - CD Eight Limbs of Yoga - DVD Blessed Are the Pure In Heart and Be Still - DVD Audio recording of talk by Swami Prabhavananda, "Talks on Silence" Vedanta Society of Southern California
Faust is the protagonist of a classic German legend, based on the historical Johann Georg Faust. The erudite Faust is successful yet dissatisfied with his life, which leads him to make a pact with the Devil, exchanging his soul for unlimited knowledge and worldly pleasures; the Faust legend has been the basis for many literary, artistic and musical works that have reinterpreted it through the ages. "Faust" and the adjective "Faustian" imply a situation in which an ambitious person surrenders moral integrity in order to achieve power and success for a delimited term. The Faust of early books—as well as the ballads, dramas and puppet-plays which grew out of them—is irrevocably damned because he prefers human to divine knowledge. Plays and comic puppet theatre loosely based on this legend were popular throughout Germany in the 16th century reducing Faust and Mephistopheles to figures of vulgar fun; the story was popularised in England by Christopher Marlowe, who gave it a classic treatment in his play, The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus.
In Goethe's reworking of the story two hundred years Faust becomes a dissatisfied intellectual who yearns for "more than earthly meat and drink" in his life. Faust is depressed with his life as a scholar. After an attempt to take his own life, he calls on the Devil for further knowledge and magic powers with which to indulge all the pleasure and knowledge of the world. In response, the Devil's representative, appears, he makes a bargain with Faust: Mephistopheles will serve Faust with his magic powers for a set number of years, but at the end of the term, the Devil will claim Faust's soul, Faust will be eternally enslaved. During the term of the bargain, Faust makes use of Mephistopheles in various ways. In Goethe's drama, many subsequent versions of the story, Mephistopheles helps Faust seduce a beautiful and innocent girl named Gretchen, whose life is destroyed when she gives birth to Faust's bastard son. Realizing this unholy act, she drowns the child, is held for murder. However, Gretchen's innocence saves her in the end, she enters Heaven after execution.
In Goethe's rendition, Faust is saved by God via his constant striving—in combination with Gretchen's pleadings with God in the form of the eternal feminine. However, in the early tales, Faust is irrevocably corrupted and believes his sins cannot be forgiven. Many aspects of the life of Simon Magus are echoed in the Faust legend of Christopher Marlowe and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Hans Jonas writes, "surely few admirers of Marlowe's and Goethe's plays have an inkling that their hero is the descendant of a gnostic sectary and that the beautiful Helen called up by his art was once the fallen Thought of God through whose raising mankind was to be saved." The tale of Faust bears many similarities to the Theophilus legend recorded in the 13th century, writer Gautier de Coincy's Les Miracles de la Sainte Vierge. Here, a saintly figure makes a bargain with the keeper of the infernal world but is rescued from paying his debt to society through the mercy of the Blessed Virgin. A depiction of the scene in which he subordinates himself to the Devil appears on the north tympanum of the Cathedrale de Notre Dame de Paris.
The origin of Faust's name and persona remains unclear. The character is ostensibly based on Johann Georg Faust, a magician and alchemist from Knittlingen, Württemberg, who obtained a degree in divinity from Heidelberg University in 1509, but the legendary Faust has been connected with Johann Fust, Johann Gutenberg's business partner, or suggest that Fust is one of the multiple origins to the Faust story. Scholars such as Frank Baron and Leo Ruickbie contest many of these previous assumptions; the character in Polish folklore named. The Polish story seems to have originated at the same time as its German counterpart, yet It is unclear whether the two tales have a common origin or influenced each other; the historical Johann Georg Faust had studied in Kraków for a time, may have served as the inspiration for the character in the Polish legend. The first known printed source of the legend of Faust is a small chapbook bearing the title Historia von D. Johann Fausten, published in 1587; the book was borrowed from throughout the 16th century.
Other similar books of that period include: Das Wagnerbuch Das Widmann'sche Faustbuch Dr. Fausts großer und gewaltiger Höllenzwang Dr. Johannes Faust, Magia naturalis et innaturalis Das Pfitzer'sche Faustbuch Dr. Fausts großer und gewaltiger Meergeist Das Wagnerbuch Faustbuch des Christlich Meynenden The 1725 Faust chapbook was circulated and read by the young Goethe. Related tales about a pact between man and the Devil include the plays Mariken van Nieumeghen and The Countess Cathleen. Staufen, a town in the extreme southwest of Germany, claims to be; the only historical source for this tradition is a passage in the Chronik der Grafen von Zimmern, written around 1565, 25 years after Faust's presumed death. These chronicles are considered reliable, in the 16th century there wer
The Tewa are a linguistic group of Pueblo Native Americans who speak the Tewa language and share the Pueblo culture. Their homelands are near the Rio Grande in New Mexico north of Santa Fe, they comprise the following communities: Nambé Pueblo Pojoaque Pueblo San Ildefonso Pueblo Ohkay Owingeh Santa Clara Pueblo Tesuque PuebloThe Hopi Tewa, descendants of those who fled the Second Pueblo Revolt of 1680-1692, live on the Hopi Reservation in Arizona in Tewa Village and Polacca on the First Mesa. Tewa is one of five Tanoan languages spoken by the Pueblo people of New Mexico. Though these five languages are related, speakers of one cannot understand speakers of another; the six Tewa-speaking pueblos are Nambe, San Ildefonso, Ohkay Owingeh, Santa Clara, Tesuque. As with speakers of Tiwa and Keres, there is some disagreement among the Tewa people as to whether Tewa should be a written language or not; some Pueblo elders feel. However, many Tewa speakers have decided that Tewa literacy is important for passing the language on to the children.
The Tewa pueblos developed their own orthography for their language, Ohkay Owingeh has published a dictionary of Tewa, today most of the Tewa-speaking pueblos have established Tewa-language programs to teach children to read and write in this language. Maria Martinez, a famous potter known for black on black ware Popé, pueblo revolt leader Esther Martinez, a Tewa linguist Jody Naranjo, potter Rose Gonzales, potter Ortman, Scott G. Winds from the North: Tewa Origins and Historical Anthropology. ISBN 978-1-60781-172-5. Collection of Turn of the Century Photographs of Tewa Indians indigenouslanguage.org