Joseph Nathan "King" Oliver was an American jazz cornet player and bandleader. He was recognized for his playing style and his pioneering use of mutes in jazz. A notable composer, he wrote many tunes still played today, including "Dippermouth Blues", "Sweet Like This", "Canal Street Blues", "Doctor Jazz", he was the teacher of Louis Armstrong. His influence was such that Armstrong claimed, "if it had not been for Joe Oliver, Jazz would not be what it is today." Joseph Nathan Oliver was born in Aben, near Donaldsonville in Ascension Parish, moved to New Orleans in his youth. He first studied the trombone changed to cornet. From 1908 to 1917 he played cornet in New Orleans brass bands and dance bands and in the city's red-light district, which came to be known as Storyville. A band he co-led with trombonist Kid Ory was considered one of the best and hottest in New Orleans in the late 1910s, he was popular in New Orleans across economic and racial lines and was in demand for music jobs of all kinds.
According to an interview at Tulane University's Hogan Jazz Archive with Oliver's widow Estella, a fight broke out at a dance where Oliver was playing, the police arrested him, his band, the fighters. After Storyville closed, he moved to Chicago in 1918 with his wife and step-daughter, Ruby Tuesday Oliver. In Chicago, he found work with colleagues from New Orleans, such as clarinetist Lawrence Duhé, bassist Bill Johnson, trombonist Roy Palmer, drummer Paul Barbarin, he became leader of Duhé's band. In the summer of 1921 he took a group to the West Coast, playing engagements in San Francisco and Oakland, California. In 1922 Oliver and his band returned to Chicago, where they began performing as King Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band at the Royal Gardens cabaret. In addition to Oliver on cornet, the personnel included his protégé Louis Armstrong on second cornet, Baby Dodds on drums, Johnny Dodds on clarinet, Lil Hardin on piano, Honoré Dutrey on trombone, Bill Johnson on double bass. Recordings made by this group in 1923 for Gennett, Okeh and Columbia demonstrated the New Orleans style of collective improvisation known as Dixieland, brought it to a larger audience.
In the mid-1920s Oliver enlarged his band to nine musicians, performing under the name King Oliver and his Dixie Syncopators, began using more written arrangements with jazz solos. In 1927 the band went to New York. In the 1920s, he struggled with playing trumpet due to his gum disease, so he employed others to handle the solos, including his nephew Dave Nelson, Louis Metcalf, Red Allen, he reunited the band in 1928. He continued with modest success until a downturn in the economy made it more difficult to find bookings, his periodontitis made playing the trumpet difficult. He quit playing music in 1937; as a player, Oliver took great interest in altering his horn's sound. He pioneered the use of mutes, including the rubber plumber's plunger, derby hat and cups, his favorite mute was a small metal mute made by the C. G. Conn Instrument Company, with which he played his famous solo on his composition the "Dippermouth Blues", his recording "Wa Wa Wa" with the Dixie Syncopators can be credited with giving the name wah-wah to such techniques.
Oliver was a talented composer, wrote many tunes that are still played, including "Dippermouth Blues," "Sweet Like This," "Canal Street Blues," and "Doctor Jazz." Oliver performed on cornet, but like many cornetists he switched to trumpet in the late 1920s. He credited jazz pioneer Buddy Bolden as an early influence, in turn was a major influence on numerous younger cornet/trumpet players in New Orleans and Chicago, including Tommy Ladnier, Paul Mares, Muggsy Spanier, Johnny Wiggs, Frank Guarente and, the most famous of all, Armstrong. One of his protégés, Louis Panico, authored a book entitled The Novelty Cornetist, illustrated with photos showing some of the mute techniques he learned from Oliver; as mentor to Armstrong in New Orleans, Oliver taught young Louis and gave him his job in Kid Ory's band when he went to Chicago. A few years Oliver summoned him to Chicago to play with his band. Louis considered him his idol and inspiration. In his autobiography, Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans, Armstrong wrote: "It was my ambition to play as he did.
I still think. He was a creator in his own right." Oliver's business acumen was less than his musical ability. A succession of managers stole money from him, he tried to negotiate more money for his band than the Savoy Ballroom was willing to pay – losing the job, he lost the chance of an important engagement at New York City's famous Cotton Club when he held out for more money. The Great Depression brought hardship to Oliver, he lost his life savings to a collapsed bank in Chicago, he struggled to keep his band together through a series of hand-to-mouth gigs until the group broke up. Oliver had health problems, such as pyorrhea, a gum disease, caused by his love of sugar sandwiches and it made it difficult for him to play and he soon began delegating solos to younger players, but by 1935, he could no longer play the trumpet at all. Oliver was stranded in Savannah, where he pawned his trumpet and finest suits and ran a fruit stall h
Jelly Roll Morton
Ferdinand Joseph LaMothe, known professionally as Jelly Roll Morton, was an American ragtime and early jazz pianist and composer who started his career in New Orleans, Louisiana. Recognized as a pivotal figure in early jazz, Morton was jazz's first arranger, proving that a genre rooted in improvisation could retain its essential spirit and characteristics when notated, his composition "Jelly Roll Blues", published in 1915, was the first published jazz composition. Morton wrote the standards "King Porter Stomp", "Wolverine Blues", "Black Bottom Stomp", "I Thought I Heard Buddy Bolden Say", the last a tribute to New Orleans musicians from the turn of the 20th century. Morton's claim to have invented jazz in 1902 aroused resentment; the jazz historian and composer Gunther Schuller says of Morton's "hyperbolic assertions" that there is "no proof to the contrary" and that Morton's "considerable accomplishments in themselves provide reasonable substantiation". Alan Lomax, who recorded extensive biographical interviews of Morton at the Library of Congress in 1938, did not agree that Morton was an egoist: In being called a supreme egotist, Jelly Roll was a victim of loose and lurid reporting.
If we read the words that he himself wrote, we learn that he had an inferiority complex and said that he created his own style of jazz piano because "All my fellow musicians were much faster in manipulations, I thought than I, I did not feel as though I was in their class." So he used a slower tempo to permit flexibility through the use of more notes, a pinch of Spanish to give a number of right seasoning, the avoidance of playing triple forte continuously, many other points". --Quoted in John Szwed, Dr Jazz. Morton was born into the inward-looking, Creole community in the Faubourg Marigny neighborhood of downtown New Orleans, Louisiana, c. 1890. Both parents could trace their Creole ancestry back four generations to the 18th century. Morton's exact date and year of birth are uncertain, owing to the fact that in common with the majority of babies born in 19th-century New Orleans, no birth certificate was issued for him; the law requiring birth certificates for citizens was not enforced until 1914.
His parents were Edward Joseph Lamothe, a bricklayer by trade, Louise Hermance Monette, a domestic worker. His father left his mother when Morton was three and when his mother married William Mouton in 1894, Ferdinand adopted his stepfather's surname: anglicizing it to Morton, he showed musical talent at an early age. At the age of 12, he had depression. At the age of fourteen, Morton began working as a piano player in a brothel. In that atmosphere, he sang smutty lyrics. While working there, he was living with his churchgoing great-grandmother. After Morton's grandmother found out that he was playing jazz in a brothel, she kicked him out of her house, he said: When my grandmother found out that I was playing jazz in one of the sporting houses in the District, she told me that I had disgraced the family and forbade me to live at the house.... She told me that devil music would bring about my downfall, but I just couldn't put it behind me; the cornetist Rex Stewart recalled that Morton had chosen "the nom de plume'Morton' to protect his family from disgrace if he was identified as a whorehouse'professor'."Tony Jackson a pianist at brothels and an accomplished guitar player, was a major influence on Morton's music.
Morton said. Around 1904, Morton started touring in the American South, working in minstrel shows including Will Benbow's Chocolate Drops and composing, his works "Jelly Roll Blues", "New Orleans Blues", "Frog-I-More Rag", "Animule Dance", "King Porter Stomp" were composed during this period. He got to Chicago in 1910 and New York City in 1911, where future stride greats James P. Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith caught his act, years before the blues were played in the North. In 1912–14, Morton toured with his girlfriend Rosa Brown as a vaudeville act before settling in Chicago for three years. By 1914, he had started writing down his compositions. In 1915, his "Jelly Roll Blues" was arguably the first jazz composition published, recording as sheet music the New Orleans traditions, jealously guarded by musicians. In 1917, he followed the bandleader William Manuel Johnson and Johnson's sister Anita Gonzalez to California, where Morton's tango, "The Crave", was a sensation in Hollywood. Morton was invited to play a new nightclub, The Patricia, on East Hastings Street in Vancouver, British Columbia.
The jazz historian Mark Miller described his arrival as "an extended period of itinerancy as a pianist, vaudeville performer, hustler, and, as legend would have it, pimp". Morton returned to Chicago in 1923 to claim authorship of his published rag, "The Wolverines", which had become a hit as "Wolverine Blues" in that city, he released the first of his commercial recordings, first as piano rolls on record, both as a piano soloist and with various jazz bands. In 1926, Morton succeeded in getting a contract to make records for the largest and most prestigious record company in the United States, the Victor Talking Machine Company; this gave him a chance to bring a well-rehearsed band to play his arrangements in Victor's Chicago recording studios. These recordings, by Jelly Roll Morton & His Red Hot Peppers, are regarded as class
Dutch Swing College Band
The Dutch Swing College Band "DSCB" is a traditional dixieland band founded on 5 May 1945 by bandleader and clarinettist/saxophonist Peter Schilperoort. Successful in their native home of The Netherlands, the band found an international following, it has featured such musicians as Huub Janssen, Henk Bosch van Drakestein, Kees van Dorser, Dim Kesber, Jan Morks, Wout Steenhuis, Arie Ligthart, Jaap van Kempen, Oscar Klein, Dick Kaart, Ray Kaart, Bert de Kort, Bert Boeren, Rod Mason, Rob Agerbeek - among many others. The band continues to tour extensively in Europe & Scandinavia, record directed by Bob Kaper, himself a member since 1967, following the former leader, Peter Schilperoort's death on 17 November 1990. Schilperoort had led the band for more than 45 years, albeit with a five-year sabbatical from 13 September 1955, when he left to pursue an engineering career before returning to lead the band again on 1 January 1960; as of August 2013, the line-up is:Bob Kaper, musical director, altosaxophone, vocalsTon van Bergeijk, guitar, vocalsKeesjan Hoogeboom, vocalsMaurits Woudenberg, tromboneDavid Lukàcs, soprano saxophone, baritone saxophoneAdrie Braat, double bass Anton Burger, drums As of January 2012, the line-up is:Bob Kaper musical director, altosaxophone, vocalsTon van Bergeijk banjo, vocalsKeesjan Hoogeboom trumpet, vocalsMaurits Woudenberg tromboneFrits Kaatee clarinet, soprano saxophone, baritone saxophoneAdrie Braat double bassOnno de Bruijn drums As of the end of 1945, the line-up was:Frans Vink Jr leader, pianoPeter Schilperoort clarinet, alto saxophone, baritone saxophoneJoost van Os trumpetBill Brant tromboneOtto Gobius guitarHenry Frohwein double bassTony Nüsser drums 1948-1952:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone.
1953-1955:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1956-1959:Joop Schrier leader, piano. 1959-1961::Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1963-1964:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1965-1967:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1968-1969:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. Bob Kaper added in 1969. 1970-1974:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1974-1978:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1978-1980:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, tenor saxophone. 1980-1982:Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1988-1990 Peter Schilperoort leader, alto saxophone, baritone saxophone. 1993:Bob Kaper – leader, alto saxophone. 1996-1998:Bob Kaper leader, alto saxophone. 2000-2004:Bob Kaper leader, alto saxophone. 2004-2010 Bob Kaper leader, alto saxophone. With a recording history from 1945 to the present day in 2012 many albums and singles have been recorded.
Recording media from 78 rpm discs, 33 and 45 rpm records and CDs and DVDs on variety of labels, including Philips and the band's own DSC production label. As well as recording on its own, recordings were made with a number of notable US solo artists beginni
Winter Garden Theatre
The Winter Garden Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 1634 Broadway between 50th and 51st Streets in midtown Manhattan. The structure was built by William Kissam Vanderbilt in 1896 to be the American Horse Exchange. In 1911 the Shuberts leased the building and architect William Albert Swasey redesigned the building as a theatre; the fourth New York City venue to be christened the Winter Garden, it opened on March 10, 1911, with the early Jerome Kern musical La Belle Paree. The show starred Al Jolson and launched him on his successful singing and acting career, he played the Winter Garden many times after that. The Winter Garden was remodeled in 1922 by Herbert J. Krapp; the large stage is wider than those in most Broadway houses, the proscenium arch is low. The building is situated unusually on its lot, with the main entrance and marquee, located on Broadway, connected to the 1526-seat Seventh Avenue auditorium via a long hallway, the rear wall of the stage abutting 50th Street; when Al Jolson performed there, the Winter Garden had a runway built, going out into the audience, Jolson would run out and slide on his knees while singing, the audience, not used to such dynamic and close-up showmanship from a performer, would go wild.
The theatre's longest tenant was Cats, which opened on October 7, 1982 and ran 7,485 performances spanning nearly eighteen years. The auditorium was gutted to accommodate the show's junkyard setting, after the show's closing, architect Francesca Russo supervised its restoration, returning it to its 1920s appearance. In its early days, the theatre hosted series of revues presented under the umbrella titles The Passing Show and Models, The Greenwich Village Follies. Following the 1932 death of Florenz Ziegfeld, the Shuberts acquired the rights to the name and format of his famed Ziegfeld Follies, they presented the 1934 and 1936 editions of the Follies featuring performers such as Fanny Brice, Bob Hope, Josephine Baker, Gypsy Rose Lee, Eve Arden, The Nicholas Brothers, Buddy Ebsen, it served as a Warner Bros. movie house from 1928 to 1933 and a United Artists cinema in 1945, but aside from these interruptions has operated as a legitimate theatre since it opened. Due to the size of its auditorium and backstage facilities, it is a house favored for large musical productions.
In 1974 Liza Minnelli appeared at the Winter Garden in a concert run that would win her a Tony Award for that year, honoring her successful sold-out run. A live album of the concert was released that year, remastered and reissued in 2012. In 2002, under an agreement between the Shubert Organization, which owns the theatre, General Motors, it was renamed the Cadillac Winter Garden Theatre. At the beginning of 2007, the corporation's sponsorship ended and the venue returned to its original name. Winter Garden Theatre - article about the first theatre in New York under this name Winter Garden Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database "Designation List 199" New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
Dixieland, sometimes referred to as hot jazz or traditional jazz, is a style of jazz based on the music that developed in New Orleans at the start of the 20th century. One of the first uses of the term "Dixieland" with reference to music was in the name of the Original Dixieland Jass Band, their 1917 recordings fostered popular awareness of this new style of music. A revival movement for traditional jazz, formed in reaction to the orchestrated sounds of the swing era and the perceived chaos of the new bebop sounds of the 1940s, pulled "Dixieland" out from the somewhat forgotten band's name for the music they championed; the revival movement included elements of the Chicago style that developed during the 1920s, such as the use of a string bass instead of a tuba, chordal instruments, in addition to the original format of the New Orleans style. That reflected the fact that all of the recorded repertoire of New Orleans musicians was from the period when the format was evolving beyond the traditional New Orleans format.
"Dixieland" may in that sense be regarded as denoting the jazz revival movement of the late 1930s to the 1950s as much as any particular subgenre of jazz. The essential elements that were accepted as within the style were the traditional front lines consisting of trumpets and clarinets, ensemble improvisation over a 2-beat rhythm; the Original Dixieland Jass Band, recording its first disc in 1917, was the first instance of jazz music being called "Dixieland", though at the time, the term referred to the band, not the genre. The band's sound was a combination of African American/New Orleans Sicilian music; the music of Sicily was one of the many genres in the New Orleans music scene during the 1910s, alongside sanctified church music, brass band music and blues. Much the term "Dixieland" was applied to early jazz by traditional jazz revivalists, starting in the 1940s and 1950s; the name is a reference to the "Old South" anything south of the Mason-Dixon line. The term encompasses earlier brass band marches, French Quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective, polyphonic improvisation.
While instrumentation and size of bands can be flexible, the "standard" band consists of a "front line" of trumpet and clarinet, with a "rhythm section" of at least two of the following instruments: guitar or banjo, string bass or tuba and drums. Louis Armstrong's All-Stars was the band most popularly identified with Dixieland during the 1940s, although Armstrong's own influence during the 1920s was to move the music beyond the traditional New Orleans style; the definitive Dixieland sound is created when one instrument plays the melody or a recognizable paraphrase or variation on it, the other instruments of the "front line" improvise around that melody. This creates a more polyphonic sound than the arranged ensemble playing of the big band sound or the straight "head" melodies of bebop. During the 1930s and 1940s, the earlier group-improvisation style fell out of favor with the majority of younger black players, while some older players of both races continued on in the older style. Though younger musicians developed new forms, many beboppers revered Armstrong and quoted fragments of his recorded music in their own improvisations.
The Dixieland revival in the late 1940s and 1950s brought many semi-retired musicians a measure of fame late in their lives as well as bringing retired musicians back onto the jazz circuit after years of not playing. Many Dixieland groups of the revival era consciously imitated the recordings and bands of decades earlier. Other musicians continued to create new tunes. For example, in the 1950s a style called "Progressive Dixieland" sought to blend polyphonic improvisation with bebop-style rhythm. Spike Jones & His New Band and Steve Lacy played with such bands; this style is sometimes called "Dixie-bop". Lacy went on to apply that approach to the music of Thelonious Monk, Charles Mingus, Duke Ellington, Herbie Nichols. While the term Dixieland is still in wide use, the term's appropriateness is a hotly debated topic in some circles. For some it is the preferred label, while others would rather use terms like Classic jazz or Traditional jazz; some of the latter consider Dixieland a derogatory term implying superficial hokum played without passion or deep understanding of the music and because "Dixie" is a reference to pre-Civil War Southern States.
Many black musicians have traditionally rejected the term as a style distinctive from traditional jazz, characterized by the staccatic playing in all-white groups such as The Original Dixieland Jazz Band in contrast to the slower, syncopated back-beat style of playing characterized by musicians like King Oliver or Kid Ory. Dixieland is today applied to bands playing in a traditional style. Bands such as those of Eddie Condon and Muggsy Spanier were tagged with the Dixieland label, reflecting the grouping of the Chicago and New Orleans styles of traditional jazz under the same label. "Chicago style" is applied to the sound of Chicagoans such as Jimmy McPartland, Eddie Condon, Muggsy Spanier, Bud Freeman. The rhythm sections of these bands substitute the string bass for the tuba and the guitar for the banjo. Musically, the Chicagoans play in more of a swing-style 4-to-the-bar manner; the New Orleanian preference for an ensemble sound is deemphasized in favor of solos. Chicago-style dixieland differs from its southern origin by being faster paced, resembling the hustle-bu
Tadpoles is the third album by the Bonzo Dog Band. It is a compilation of their work from the television show Do Not Adjust Your Set, on which they were the house band; the US version of the album had a track list different from that of the UK version: the US version removed "I'm the Urban Spaceman" and added "Readymades" the B-side of their follow-up single "Mr. Apollo"; the UK version was reissued on vinyl by Sunset Records in the early 1970s, re-titled "I'm the Urban Spaceman". In 2007 the album was reissued on CD with its original title and artwork, by EMI with five bonus tracks; the original LP sleeve had seven holes cut out of the front cover, multiple images printed on an insert card helped listeners to visualize what band members were thinking by moving the card back and forth. "Boo!" "Readymades" "Look At Me I'm Wonderful" "We Were Wrong" "The Craig Torso Christmas Show"