Secret Six (comics)
The Secret Six is the name of three different fictional comic book teams in the DC Comics Universe, plus an alternate universe's fourth team. Each team has had six members, led by a mysterious figure named Mockingbird, whom the characters assume to be one of the other five members; the third, villainous incarnation of the Secret Six was rated by IGN as the fourth Best Comic Run of the Decade in 2012. The Secret Six first appeared during the Silver Age of comics in the initial team's seven-issue title Secret Six. Unusually, the premiere issue's story began on the cover, continued on the interior's page one; this strike team of covert operatives consisted of August Durant, Lili de Neuve, Carlo di Rienzi, Mike Tempest, Crimson Dawn and King Savage. Created by writer E. Nelson Bridwell and artist Frank Springer, the ongoing series ceased publication with the identity of Mockingbird unrevealed; the first two issues were reprinted in The Brave and the Bold #117 and #120. Writer Martin Pasko and artist Dan Spiegle introduced an updated version of the team as an eight-page feature in the omnibus title Action Comics Weekly #601.
They revealed Mockingbird as Durant, who now reunited the team after twenty years while assembling a new team consisting of Mitch Hoberman, Ladonna Jameal, Tony Mantegna, Luke McKendrick, Vic Sommers and Dr. Maria Verdugo; the following issue saw. The feature ran through Action Comics Weekly #612, with DiRienzi succeeding Durant as Mockingbird. A second arc of this team, by writer Pasko and original Silver Age artist Springer, ran in Action Comics Weekly #619–630. DiRienzi died, his son Rafael disappeared amid intimations that he may be the successor Mockingbird; the next version of the team was introduced in Villains United #1. Unlike previous versions of the team, the new Secret Six consists of villainous characters who undertake missions of dubious moral quality and resulting in a high body count; the team consists of the pre-existing DC characters Catman and Cheshire, the newly created Rag Doll, Scandal Savage, a Parademon. Another member, the Fiddler, is killed by Deadshot on order of Mockingbird.
The Parademon is killed and Cheshire betrays the group to the Society, was shot by the Society's Deathstroke, who does not trust her for being a traitor. The Mockingbird for this version of the team is revealed to be Lex Luthor. In the 2006 Secret Six limited series, revealed as a mole infiltrating the Society in Villains United, has joined the group to be with her lover, Scandal. At the end of issue #1, Catman asks the Mad Hatter to be the sixth member of the group. While Catman meets with the Mad Hatter, Doctor Psycho orchestrates a series of attacks designed to wipe out the Six. Hatter is kicked off the team by Rag Doll, who says that one eccentric fop in the group is enough, his replacement is Harley Quinn, who quits. In Birds of Prey issues #104–108, the Secret Six face off against Oracle's Birds of Prey in Russia for the soul of Tora. After Harley Quinn quit the team, they disbanded. Subsequently, in Birds of Prey #109, Knockout was attacked and killed by the same assassin, stalking the New Gods and killing them off, one by one.
Earlier in the issue, Knockout comments in passing that Catman was going soft, Deadshot had returned to the Suicide Squad. Harley Quinn is reformed in Countdown #43. Scandal Savage, Rag Doll and Catman were seen in Salvation Run. DC launched a new Secret Six series in September 2008, reuniting Catman, Deadshot and Rag Doll, adding Bane and an original character named Jeannette, who appeared in the third issue; the Six have been hired to retrieve Tarantula from Alcatraz Island, find a card which she stole from "Junior", a mysterious villain who runs the entire West Coast mob. This Junior has the entire villain community at her beck and call, all afraid of her those in Arkham Asylum; the Six learn that the card in question was made by Neron, says "Get Out of Hell Free". Soon, the Six are attacked by a small army of supervillains, all wanting to recover the card and collect the reward of $20 million for each of the Six, under the orders of Junior, who captures and tortures Bane, whose strong principles and moral convictions, paired with his fatherly fondness of Scandal, keep him from betraying his new team.
It is revealed that Junior is in fact Rag Doll's sister and daughter of the first Rag Doll. She has the ghastly appearance of an old clown, with sliced skin and eyes stitched wide open to give the appearance of a clown; the Six escape and head for Gotham City, with Deadshot betraying them and leaving with Tarantula. The Six manage to catch up to Deadshot, was attacked by Junior, the supervillains, the Mad Hatter, revealed to be the one who hired them so they would be killed. Tarantula sacrifices herself by pulling herself and Junior in front of the supervillains' combined attack destroying the card along with them. However, it is shown that Scandal is now in possession of it. Although the current incarnation of the Secret Six are technically supervillains, several members of the team are treated sympathetically and come across as heroic, if only on the virtue of the team encountering individuals who are more bloodthirsty and villainous. In a new storyline starting with issue #10 titled "Depths", the Six have been hired by a new villain
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Wonder Woman is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is a founding member of the Justice League; the character first appeared in All Star Comics #8 in October 1941 with her first feature in Sensation Comics #1, January 1942. The Wonder Woman title has been published by DC Comics continuously except for a brief hiatus in 1986. In her homeland, the island nation of Themyscira, her official title is Princess Diana of Themyscira, Daughter of Hippolyta; when blending into the society outside of her homeland, she adopts her civilian identity Diana Prince. Wonder Woman was created by the American psychologist and writer William Moulton Marston, artist Harry G. Peter. Marston's wife and their life partner, Olive Byrne, are credited as being his inspiration for the character's appearance. Marston's comics featured his ideas on DISC theory, the character drew a great deal of inspiration from early feminists, from birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger.
Wonder Woman's origin story relates that she was sculpted from clay by her mother Queen Hippolyta and was given a life to live as an Amazon, along with superhuman powers as gifts by the Greek gods. In recent years, DC changed her background with the revelation that she is the daughter of Zeus and Hippolyta, jointly raised by her mother and her aunts Antiope and Menalippe; the character has changed in depiction over the decades, including losing her powers in the 1970s. She possesses an arsenal of advanced technology, including the Lasso of Truth, a pair of indestructible bracelets, a tiara which serves as a projectile, and, in older stories, a range of devices based on Amazon technology. Wonder Woman's character was created during World War II. Many stories depicted Wonder Woman rescuing herself from bondage, which defeated the "damsels in distress" trope, common in comics during the 1940s. In the decades since her debut, Wonder Woman has gained a cast of enemies bent on eliminating the Amazon, including classic villains such as Ares, Doctor Poison, Doctor Psycho, Giganta, along with more recent adversaries such as Veronica Cale and the First Born.
Wonder Woman has regularly appeared in comic books featuring the superhero teams Justice Society and Justice League. The character is a well-known figure in popular culture, adapted to various media. June 3 is Wonder Woman Day. Wonder Woman is part of the DC Comics trinity of flagship characters alongside Superman. Modern historians divide 20th century history of American superhero comics into "ages," The Golden Age being the first. In an October 25, 1940, interview with the Family Circle magazine, William Moulton Marston discussed the unfulfilled potential of the comic book medium; this article caught the attention of comics publisher Max Gaines, who hired Marston as an educational consultant for National Periodicals and All-American Publications, two of the companies that would merge to form DC Comics. At that time, Marston wanted to create his own new superhero. "Fine," said Elizabeth. "But make her a woman." Marston introduced the idea to Gaines. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman, whom he believed to be a model of that era's unconventional, liberated woman.
Marston drew inspiration from the bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, who lived with the couple in a polyamorous relationship. Wonder Woman debuted in All Star Comics #8, scripted by Marston. Marston was the creator of a systolic-blood-pressure-measuring apparatus, crucial to the development of the polygraph. Marston's experience with polygraphs convinced him that women were more honest than men in certain situations and could work more efficiently. Marston designed Wonder Woman to be an allegory for the ideal love leader. "Wonder Woman is psychological propaganda for the new type of woman who should, I believe, rule the world", Marston wrote. In a 1943 issue of The American Scholar, Marston wrote: Not girls want to be girls so long as our feminine archetype lacks force and power. Not wanting to be girls, they don't want to be tender, peace-loving as good women are. Women's strong qualities have become despised because of their weakness; the obvious remedy is to create a feminine character with all the strength of Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman.
Marston was an outspoken feminist and firm believer in the superiority of women. He described bondage and submission as a "respectable and noble practice". Marston wrote in a weakness for Wonder Woman, attached to a fictional stipulation that he dubbed "Aphrodite's Law", that made the chaining of her "Bracelets of Submission" together by a man take away her Amazonian super strength. Wonder Woman ended up in chains before breaking free; this not only represented Marston's affinity for bondage, but women's subjugation, which he roundly rejected. However, not everything a
Etta Candy is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics publications and related media as the best friend of the superhero Wonder Woman. A spirited, vivacious young woman with a devil-may-care attitude, Etta first appeared in Sensation Comics #2, written by Wonder Woman's creator William Moulton Marston. Enrolled in the fictional Holliday College for Women, Etta would become a constant feature of Wonder Woman's Golden Age adventures functioning as both the hero's plucky sidekick and her best friend in Man's World. Unapologetically proud of her plus-size figure, "Etta's appearance was a stark contrast to the svelte, wasp-waisted women depicted in most comic books, Etta was a brave and heroic leader, always in the thick of the fight beside her friend Wonder Woman."Though appearing less in the Silver and Bronze Age, Etta was a recurring presence in Wonder Woman's supporting cast throughout both periods. She would be re-imagined in March 1987 by comics writer/artist George Pérez as part of his reboot of the Wonder Woman mythos.
This version, a former Air Force captain and intelligence officer, appeared throughout Wonder Woman's post-Crisis adventures. In her 1940s introduction, Etta Candy is a sickly malnourished woman Wonder Woman discovers at a local hospital; when next seen, Etta is transformed into a spirited, rotund young woman who has a great love of candy. When Wonder Woman asks her what caused her sudden health and rather large size, Etta tells her that she was rejuvenated by eating lots of sweets. With her newfound confidence, Etta Candy soon after leads the fictional Beeta Lambda sorority at Holiday College and aids Wonder Woman in her adventures, first with a hundred other girls she helps Wonder Woman to take over the Nazi base of Doctor Poison without endangering Steve. Throughout her adventures with Wonder Woman she is known for her moxie, her love of candy, for her trademark call "Woo! Woo!" Other familiar characteristics included her junky car nicknamed Esmerelda, a variety of sassy interjections, such as: "For the love of chocolate!"
Her father, "Hard Candy," and mother, Sugar Candy, lived on the Bar-L Ranch in Brazos County, that provided the setting for cowboy-themed adventures. She was shown to have a brother named Mint Candy. Holiday College was the setting for science-driven stories and it was at nearby "Starvard", that her boyfriend, the gangling but loving "Oscar Sweetgulper," studied, she was shown to be brave and stormed a Nazi concentration camp armed with nothing but a box of candy to rescue captured children. She was welcomed by Wonder Woman's people, the Amazons of Themyscira and invited to their festivals, she never let it bother her. She joked about it when asked by the Amazons if she would like to join in one of their sporting events; when Robert Kanigher became writer and editor of the adventures of Wonder Woman, he made little use of Etta Candy and the Holiday girls. When he did, he portrayed Etta as an insecure, weight-conscious girl who followed but never led the girls in her sorority; this was in sharp contrast to Marston characterization of a bold, wisecracking leader.
Despite a few appearances after Kanigher reintroduced her in 1960 Candy was left in limbo for decades. Etta Candy was revived twenty years in 1980, along with Steve Trevor and General Phil Darnell. In the years since her last appearance, Candy had not only graduated from Holiday College, but had become a Lieutenant and was on hand to welcome Wonder Woman back to her old job as Air Force officer Diana Prince something she hadn't done since 1968. Lieutenant Candy was featured as a secretary as Diana's roommate. Despite having been Wonder Woman's friend years previous, Candy had never met Diana Prince or learned her secret identity. Thus, from Candy's point of view and Prince met for the first time when Prince returned to the Air Force, she was still portrayed as insecure and weight-conscious and, although she no longer said "for the love of chocolate", was known to swear by Betty Crocker. She did most of the cooking between herself and her roommate, her family was not expanded as much as was the family of her golden age incarnation though she did remark on being from a large family and had a niece named Suzie.
Her love interest was now nerdy, hopelessly clumsy but very loving Howard Huckaby. In one adventure, Etta was kidnapped by Satanists influenced by Klarion the Witch Boy and sent to Hell, where Wonder Woman and Etrigan the demon had to travel to save her, although she remained narcotized and catatonic throughout the ordeal. In the years leading up to Crisis on Infinite Earths, writers Dan Mishkin and Mindy Newell took Etta in a different direction, she displayed more confidence, became Wonder Woman for one evening, battling Cheetah, Angle Man, Captain Wonder and Silver Swan. Huckaby, who by had been convinced for several issues that his girlfriend was the comic book's titular heroine, used Dr. Psycho's machine that could turn his dreams into reality to let the world see Etta as he saw her. After the Amazonian "Wonder Etta" defeated the villains and others saw she was
Circe is a fictional character appearing in DC Comics publications and related media. Based upon the Greek mythological figure of the same name who imprisoned Odysseus in Homer's Odyssey, she is a wicked sorceress and the recurring foe of Wonder Woman. Circe first appeared as a ravishing blonde in 1949 in vol. 1, issue # 37, illustrated by Harry G. Peter, she would make a Silver Age return, going from blonde to raven-haired, to battle Rip Hunter in Showcase #21 in 1959, followed by multiple appearances as a foil and sometimes-ally for Superman and Supergirl in Action Comics and Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane. In 1962 her "creator" Robert Kanigher pitted her against the Sea Devils in Sea Devils #3, illustrated by Russ Heath, she would get a Bronze Age makeover in 1983's Wonder Woman #302, by Dan Mishkin and Gene Colan, making multiple appearances over the next two years. Circe would be re-imagined in June 1988, by comics writer/artist George Pérez as part of his reboot of the Wonder Woman mythos.
This version, with red-eyes and violet hair, would become one of Wonder Woman's principal Post-Crisis foes. Circe was re-introduced yet again in 2011 in Men of War #2, as part of the DC Comics continuity-reboot known as The New 52; this version of the character, with blood-red hair and pale white skin, was written by Ivan Brandon and illustrated by Tom Derenick. Hair color aside, all of these versions of Circe have retained a set of key features: immortality, stunning physical beauty, a powerful command over sorcery, a penchant for turning human beings into animals, a delight in humiliation. In the original DC Comics continuity, Circe is a centuries-old enchantress, kept young by an elixir called vitae, it is made from a special combination of herbs. While living on the island Aeaea, Circe gains magical powers. Circe is skilled at turning men into any animal resembling their personality, for her crimes against mortalkind, the Amazon Queen Hippolyta banished her to Sorca, "an island planet in space, where she could do no harm".
Upon her return to Earth, Circe tries to destroy Wonder Woman, having heard from an oracle in ancient times that the daughter of Hippolyta will be her undoing. Unlike many of Wonder Woman's other Golden Age foes, Circe does not repent when her plot fails, a legendary enmity is born. In Captain Marvel Adventures #66, set on Earth-S, it is revealed the evil immortal Oggar gave Circe immortality 3,000 years ago when she was a beautiful Graecian princess, hoping she would marry him, but because he did not give her eternal youth she keeps aging and becomes ugly, meaning she hates men who now have a hatred of her face, learns magic to turn them into animals. Captain Marvel and Oggar battle on her island, she turns Billy into a goat before turning him back, she helps Captain Marvel defeat Oggar by turning him into a boar. He jumps into a bluff and dies, meaning she dies as his spell wears off. A woman claiming to be a descendant of the original Circe appears and gives Superman an evolution serum, which temporarily transforms him into a partial lion after he does not agree to marry her.
She leaves the planet by the time Superman returns to her island. Realizing the serum contains kryptonite, Superman theorizes the original Circe may have been from Krypton. In ancient times, Circe is responsible for changing Biron the centaur into a horse and gives him super-powers as Comet the Super-Horse, she is depicted as more heroic during her appearances with Supergirl. She has encounters with Lois Lane and Lana Lang, battles Rip Hunter, who meets her during his time travels. Catwoman once used Circe's wand to turn Superman into a cat, but he is turned back by an Egyptian mummified magic cat's paw used by Lana Lang. Saturn Woman poses as Circe as part of Superman’s plan to defeat the Superman Revenge Squad. During World War II, Circe transforms a British soldier who misses being in the cavalry into a centaur upon his death, into a horse. At another point in World War II, she consumed them; the character reappears, unnamed, in Wonder Woman #302 and is identified as Circe in issue #305 Circe reappeared with a mission to kill Wonder Woman in order to prevent an oracular prophecy of Circe's death at Wonder Woman's hands from coming true.
After she failed to kill the Amazon with a series of attacks by man-animal hybrids, she took up with the Aztec god Tezcatlipoca, who set in motion a chain of events that led Wonder Woman to the jungles of Tropidor. Circe called on the god to send lightning down to kill Wonder Woman, who deflected the lightning bolts away from her and incinerated the herbs that made Circe immortal, thus fulfilling the prophecy. Circe disappeared, swallowed up by Tezcatlipoca's magic obsidian mirror, which the god used to torture her with an image of herself as a crone. Circe begins to age and is last seen aiding a group of sorcerers who are trying to defeat the Anti-Monitor. Following the Crisis on Infinite Earths, Wonder Woman and Superman are rebooted. All of Circe's prior continuity is erased and she is reintroduced with a revamped history. Circe is the daughter of the Titans Perseis. Circe is former princess of Colchis. A beautiful, violet-haired, red-eyed sorceress, she
Hugo Münsterberg was a German-American psychologist. He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational, medical, clinical and business settings. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. Torn between his loyalty to the United States and his homeland, he defended Germany's actions, attracting contrasting reactions. Hugo Münsterberg was born into a merchant family in Danzig a port city in West Prussia. If he was known for his German nationalism, Hugo's family was Jewish, a heritage he didn't feel connection with and would ever manifest publicly, his father Moritz, was a successful lumber merchant and his mother, Minna Anna Bernhardi, a recognized artist and musician, was Moritz's second wife. Moritz had two sons with his first wife and Emil, two with Anna and Oscar; the four sons remained close, all of them became successful in their careers. A neo-Renaissance villa in Detmold, that Oscar lived in from 1886-1896 has been renovated and opened as a cultural center.
The family had a great love of the arts, Münsterberg was encouraged to explore music and art. Both his mother and his father died; when he was 12, his mother died. This marked a major change in the young boy's life, transforming him from a carefree child to a much more serious young man. In 1880 his father died. Münsterberg had many interests in his early years and displayed interests in many fields including art, poetry, foreign languages and acting. Münsterberg's first years of school were spent at the Gymnasium of Danzig from which he graduated in 1882 with Oliver and Dennis, he entered the University of Leipzig in 1883 where he heard a lecture by Wilhelm Wundt and became interested in psychology. Münsterberg became Wundt's research assistant, he received his Ph. D. in physiological psychology in 1885 under Wundt's supervision at the age of 22. Following Wundt's advice Münsterberg decided to study medicine and in 1887 received his medical degree at the University of Heidelberg, he passed an examination that enabled him to lecture as a privatdocent at University of Freiburg.
While at Freiburg he started a psychology laboratory and began publishing papers on a number of topics including attentional processes, memory and perception. In the same year he married a distant cousin, Selma Oppler of Strassburg, on August 7. In 1889, he was promoted to assistant professorship and attended the First International Congress of psychology where he met William James, they kept up a frequent correspondence and in 1892 James invited him to Harvard for a three-year term as a chair of the psychology lab though Münsterberg did not speak English at the time. He learned to speak English rather and as a result his classes became popular with students, in fact he was attracting students from James's classes. Part of the responsibilities he assumed as part of his new position at Harvard was that he became the supervisor of the psychology graduate students, in this position directed their dissertation research; as a result, he had a great influence of many students including Mary Whiton Calkins.
In 1895 he returned to Freiburg due to uncertainties of settling in the United States. However, because he could not obtain an academic position that he wanted, he wrote James and requested his old position back so that he could return to Harvard which he did in 1897, but he never could separate himself from his homeland of Germany. While at Harvard, Münsterberg's career was going well, he was affiliated with many organizations including the American Psychological Association of which he became president, the American Philosophical Association of which he became president, the Washington Academy, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was the organizer and vice-president of the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at the Saint Louis World's Fair of 1904, vice-president of the International Psychological Congress in Paris in 1900, vice-president of the International Philosophical Congress at Heidelberg in 1907. In 1910-11 he was appointed exchange professor from Harvard to the University of Berlin.
During that year he founded the Amerika-Institut in Berlin. During the whole period of his stay in the United States, he worked for the improvement of the relations between the United States and Germany, writing in the U. S. for a better understanding of Germany and in Germany for a higher appreciation of the United States. Because of his work in applied psychology, Münsterberg was well known to the public, academic world, scientific community; the outspoken views of Münsterberg on the issues of the upcoming First World War raised storms of controversy about his ideals and position. He appeared as the most eminent supporter of German policies in U. S. and as such was at the utmost bitterly condemned by the Entente Allies and their friends, but to the pro-Germans, he appeared an idol. While supporting German policies, Münsterberg denounced many of the activities of the Teutonic hyphenates in the United States. Fearing a patriotic response to overt support of the German Empire would undermine his own more covert approach, he condemned the forming of an alien party within the United States as "a crime against the spirit of true Americanism" and said that its results would reach far beyond the time of the war.
At his death, the general attitude toward Münsterberg had changed and his death went unnoticed. This was because of his pro-Germ
Talia al Ghul
Talia al Ghul is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with Batman. The character was created by writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Bob Brown, first appeared in Detective Comics #411. Talia is the daughter of the supervillain Ra's al Ghul, the grand-daughter of Sensei, the half-sister of Nyssa Raatko, on-and-off romantic interest of the superhero Batman, the mother of Damian Wayne, she has alternately been depicted as an anti-hero. Talia has appeared in over 500 individual comics issues, has been featured in various media adaptions; the character was voiced by Helen Slater and Olivia Hussey in the DC Animated Universe, which became her first appearances in media other than comic books. The character was subsequently portrayed by Marion Cotillard in the 2012 film The Dark Knight Rises, Lexa Doig in the television series Arrow; the character was created by writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Bob Brown as Talia originally. The character's creation and depiction was inspired by other works of fiction, such as the 1969 James Bond film On Her Majesty's Secret Service, the Fu Manchu fiction.
The character first appeared in Detective Comics #411. She is most depicted as a romantic interest for Batman, a villain, or a combination of the two, her father, the leader of a worldwide criminal and terrorist empire, considered Batman the man most worthy to marry Talia and become his successor. Absent a spouse, Talia was considered as an heir to his organization. While Batman is uninterested in the criminal empire, he has demonstrated romantic feelings for Talia. Talia helped him on numerous occasions; the majority of her criminal acts have been committed at the behest of her father and motivated by loyalty to her father rather than personal gain. She had been depicted as an antiheroic figure. In the mid to late 90's part of her father's name was incorporated to hers as a kind of surname to help readers associate her with Ra's al Ghul. Recent depictions have shown her to be more an enemy of Batman and a supervillain in her own right, such as leading the League of Assassins, as part of the Secret Society of Super Villains, as the mastermind behind Leviathan.
IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time List ranked Talia as #42. She was ranked 25th in Comics Buyer's Guide's "100 Sexiest Women in Comics" list; the first Talia comic story appears in "Into the Den of the Death-Dealers!" in Detective Comics #411, written by Dennis O'Neil. In the story, Batman rescues her from Dr. Darrk the leader of the League of Assassins, it is revealed that the League is just one part of Ra's al Ghul's organization, The Demon, that Darrk turned against Ra's after failing in a mission. At the end of the story, she kills Darrk to save Batman's life. Talia next appears in "Daughter of the Demon" in Batman #232. In the story, Dick Grayson is kidnapped. Ra's al Ghul enters the Batcave, revealing to Batman that he knows Batman's secret identity and saying that Talia was kidnapped along with Dick. Batman goes with Ra's to search for Dick and Talia. Though Batman rejects Ra's offer, he returns Talia's feelings. Ra's and Talia consider Batman to be married to Talia with only their consent necessary in DC Special Series #15 in the story "I Now Pronounce You Batman and Wife!".
In the years since the character met Batman, Talia is depicted as torn between loyalty to her father and her love of Batman. However, she has proven an important'ally' in her way. In the graphic novel Son of the Demon by Mike W. Barr, Ra's al Ghul enlists Batman's aid in defeating a rogue assassin who had murdered his wife and Talia's mother, Melisande. Talia witnessed the murder as a young child. During this story line, Batman marries Talia and the prior marriage from DC Special Series #15 is referenced, they have conjugal relations. Batman is nearly killed protecting Talia from an attack by the assassin's agents. In retrospect, Talia concludes that she could never keep Batman, as he would be continuously forced to defend her, so she fakes a miscarriage, the marriage is dissolved. In continuity, after Talia gives birth the child is left at an orphanage, he is adopted and given the name Ibn al Xu'ffasch, Arabic for'son of the bat'. The only other clue to the child's heritage is a jewel-encrusted necklace Batman had given to Talia which Talia leaves with the child.
It is referenced in three Elseworlds storylines: Kingdom Come, its sequel The Kingdom, Brotherhood of the Bat feature two alternate versions of the child as an adult, coming to terms with his dual heritage. The graphic novel Batman: Birth of the Demon by Dennis O'Neil explains how her father met her mother at Woodstock and that she was of Arab descent. Talia's mother dies of a drug overdose in this story. After Bane enters the League of Assassins, Ra's considers Bane a potential heir to his empire instead of Batman and wants his daughter to marry him. Talia rejects the brute, regarding him as a cunning animal compared to the more cultured intelligence of his predec