Batman: War Games
"War Games" is a 2004-2005 major storyline comic book story arc published by DC Comics that ran in its Batman family of titles, Detective Comics, Legends of the Dark Knight, Batman: Gotham Knights, Batgirl, Catwoman and Gotham Central. The storyline, published from October 2004 until January 2005, was preceded by a prologue that appeared in Batman: The 12 Cent Adventure; the plot revolves around a gang war involving all the major criminal groups in Gotham. It starts with one of Batman's most ambitious contingency plans for a possible outbreak of uncontrollable gang violence, Batman developed an elaborate scenario that would unite all of Gotham's underworld under a single crime boss: Matches Malone, an alias of Batman himself; this plan is discovered by Stephanie Brown, serving as Batman's sidekick, Robin, at the time, and, unaware that Malone and Batman were one and the same, believing that he was an employee of Batman. When Brown is fired from the Robin position, she attempts to regain Batman's trust and confidence by implementing the contingency plan without Batman's knowledge or participation.
Thus, Matches Malone is not present when Brown, having returned to her former identity of Spoiler, assembles the leaders of all of the gangs into one place. The meeting ends disastrously, with numerous crime bosses and henchmen killed all of the gangs in Gotham going to war with one another. In the chaos of the citywide gang war, the crime lord Black Mask seizes control of all the gangs by kidnapping Stephanie and torturing her for the information she possesses, becomes the most powerful crime lord of Gotham City. Stephanie would die from her torture at Black Mask's hands, a tragedy for which Batman holds himself responsible. Besides the aforementioned death of Stephanie Brown, many other side effects came about from this event; the biggest of these included Black Mask becoming the single crime boss in Gotham, something that would remain until his death at the hands of Catwoman. Another would be Commissioner Akins making all vigilantes criminals, a move that would stay in place for over a year until the return of Commissioner Gordon to the Gotham City Police Department.
The more controversial effect, not seen until the follow-up story War Crimes, was turning Doctor Leslie Thompkins against Batman, when she allows Stephanie Brown to die from her wounds as Batman's "punishment" for including children in his war on crime. Jason Todd, a former Boy Wonder, confirmed to be alive on Batman: Under the Hood as a violent vigilante the Red Hood who waged a one-man war against Black Mask and crippling his criminal operation in the city before seeking revenge towards Batman and the Joker; the citizens of Gotham City no longer consider Batman to be an urban legend, as he was caught on camera trying to save the life of a wounded student at the end of Act One. Additionally, Barbara Gordon lost the clock tower that served as her home and headquarters and left Gotham City moving to Metropolis, she would re-establish her ties to Batman. Stephanie's death at the hands of the Black Mask and Dr. Thompkins would lead to the mystery of her appearances in the pages of Gotham Underground and Robin, as a mysterious female vigilante wearing the Spoiler costume unmasked to be Stephanie herself.
In Robin #174, Stephanie's death has been retconned by writer Chuck Dixon as Dr. Thompkins switched her body with a deceased victim who has a similar body type, as Dr. Thompkins did treat her in secret. At the 2011 Auckland Writers and Readers Festival, former Batgirl writer Dylan Horrocks said that the writers were told by editorial that the crossover would be “involve some kind of Gang War in Gotham” and involve Stephanie's death, her debut as Robin was "purely as a trick to play on the readers, that we would fool them into thinking that the big event was that Stephanie Brown would become Robin but we knew all along it was a temporary thing, she was going to die at the end of this crossover story". Both Horrocks and Nightwing writer Devin Grayson opposed the move during planning, to the extent that Horrocks deliberately kept Batgirl out of several key events in the story. War Drums: Detective Comics #790-796 Robin #126-128 Batgirl #53 Solo #10Act One - Outbreak: Prelude: Batman: The 12 Cent Adventure #1 Part 1: Detective Comics #797 Part 2: Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight #182 Part 3: Nightwing #96 Part 4: Batman: Gotham Knights #56 Part 5: Robin #129 Part 6: Batgirl #55 Part 7: Catwoman #34 Part 8: Batman #631Act Two - Tides: Part 1: Detective Comics #798 Part 2: Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight #183 Part 3: Nightwing #97 Part 4: Batman: Gotham Knights #57 Part 5: Robin #130 Part 6: Batgirl #56 Part 7: Catwoman #35 Part 8: Batman #632Act Three - Endgame: Part 1: Detective Comics #799 Part 2: Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight #184 Part 3: Nightwing #98 Part 4: Robin #131 Part 5: Batman: Gotham Knights #58 Part 6: Batgirl #57 Part 7: Catwoman #36 Part 8: Batman #633 Epilogue: Detective Comics #800 Epilogue: Batman #634 Starting in November 2015, DC began to release new editions of the War Games arc, with the first volume composed of the issues from the original release mixed in with the issues that were used for the prequel "collected edition", Batman: War Drums, as well as a brief story from the Solo series by Damion Scott about Stephanie Brown as Robin and the issues Robin #121 and Batgirl #53, which were not part of the original release.
The second and final volume, released in May 2016 contained the rest, the issues used for the second
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, West Bengal and the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands. West Bengal's capital Kolkata is the largest city of this region; the Kolkata Metropolitan Area is the country's third largest. The states of Bihar and West Bengal lie on the Indo-Gangetic plain. Jharkhand is situated on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Odisha lies on the Eastern Ghats and the Deccan Plateau; the region is bounded by the Nepal and Sikkim Himalayas in the north, the states of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh on the west, the state of Andhra Pradesh in the south and the Bay of Bengal on the east. It is connected to the Seven Sister States of Northeast India by the narrow Siliguri Corridor in the north east of West Bengal; the region was the historical centre of the Nanda, Shunga and Pala empires that ruled much of the Indian sub-continent at their prime. In medieval India, it was incorporated into the Mughal and the British empire. After independence in 1947, the states joined the Indian Union and took their current form after the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.
Today, they continue to face problems of overpopulation, environmental degradation and pervasive corruption despite significant economic and social progress. After the Kalinga War the Maurya king Ashoka sent emissaries to spread Buddhism across Asia; the famous university of Nalanda was in Bihar. Chinese travellers visited Buddhist and Hindu temples and libraries in the universities of Magadha Empire; the Emperor of Kalinga Mahameghavahana Aira Kharavela was one of the most powerful monarchs of ancient India. The Jain thirkhankar Mahaveer was born here and founded Jainism. Islamic invasions in the 13th century resulted in the collapse of Hindu kings and most Buddhists in East Bengal, converted to Islam. East India including Bihar and West Bengal was part of the Mughal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries. Odisha remained a powerful Hindu dynasty under the rule of Soma/Keshari Dynasty, Eastern Ganga Dynasty, Surya Dynasty till the end of the 16th century; the mighty Nalanda University existed at Nalanda, destroyed by Bakhtiar Khilji during the 12th century and defeated Sena Dynasty.
Sher Shah Suri, who became king of India after defeating Humayun, founded the city of Patna on the ruins of ancient Pataliputra. With the arrival of the Europeans in the 17th century, outposts were established in Odisha Coast and Bengal; the European traders established their trade centres in the famous ports of Balasore, Palur in the Odisha Coast during the rule of the last independent Hindu king Gajapati Prataprudra Dev. The Portuguese were in Chittagong, Dutch in Chinsura, French in Pondicherry and the English founded Calcutta. In 1756, the British East India Company defeated the local Indian Muslim rulers in Plassey and established British Rule in the subcontinent, its capital Calcutta grew into one of the world's greatest ports. Tea from Calcutta was off-loaded by American separatists in the American War of Independence in the 1770s. In the 19th century, Calcutta's traders and merchants traded with the rest of the British Empire, continental Europe, the United States and China. Indentured Indian labourers from Bihar, sailed to new homes in Fiji, Guyana and South Africa.
India's independence movement had strong roots in East India. The feudal land system, established through the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, was unpopular among the peasant cultivators and the numerous agricultural labourers found all over Bihar and Bengal; the Indian Rebellion of 1857 started in Bengal. British war propaganda asserted there were atrocities by the mutinous soldiers in the Black Hole of Calcutta; the British prevailed, Calcutta remained capital of Britain's Asian dominions until 1911. During Gandhi's independence movement, the Bihari village of Champaran was an important supporter of non-violent resistance. Great poets of the stature of Rabindranath Tagore championed the movement for self-rule; the Partition had its roots in undivided Eastern India. The Muslim League was founded in Dhaka in 1906. In the 1937 provincial elections, it came to power in Bengal in alliance with the Krishak Praja Party. In 1944, it gained an absolute majority in the Bengal Assembly, Hussein Suhrawardy became the Chief Minister.
After widespread communal violence during the Direct Action Day protests in Calcutta, leading to further communal violence across British India, the creation of Pakistan became inevitable. In 1947, further communal violence displaced millions as independence and partition of British India occurred; some Bihari and Bengali Muslims fled to the newly created East Pakistan. Most East Bengal Hindus fled to India; the 1950s saw industrial progress in East India. These were cut short with the conflict in neighbouring East Pakistan and by the Communist movement at home. In 1971, in the course of Bangladesh's independence struggle, millions of refugees poured into East India. From the turn of the 21st century, West Bengal's economic growth has been rapid, it now ranks as the fourth largest GDP contributor after Maharashtra, according to the List of Indian states by GDP and is now one of the fastest-growing economies among the states of India. Bihar and Odisha struggled with economic issues during the British rule and in the beginning of post independent India.
But in recent years, these two states have shown impressive growth record and developed steadily. The economic boom since 2005 started to spread new malls, airports and IT office complexes, but not evenly across the region. Jharkhand became a separate state on 15 November 2000. In the modern times, these states have seen rapid transformation and home to several mineral and metal based industries, coal based therma
A supervillain is a variant of the villainous stock character, found in American comic books possessing superhuman abilities. A supervillain is the antithesis of a superhero. Supervillains are invesiles used as foils to present a daunting challenge to a superhero. In instances where the supervillain does not have superhuman, mystical, or alien powers, the supervillain may possess a genius intellect or a skill set that allows them to draft complex schemes or commit crimes in a way normal humans cannot. Other traits may include possession of considerable resources to further their aims. Many supervillains share some typical characteristics of real world dictators and terrorists, with aspirations of world domination or universal leadership; the Joker, Lex Luthor, The Horde, Mr. Glass, Doctor Doom, Venom, Ra's al Ghul and Thanos are some notable male comic book supervillains and have been adapted to film and television; some notable examples of female supervillains are the Catwoman, Harley Quinn, Talia al Ghul, Poison Ivy and Dark Phoenix.
Just like superheroes, supervillains are sometimes members of supervillain groups, such as the Sinister Six, the Suicide Squad, the Brotherhood of Mutants, the Injustice League, the Legion of Doom, the Masters of Evil. Stephen Moffat and Mark Gatiss have claimed to regard James Moriarty as a super villain because he too possesses genius level intelligence and powers of observation and deduction setting him above ordinary people to the point where only he can pose a credible threat to Sherlock Holmes, and because Moriarty is a successful, sociopathic antagonist. The dictionary definition of supervillain at Wiktionary Media related to Supervillains at Wikimedia Commons
Sandman Mystery Theatre
Sandman Mystery Theatre is a comic book series published by Vertigo, the mature-readers imprint of DC Comics. It ran for 70 issues and 1 annual between 1993 and 1999 and retells the adventures of the Sandman, a vigilante whose main weapon is a gun that fires sleeping gas created by DC in the Golden Age of Comic Books. In a similar vein to Batman, the Sandman possesses no superhuman powers and relies on his detective skills and inventions. In this film noir-like series by writers Matt Wagner and Steven T. Seagle, Wesley Dodds and his girlfriend Dian Belmont encountered several grotesque, foes in multi-issue storylines; the team of Dodds and Belmont were Nora Charles of The Thin Man novel and movies. The first artist was Guy Davis. Davis changed Dodds from the traditional portrayal as a tall, square-jawed figure, making him shorter, round-faced and overweight, he gave Dodds a pair of round spectacles, visually echoing the round eyepieces of the gas mask he wore as the Sandman. Davis redesigned the Sandman costume.
In the original 1930s comics, the Sandman wore a green suit, purple cape, orange fedora and blue-and-yellow gas mask. For Sandman Mystery Theatre, the color palette was toned down to olive green and brown; the super-heroic trappings were downplayed in favor of a "real-world" sensibility, such as a trench coat instead of the cape. For the second and third story arcs, "The Face" and "The Brute", art was provided by John Watkiss and R. G. Taylor respectively. A minor controversy developed around the second storyline, "The Face." A coloring error resulted in Asian characters being portrayed with bright yellow skin. The editor apologized for the error in the letter column of a subsequent issue. Guy Davis returned for the fourth arc and the remainder of the series with occasional additional work from Vince Locke and Warren Pleece. Set during the late 1930s, before Dodds became a founding member of the Justice Society of America, this series dealt with mature themes such as abortion and anti-Semitism, as well as historical themes such as the rise of Nazism and international appeasement.
As the series progressed Wesley encountered in his adventures other "mystery men" of the era, including the Crimson Avenger, Starman and the Hourman. In one issue the Sandman interrogates a boxer outside Grant's Gym, the man mentions the name "Ted", a reference to Ted Grant, the original Wildcat. A reference is made to Detective Jim Corrigan to be known as the Spectre. Doctor Mid-Nite, alias Dr. Charles McNider is mentioned as the physician that treated Wesley in one issue. Dodds and Belmont would themselves guest star in the popular comic Starman, appearing as older versions of themselves, in flashbacks done by Davis himself in the same art-style as Sandman Mystery Theatre, they guest-starred in the "Exodus Noir" storyline of Madame Xanadu, set during the 1940s. The series introduced many changes to previous representations of Sandman's early years. While many of the changes could be considered retcons, the comic should be taken on its merits as an alternative telling of Sandman's origin. One such change in the series included Wesley Dodds' portrayal as a quiet man, considered odd by others instead of a playboy socialite.
Some of the retcons introduced in Sandman Mystery Theatre have been reflected in modern DC continuity. One such retcon, overturned was that of the character of Sandy Hawkins being nothing more than a fictional comic book character with Dian Belmont instead acting as Sandman's sidekick "Sandy" on at least one occasion. Dian's death had been recounted in All-Star Squadron #18, but in this new continuity she lives well into old age and remains Dodds's companion for life; the revival of the character was due in part to the success of a related character created by Neil Gaiman: Dream of the Endless, whose adventures were being published under the title of The Sandman. Dream made numerous cameo appearances in Wesley Dodds' dreams throughout the series; the two characters met in a one-shot special, Sandman Midnight Theatre, co-written by Gaiman and Wagner. In their review of Sandman Mystery Theatre #41-48, Wizard gave the series a 5 on a scale of 1 to 6 praising the historical authenticity of the lingo and cultural norms, as well as the intricately developed characters, "horrific" villains, unique atmosphere.
Their one major criticism was that it is too difficult for new readers to follow what is going on if they begin reading the series in the middle of a story arc. DC published a new five-issue limited series, Sandman Mystery Theatre: Sleep of Reason, set in 2007 and featuring a new character taking up the Sandman mantle; the comics have been collected in a number of trade paperbacks: Sandman Mystery Theatre: The Tarantula The Face and The Brute The Vamp The Scorpion Dr. Death and The Night of the Butcher The Hourman and
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
The Riddler is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, created by Bill Finger and Dick Sprang. He first appeared in Detective Comics #140; the character is depicted as a criminal mastermind in Gotham City who takes delight in incorporating riddles and puzzles into his schemes, leaving them as clues for the authorities to solve. The Riddler is one of the most enduring enemies of superhero Batman and belongs to the collective of adversaries that make up his rogues gallery. In 2009, the Riddler was ranked as IGN's 59th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time; the character has been adapted from the comics into various forms of media, including feature films, television series, video games. The Riddler has been voiced by John Glover in the DC animated universe, Robert Englund in The Batman, Wally Wingert in the Batman: Arkham video game series, he has been portrayed in live-action by Frank Gorshin and John Astin in the 1960s Batman television series, Jim Carrey in the 1995 film Batman Forever, Cory Michael Smith in the FOX television show Gotham.
The Riddler has an obsession with riddles and word games. The character delights in over-stating his "intellectual superiority" and on forewarning both Batman and the police of his capers by sending them complex clues, his name is a pun itself, Enigma which means a person or thing, mysterious or difficult to understand. With this self-conscious use of a gimmick, Riddler's crimes are ostentatious; the character is depicted as wearing a domino mask either with a green suit and bowler hat, or a green unitard with question mark prints. A black, green, or purple question mark serves as his visual motif; the character's origin story recounts that the Riddler, whose real name is Edward Nigma, becomes fascinated with puzzles at a young age. After a teacher announces that a contest will be held over who can solve a puzzle the fastest, Nigma sets his sights on winning this, craving the glory and satisfaction that will come with the victory, he sneaks into the school one night, takes the puzzle out of the teacher's desk, practices it until he is able to solve it in under a minute.
As predicted, he is given a book about riddles as a prize. His cheating rewarded, Edward embraced the mastery of puzzles of all kinds becoming a carnival employee who excelled at cheating his customers out of their money with his bizarre puzzles and mind games, he soon finds himself longing for greater challenges and thrills, dons the disguise of the "Riddler" to challenge Batman, believing him to be a worthy adversary. In his first encounter with the Dynamic Duo, Riddler first tried to confound the crime-fighters with his infamous double-entry Riddle Clues and tried to kill them both in a booby-trapped glass maze on a pier, sealing the door so they couldn't leave the structure before it exploded, only for Batman and Robin to escape and the Riddler "vanishing" after getting knocked into the sea by the explosion, leaving only his trademark "?" Floating in the water. In Batman: The Long Halloween, the Riddler appears as an informant, he first appears. Falcone loses his patience with Riddler and orders his daughter Sophia to force him to leave.
Upon exiting Falcone's office, Holiday attacks Riddler. The attack was planned to coincide with the holiday of April Fool's, several items pertaining to it were left at the scene; this may be. He appeared again in the same chapter of the story in which Harvey Dent is disfigured, when Batman comes to him for information about the attack, he plays a larger role in the story's sequel Batman: Dark Victory, in which Batman turns to him to figure out the significance of the lost games of hangman that are left at the scenes of the Hangman killer's crimes. He showed up as a member of Two-Face's jury during the Hangman's trial. In Catwoman: When in Rome, he joins Selina Kyle on a trip to Italy in search of his fellow rogue's origins, it is there that he manipulates her into believing that some of Batman's most dangerous foes are after her. He has his henchmen employ several gimmicks and weapons used by the Scarecrow, Mr. Freeze and the Joker to achieve this, he hopes to extract Batman's real identity from her, but to his dismay, she doesn't know or care.
The Riddler appears in The Question series, being convinced to become a "big-time villain" by a prostitute he meets on a bus. He hijacks the bus and begins asking riddles and robbing anyone that gets them wrong. Question subdues him by asking him philosophical riddles in return, he is outwitted and has a mental breakdown before being set free as a reward for getting one last riddle right. In the one-shot "Riddler: The Riddle Factory", the Riddler becomes the host of an underground game show that focuses on digging up dirt on celebrities. Many of the famous people that he humiliates end up committing suicide shortly afterwards, suggesting that Riddler did more than just inspire their deaths. In the end, his actions turn out to be a front for his attempts to find the hidden treasures of "Scarface" Scarelli, a Gotham City gangster who lived long before Batman's reign of crimefighting. In the three-part Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight storyline "The Primal Riddle", written by Steve Englehart, the Riddler engineers one of his greatest deathtraps: Batman is thrown into a narrow pit, filling up with water.
The walls are electrically wired, a set of bumpers are the only
A gnome is a diminutive spirit in Renaissance magic and alchemy, first introduced by Paracelsus in the 16th century and adopted by more recent authors including those of modern fantasy literature. Its characteristics have been reinterpreted to suit the needs of various story tellers, but it is said to be a small humanoid that lives underground; the word comes from Renaissance Latin gnomus, which first appears in the Ex Libro de Nymphis, Pygmaeis, Salamandris et Gigantibus, etc by Paracelsus, published posthumously in Nysa in 1566. The term may be an original invention of Paracelsus deriving the term from Latin gēnomos. In this case, the omission of the ē is, as the Oxford English Dictionary calls a blunder. Paracelsus classifies them as earth elementals, he describes them as two spans high reluctant to interact with humans, able to move through solid earth as as humans move through air. The chthonic, or earth-dwelling, spirit has precedents in numerous ancient and medieval mythologies guarding mines and precious underground treasures, notably in the Germanic dwarfs and the Greek Chalybes, Telchines or Dactyls.
The English word is attested from the early 18th century. Gnomes are used in Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock"; the creatures from this mock-epic are small, celestial creatures which were prudish women in their past-lives, now spend all of eternity looking out for prudish women. Other uses of the term gnome remain obscure until the early 19th century, when it is taken up by authors of Romanticist collections of fairy tales and becomes synonymous with the older word goblin. Pope's stated source, the French satire Comte de Gabalis, used the term gnomide to refer to female gnomes; the author of this work, Nicolas-Pierre-Henri de Montfaucon de Villars, the abbot of Villars, describes gnomes as such: "The Earth is filled to the Center with Gnomes or Pharyes, a People of small Stature, the Guardians of Treasures, of Mines, of Precious Stones. They are Ingenious, Friends of Men, easie to be commandded, they furnish the Children of the Sages with as much Money. The Gnomides or Wives of these Gnomes or Pharyes, are Little, but Handson.
In 19th-century fiction, the chthonic gnome became a sort of antithesis to the more airy or luminous fairy. Nathaniel Hawthorne in Twice-Told Tales contrasts the two in "Small enough to be king of the fairies, ugly enough to be king of the gnomes". Gnomes are contrasted to elves, as in William Cullen Bryant's Little People of the Snow, which has "let us have a tale of elves that ride by night, with jingling reins, or gnomes of the mine". One of the first movements in Mussorgsky's 1874 work Pictures at an Exhibition, named "Gnomus", is written to sound as if a gnome is moving about, his movements changing in speed. Franz Hartmann in 1895 satirized materialism in an allegorical tale entitled Unter den Gnomen im Untersberg; the English translation appeared in 1896 as Among the Gnomes: An Occult Tale of Adventure in the Untersberg. In this story, the Gnomes are still subterranean creatures, guarding treasures of gold within the Untersberg mountain; as a figure of 19th-century fairy tales, the term gnome became synonymous with other terms for "little people" by the 20th century, such as goblin, kobold, Heinzelmännchen and other instances of the "domestic spirit" type, losing its strict association with earth or the underground world.
Creatures called gnomes have been used in the fantasy genre of fiction and gaming since the mid-nineteenth century in a cunning role, e.g. as an inventor. In L. Frank Baum's Oz series, the Nomes their king, are the chief adversaries of the Oz people, they are ugly, hot-tempered, round-bodied with spindly legs and arms, have long beards and wild hair, live underground, are the militant protectors/hoarders of jewels and precious metals. Baum does not depict any female gnomes. Ruth Plumly Thompson, who continued the series after Baum's death, reverted to the traditional spelling. L. Frank Baum featured the classical gnomes in his book The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, they are in charge of watching over the rocks and their king is part of the Council of Immortals. In addition, they created the sleigh bells for Santa Claus' reindeer. J. R. R. Tolkien, in the legendarium surrounding his Elves, uses "Gnomes" as the initial and dropped name of the Noldor, the most gifted and technologically minded of his elvish races, in conscious exploitation of the similarity with the word gnomic.
Gnome is thus Tolkien's English loan-translation of the Quenya word Noldo, "those with knowledge". Tolkien's "Gnomes" are tall, dark-haired, light-skinned and wise but suffer from pride, tend towards violence, have an overweening love of the works of their own hands gemstones. Many of them live in cities in secluded mountain fortresses, he uses "Gnomes" to refer to both females. In The Father Christmas Letters, which Tolkien wrote for his children, Red Gnomes are presented as helpful creatures who come fro