Serpent Crest is an audio play in five episodes based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It is written by Paul Magrs, stars Tom Baker as the Fourth Doctor and Richard Franklin as Captain Mike Yates, it was released on five CDs by BBC Audiobooks between September and December 2011 and is a sequel to 2009's Hornets' Nest and 2010's Demon Quest. They feature multiple actors, but four of the episodes contain some degree of narration by different characters, the exception being the first episode, Tsar Wars; the Doctor and Mrs Wibbsey are kidnapped by menacing robots and transported through a wormhole to an extravagant palace, floating in space, a hundred thousand years in the future. A colony of humanoid robots have overthrown their creators and forged a longstanding galactic empire, but now the humans are threatening to overthrow their Robotov Tsars. In an attempt to bring peace, the Tsarina creates a cyborg infant, and at his heart is a deadly Skishtari Egg.
The Doctor / Father Gregory – Tom Baker Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Tsar – Michael Jayston Tsarina – Suzy Aitchison Boolin – Simon Shepherd Servo 53 / Lucius – Sam Hoare Servo 96 / Kani – Paul Chequer Servo 51 / Bellis – Gabriel Vick Servo 14 / Tarnak – Grant Gillespie Wibbsey and the Doctor traverse the wormhole back to Nest Cottage. But Nest Cottage hasn't been built yet; this is Hexford Village in the year 1861. And the TARDIS is a half in the future, they discover a thirteen-year-old boy with a paper face. And his favourite toy is the powerful Skishtari Egg; the Doctor – Tom Baker Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Mr Bewley – Simon Shepherd Andrew – Guy Harvey Reverend Dobbs – Terrence Hardiman Mrs Audley – Joanna David Harold – Geoff Leesley The Cook – Su Douglas Jake – Charlie Mitchell Sally – Elinor Coleman Alex and the Doctor have been pulled within the Skishtari Egg. Now they find themselves trapped in Aladdin's Cave, a labyrinth of magical rooms and strange characters; the Doctor – Tom Baker Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson The Magician – Simon Shepherd Aladdin – Guy Harvey Scarf – Andrew Sachs Gryphon – Terrence Hardiman The Storyteller – Sophie Ward Toad – Su Douglas The Doctor is reunited with his TARDIS and uses it to return Alex and Boolin to the Robotovs.
Mrs Wibbsey is back at present day Nest Cottage, with the Skishtari Egg buried deep beneath it, as it always has been. While the Doctor is away, nine months go by for her. Mike Yates returns, along with his former employers, UNIT, on the trail of alien activity. Mike has teamed up with a strange little man claiming to be the Second Doctor; the Doctor – Tom Baker Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin The Visitor – David Troughton Reverend Tonge – Cornelius Garrett Deirdre – Nerys Hughes Tish – Joanna Tope The Skishtari spaceship failed to find their precious Egg and in the process, the entire village of Hexford is accidentally thrown through a wormhole and dumped on a barren moon in a strange galaxy. For three months, the villagers cope, with only Captain Yates and his mysterious, mop-topped little friend to maintain order, but the Robotovs' guards are closing in. The TARDIS tracks down the misplaced hamlet; the Fourth Doctor and Mrs Wibbsey make their final confrontation, bringing with them the Skishtari Egg, just as it is about to hatch.
The Doctor – Tom Baker Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin The Visitor – David Troughton Reverend Tonge – Cornelius Garrett Deirdre – Nerys Hughes Tish – Joanna Tope Lucius – Sam Hoare Tsar – Paddy Wallace Writer – Paul Magrs Producer & Director – Kate Thomas Script Editor & Executive Producer – Michael Stevens Cover Illustrators – Brian Williamson This story is a sequel to Hornets' Nest and Demon Quest, with the Fourth Doctor and Mrs Wibbsey reuniting. Serpent Crest begins by picking up from the cliffhanger at the end of Demon Quest; the Fourth Doctor mentions that the Time Lords removed certain events from his memory, just before they force regenerated him at the end of The War Games. In particular, they hid memories of adventures; the Second Doctor encountered his following selves in The Three Doctors. He met them again in The Five Doctors, along with the Fifth Doctor, he met the Sixth Doctor in The Two Doctors. The Fourth Doctor investigates his past by checking his 500 Year Diary, seen with the Second Doctor in The Power of the Daleks and The Tomb of the Cybermen.
The visiting Doctor recalls his adventures with the Cybermen in The Invasion and The Tomb of the Cybermen, the Yeti in The Web of Fear and the giant crabs in The Macra Terror. He mentions an encounter with the Daleks in the diamond mines of Marlion, as mentioned in the Paul Magrs novel Verdigris; the Doctor met the real Rasputin in the audio drama The Wanderer. Tsar Wars is the only story in all of the Nest Cottage series to contain no narration. Tsar Wars reunites the cast of the 1971 film Nicholas and Alexandra, in which Michael Jayston had starred as Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Tom Baker co-starred as the mad monk Grigori Rasputin. Michael Jayston appeared in Doctor Who in 1986, playing the Valeyard in the 13-part television serial The Trial of a Time Lord. Paul Chequer played Eugene Jones in the 2006 Torchwood episode "Random Shoes". Terrence Hardiman played Hawthorne in the 2010 Doctor Who television episode "The Beast Below". David Troughton is the son of Second Doctor Patrick Troughton.
He appeared in Doctor Who in the telev
Elisabeth Clara Heath-Sladen was an English actress best known for her role as Sarah Jane Smith in the British television series Doctor Who. She was a regular cast member from 1973 to 1976, alongside both Jon Pertwee and Tom Baker, reprised the role many times in subsequent decades, both on Doctor Who and its spin-offs, K-9 and Company and The Sarah Jane Adventures. Sladen was interested in ballet and theatre from childhood, began to appear on stage in the mid-1960s, although more as a stage manager at this time, she moved to London in 1970 and an appearance in the police drama Z-Cars led to her being selected for a part in Doctor Who. She stayed as a regular cast member alongside Pertwee and Baker until 1976, she subsequently starred in other roles on both television and radio, before semi-retiring to bring up a family in the mid-1980s. She returned to the public eye in the 2000s with more Doctor Who related appearances, which culminated in taking a regular lead role in The Sarah Jane Adventures.
In 2010, the show earned the Royal Television Society Award for Best Children's Drama. She made regular guest appearances on the main television series, provided voice-over commentaries for its releases to DVD. Sladen died of cancer on 19 April 2011. Elisabeth Clara Heath-Sladen was born 1 February 1946 in England. Sladen was the only child of Tom Sladen, who fought in the First World War and served in the Home Guard during the Second World War, Gladys, she developed an interest in performing at an early age, beginning dance lessons when she was five, dancing in one production with the Royal Ballet. She was a primary school contemporary of future politician Edwina Currie, appearing in at least one school production with her, she attended Aigburth Vale High School for Girls. Sladen attended the Elliott-Clarke Drama School. In 1965, she made her first film appearance in Ferry Cross the Mersey as an uncredited extra. Sladen joined the Hillbark Players, for their open-air production of Much Ado About Nothing, playing Hero.
After two years at drama school, Sladen began work at the Liverpool Playhouse repertory company as an assistant stage manager. Her first stage appearance at the Playhouse was as a maid in Twelfth Night. A few months she played a corpse in The Physicists. However, she was scolded for giggling on stage due to her future husband Brian Miller whispering the words "Respiration nil, Aston Villa two" in her ear while he was playing a doctor. Sladen was such a good assistant stage manager that she did not get many acting roles, a problem, solved when she accidentally made a mistake on one occasion. An earlier interview indicated; as a result, she began to get on-stage roles again. She moved into weekly repertory work, travelling to various locations in Britain. Sladen and Miller moved in 1966, spending three years there, they married on 8 June 1968. She appeared in numerous roles, most notably as Desdemona in Othello, her first appearance as a leading lady, she got the occasional part on Radio Leeds and Granada Television appearing as barmaid Anita Reynolds in 1970 in six episodes of the long-running soap opera Coronation Street.
In 1969, she and her husband appeared in the play. Her first television role in London was in a two-part story of Z-Cars; these two episodes of Z-Cars have since been wiped and are listed as missing episodes by the BBC's archive library. She appeared as a terrorist in an episode of Doomwatch, followed by guest roles in Z-Cars, Public Eye, Some Mothers Do'Ave'Em and Special Branch. In 1973, Doctor Who actress Katy Manning, playing the Third Doctor's assistant Jo Grant opposite Jon Pertwee, was leaving the series. Sladen arrived at the audition not knowing it was for the new companion role, was amazed at Letts's thoroughness, she was introduced to Pertwee. As she chatted with Letts and Pertwee, each time she turned to look at one of them the other would signal a thumbs-up; the role of Sarah Jane Smith was given to comic actress April Walker, but during rehearsals for debut story The Time Warrior, doubts over the pairing of Walker and Pertwee surfaced and the part was re-cast to Sladen. She stayed on Doctor Who for three-and-a-half seasons, alongside Pertwee as the Third Doctor and Tom Baker as the Fourth.
She returned to the character of Sarah Jane Smith on several occasions. In 1981, new Doctor Who producer John Nathan-Turner asked her to return to the series to ease the transition between Tom Baker and new Doctor Peter Davison, she declined but accepted his second offer of doing a pilot for a spin-off series called K-9 and Company, co-starring K-9, the robot dog from Doctor Who. However, the pilot was not picked up for a series. Two years Sladen appeared in the 20th anniversary special The Five Doctors, she reprised the role in the 1993 Children in Need special Dimensions in Time, in the 1995 independently produced video Downtime alongside former co-star Nicholas Courtney as Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart and Deborah Watling as Victoria Waterfield. This was her last on-screen appearance as Sarah Jane Smith for some time. Sladen played Sarah Jane in several audio plays. Two of them were produced for BBC Radio, The Paradise of Death, The Ghosts of N-Space, together with Jon Pertwee and Nicholas Courtney.
In 1997, Sladen won Hall Of Fame Actress in Cult TV Awards Big Finis
The Thames Estuary is where the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain. The limits of the estuary have been defined in several ways: Although physically the head of Sea Reach or the Kent / Essex Strait, south of Canvey Island on the northern shore presents a western boundary, the Tideway itself can be considered estuarine; the Yantlet Line between the Crowstone in Chalkwell and the London Stone on the Isle of Grain. The Nore sandbank between Havengore Creek and Warden Point, Kent; the eastern boundary of the estuary suggested in a Hydrological Survey of 1882-9 is a line drawn from North Foreland, Kent via the Kentish Knock lighthouse to Harwich in Essex. It is to this line; the estuary downstream of the Tideway has a tidal movement of 4 metres, moving at a speed of up to 2.6 knots. A line from Warden Point on the Isle of Sheppey Kent via Sea Reach No. 1 buoys to Havengore Head Essex. The estuary is one of the largest of 170 such inlets on the coast of Great Britain.
It constitutes a major shipping route: its thousands of movements each year include large oil tankers, container ships, bulk carriers and roll-on/roll-off ferries entering the estuary for the Port of London and the Medway Ports of Sheerness and Thamesport. The traditional Thames sailing barge worked in this area, designed to be suitable for the shallow waters in the smaller ports. More one of the largest wind farms in the UK has been developed in the estuary, located 8.5 km north of Herne Bay, Kent. The farm contains 30 wind turbines generating a total of 82.4MW of electricity. The much larger 630 MW London Array was inaugurated in 2013; this area has had several proposed sites for the building of a new airport to supplement, or to replace Heathrow/Gatwick. In the 1960s Maplin Sands was a contender; the new airport would be built on a man-made island in the estuary north of Minster-in-Sheppey There is some discussion about the need for a Lower Thames Crossing in order to alleviate traffic congestion at Dartford.
The Thames Estuary is the focal part of the 21st-century toponym, the "Thames Gateway", designated as one of the principal development areas in Southern England. The appellation Greater Thames Estuary applies to the coast and the low-lying lands bordering the estuary itself; these are characterised by the presence of mudflats, low-lying open beaches and salt marshes, namely the North Kent Marshes and the Essex Marshes. Man-made embankments are backed by reclaimed wetland grazing areas, but rising sea levels may make it necessary to temporarily flood some of that land in places at spring tides, to take the pressure off the defences. There are many smaller estuaries in Essex, including the Rivers Colne and Crouch. Small coastal villages depend on an economy of fishing, boat-building, yachting; the Isle of Sheppey, the Isle of Grain, Canvey Island, Two Tree Island, Havengore Island, New England Island, Rushley Island, Potton Island, Foulness Island and Mersea Island are part of the coastline. Where higher land reaches the coast there are some larger settlements, such as Clacton-on-Sea to the north in Essex, Herne Bay and the Southend-on-Sea area within the narrower part of the estuary The River Thames flowing through London is a classic river estuary, with sedimentary deposition restricted through manmade embankments.
The district of Teddington a few miles south-west of London's centre marks the boundary between the tidal and non-tidal parts of the Thames, although it is still considered a freshwater river about as far east as Battersea insofar as the average salinity is low and the fish fauna consists predominantly of freshwater species such as roach, carp and pike. The Thames Estuary becomes brackish between Battersea and Gravesend, the diversity of freshwater fish species present is smaller roach and dace, euryhaline marine species such as flounder, European seabass and smelt become much more common. Further east, the salinity increases and the freshwater fish species are replaced by euryhaline marine ones, until the river reaches Gravesend, at which point conditions become marine and the fish fauna resembles that of the adjacent North Sea and includes both euryhaline and stenohaline marine species. A similar pattern of replacement can be observed with the aquatic plants and invertebrates living in the river.
Joseph Conrad lived in Stanford-le-Hope close to the Essex marshes. His The Mirror of the Sea contains a memorable description of the area, it is described in the first pages of Conrad's Heart of Darkness, as both the launching place of England's great ships of exploration and colonization and, in ancient times, the site of colonization of the British Isles by the Roman Empire. Accent The form of speech of many of the people of the area, principally the accents of those from Kent and Essex, is known as Estuary English; the term is a term for a milder variety of the "London Accent". The spread of Estuary English extends many hundreds of miles outside London and all of the neighbouring home counties around London have residents who moved from London and brought their version of London accents with them leading to interference with the established local accents; the term London Accent is avoided as it can have many meanings. Forms of "Estuary English" as a hybrid between Received pronunciation and various London accents can be heard in all of the New Towns, all of the coastal resorts and in the larger cities and towns along the Thames Estuary.
For commercial shipping approaching the Nore and thus London, main deep-water routes
Hornets' Nest (audio drama)
Hornets' Nest is an audio play in five episodes based on the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It is written by Paul Magrs, stars Tom Baker as the Fourth Doctor and Richard Franklin as Captain Mike Yates, it was released on five CDs by BBC Audiobooks between September and December 2009. They feature multiple actors, but all five episodes contain some degree of narration by different characters. Captain Mike Yates responds to an advert in a paper that seems to be directed at him; this leads him to a small cottage in Sussex and a meeting with his old UNIT colleague, the Doctor, who looks as he did over three decades ago. Once there, the Doctor tells Yates about his recent fight against a swarm of psychic alien Hornets, his first encounter with them involved their possession of an army of taxidermy animals. The Doctor – Tom Baker Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Percy Noggins – Daniel Hill The Doctor explains that he tracked the Hornets back to 1932, to a pair of ballet slippers in a shop called Cromer’s Palace of Curios.
The owner, Mrs Wibbsey, traps him inside a possessed dollhouse. The Doctor – Tom Baker Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Ernestina Stott – Clare Corbett The Reverend Small – Christian Rodska The Doctor traces the Hornets further back in time. In 1832, a decadent circus run by a bitter dwarf entrances the simple citizens of Blandford; the Doctor – Tom Baker Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin Sally – Susie Riddell Dr. Adam Farrow – Michael Maloney Old Lady – Susan Jameson Francesca – Jilly Bond Antonio – Stephen Thorne The Doctor finds the earliest infestation of the Hornets in the year 1039. A nunnery in Northumbria is besieged by wild dogs; the Hornets, new to Earth, encounter the Doctor for the first time and fight to find their lost queen. This leads to a chase through the corridors and strange forgotten rooms of the TARDIS; the Doctor – Tom Baker Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin Nun – Clare Corbett Sister – Susie Riddell The Swarm – Rula Lenska Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson Yates and the Doctor make their final confrontation with the queen of the hive, inside the paper skull of a stuffed zebra.
The Doctor – Tom Baker Captain Mike Yates – Richard Franklin Mrs Wibbsey – Susan Jameson The Queen – Rula Lenska Writer – Paul Magrs Producer & Director – Kate Thomas Script Editor & Executive Producer – Michael Stevens Cover Illustrators – Ben Willsher and Anthony Dry The Doctor tells Yates about his "recent escapades", including "giant rats", "killer robots" and "skulls from the dawn of time". As these adventures take place with Leela and because he is now alone, this story takes place just after she left him at the end of The Invasion of Time. Yates' breakdown, dark times and search for redemption were chronicled in his last few television stories, The Green Death, Invasion of the Dinosaurs and Planet of the Spiders; the Fourth Doctor and Mrs Wibbsey are reunited one year in Paul Magrs' sequel, Demon Quest and again in Serpent Crest. This was the first time Tom Baker reprised the role of the Doctor in an original full-length story since leaving the TV show. Richard Franklin reprised the role of Captain Yates in The Magician's Oath, a Big Finish Productions audio story released a few months before Hornet's Nest.
Susan Jameson was in a Big Finish Production, ten years previously. The Spectre of Lanyon Moor featured Colin Baker as the Sixth Doctor and Nicholas Courtney as The Brigadier. Daniel Hill appeared in Shada, the Fourth Doctor TV story, aborted due to a strike. Rula Lenska appeared in the Fifth Doctor TV story Resurrection of the Daleks. Stephen Thorne played several monsters in the TV series, he was in the Third Doctor stories The Dæmons as Azal, The Three Doctors as Omega and Frontier in Space as an Ogron. He was in one episode of the Fourth Doctor story The Hand of Fear as the male version of Eldrad. In December 2011, these audio plays were broadcast on the digital radio station BBC Radio 4 Extra. Hornets' Nest on Tardis Data Core, an external wiki Press Release Store Site AudioGO Store References
Science fiction on television
Science fiction first appeared in television programming in the late 1930s, during what is called the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Special effects and other production techniques allow creators to present a living visual image of an imaginary world not limited by the constraints of reality; the need to portray imaginary settings or characters with properties and abilities beyond the reach of current reality obliges producers to make extensive use of specialized techniques of television production. Through most of the 20th century, many of these techniques were expensive and involved a small number of dedicated craft practitioners, while the reusability of props, effects, or animation techniques made it easier to keep using them; the combination of high initial cost and lower maintenance cost pushed producers into building these techniques into the basic concept of a series, influencing all the artistic choices. By the late 1990s, improved technology and more training and cross-training within the industry made all of these techniques easier to use, so that directors of individual episodes could make decisions to use one or more methods, so such artistic choices no longer needed to be baked into the series concept.
Special effects have been an essential tool throughout the history of science fiction on television: small explosives to simulate the effects of various rayguns, squibs of blood and gruesome prosthetics to simulate the monsters and victims in horror series, the wire-flying entrances and exits of George Reeves as Superman. The broad term "special effects" includes all the techniques here, but more there are two categories of effects. Visual effects involve photographic or digital manipulation of the onscreen image done in post-production. Mechanical or physical effects involve props and other physical methods used during principal photography itself; some effects involved a combination of techniques. Stunts are another important category of physical effects. In general, all kinds of special effects must be planned during pre-production. Babylon 5 was the first series to use computer-generated imagery, or "CGI", for all exterior space scenes those with characters in space suits; the technology has made this more practical, so that today models are used.
In the 1990s, CGI required expensive processors and customized applications, but by the 2000s, computing power has pushed capabilities down to personal laptops running a wide array of software. Models have been an essential tool in science fiction television since the beginning, when Buck Rogers took flight in spark-scattering spaceships wheeling across a matte backdrop sky; the original Star Trek required a staggering array of models. Models fell out of use in filming in the 1990s as CGI became more affordable and practical, but today, designers sometimes construct scale models which are digitized for use in animation software. Models of characters are puppets. Gerry Anderson created a series of shows using puppets living in a universe of models and miniature sets, notably Thunderbirds. ALF depicted an alien living in a family. In Stargate SG-1, the Asgard characters are puppets in scenes where they are sitting, standing, or lying down. In Mystery Science Theater 3000, the characters of Crow T.
Robot and Tom Servo, two of the show's main characters, are puppets constructed from random household items. As animation is free of the constraints of gravity and physical reality, it is an ideal technique for science fiction and fantasy on television. In a sense all animated series allow characters and objects to perform in unrealistic ways, so they are all considered to fit within the broadest category of speculative fiction The artistic affinity of animation to comic books has led to a large amount of superhero-themed animation, much of this adapted from comics series, while the impossible characters and settings allowed in animation made this a preferred medium for both fantasy and for series aimed at young audiences. Animation was all hand-drawn by artists, though in the 1980s, beginning with Captain Power, computers began to automate the task of creating repeated images. In recent years as technology has improved, this has become more common, notably since the development of the Massive software application permits producers to include hordes of non-human characters to storm a city or space station.
The robotic Cylons in the new version of Battlestar Galactica are animated characters, while the Asgard in Stargate SG-1 are animated when they are shown walking around or more than one is on screen at once. In general, science fiction series are subject to the same financial constraints as other television shows. However, high production costs increase the financial risk, while limited audiences further complicate the business case for continuing production. Star Trek was the first television series to cost more than $100,000 per episode, while Star Trek: The Next Generation was the first to cost more than $1 million per episode; the innovative nature of science fiction means that new shows cannot rely on predictable market-tested formulas like legal dramas or sitcoms. In the past, science fiction television shows have maintained a family friendly format that rend
London Zoo is the world's oldest scientific zoo. It was opened in London on 27 April 1828, was intended to be used as a collection for scientific study. In 1831 or 1832, the animals of the Tower of London menagerie were transferred to the zoo's collection, it was opened to the public in 1847. Today, it houses a collection of 673 species of animals, with 19,289 individuals, making it one of the largest collections in the United Kingdom; the zoo is sometimes called Regent's Zoo. It is managed under the aegis of the Zoological Society of London, is situated at the northern edge of Regent's Park, on the boundary line between the City of Westminster and the borough of Camden; the Society has a more spacious site at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo in Bedfordshire to which the larger animals such as elephants and rhinos have been moved. As well as being the first scientific zoo, ZSL London Zoo opened the first Reptile house, first public Aquarium, first insect house and the first children's zoo. ZSL receives no state funding and relies on'Fellows' and'Friends' memberships, entrance fees and sponsorship to generate income.
The Zoological Society of London was established by Sir Stamford Raffles and Sir Humphry Davy in 1826, who obtained the land for the zoo and saw the plans before Raffles died of apoplexy that year on 5 July – his birthday. After his death, the third Marquis of Lansdowne took over the project and supervised the building of the first animal houses; the zoo opened in April 1828 to fellows of the Society, providing access to species such as Arabian oryx, greater kudus and the now extinct quagga and thylacine. The Society was granted a Royal Charter in 1829 by King George IV, in 1847 the zoo opened to the public to aid funding, it was believed that tropical animals could not survive outside in London's cold weather and so they were all kept indoors until 1902, when Dr Peter Chalmers Mitchell was appointed secretary of the Society. He set about a major reorganisation of the buildings and enclosures of the zoo, bringing many of the animals out into the open, where many thrived; this was an idea inspired by Hamburg Zoo, led to newer designs to many of the buildings.
Mitchell envisaged a new 600-acre park to the north of London, in 1926 Hall Farm, near to Whipsnade village, was bought. In 1931, Whipsnade Wild Animal Park opened; the first woman to be a curator at the London Zoo was Evelyn Cheesman, in 1920. In 1962,'Caroline', an Arabian oryx, was lent to Phoenix Zoo, Arizona in the world's first international co-operative breeding programme. Today, the zoo participates in breeding programmes for over 130 species. At the beginning of the 1990s, the zoo had 7,000 animals. Many of the species in London Zoo could not be seen anywhere else in the country, such as the wombat, Tasmanian devil or long-nosed potoroo. Although this vast collection was part of the zoo's appeal, it may have been one of the main causes of its financial problems; this contributed to the zoo being faced with closure in the 1980s. Due to the public change of attitude to animals kept in captivity and unsuitably cramped space, the zoo suffered dwindling visitor numbers. However, when it was announced that London Zoo would close in 1991, a swell of public support in visitors and donations allowed the zoo to continue its work, attempt to balance its books, take on the huge task of restoring its buildings and creating environments more suitable for animal behaviour in the late 20th century.
One benefit of the'swell of public support' was the development of volunteer staff. Employed by both Education and Animal care, these volunteers give one day a week to assist the running of London Zoo and can be recognised by their red pullovers. During World War II bombings, the London Zoo was closed multiple times for over a week at a time starting 11:00am on 3 September 1939, when all Zoological Places were closed by order of the Government. On 27 September 1940, high explosive bombs damaged the Rodent house, the Civet house, the gardener's office, the propagating sheds, the North Gate and the Zebra house. In January 1941, the Camel House was hit, during World War II the aquarium could not open until May 1943 due to extensive bombings. No animals were harmed during the incidents, although a zebra, a female ass, her foal escaped from the zoo during the bombings. For safety reasons, all venomous animals were killed at the London Zoo during World War II. Wounded men were let into the London Zoo for free during World War II.
Land of the Lions is an enclosure for ZSL London Zoo's Asiatic lions, opened in Spring 2016 by HM Queen Elizabeth II. The enclosure is 2,500 square metres in size, designed to resemble the Gir Forest National Park in India; the exhibit home to a troop of Hanuman langurs and a band of dwarf mongoose, demonstrates how the lions' natural habitat overlaps with the local urban environments. Tiger Territory is ZSL London Zoo's Sumatran tiger enclosure, designed by architect Michael Kozdon and opened by HRH Duke of Edinburgh in March 2013; the zoo owns one tiger: a male named Asim, who arrived from Denmark in January 2019. Asim killed the zoo's female tiger, 10-year old Melati, on 8 February 2019. Melati's previous mate, Jae-Jae, was moved to France the previous month. Jae-Jae and Melati produced two cubs born in June 2016; the enclosure is 2,500 square metres in size, features authentic
Exploration Earth: The Time Machine
"Exploration Earth: The Time Machine" is an episode of the BBC Schools radio drama series Exploration Earth, a series exploring geography. It was the third episode in this series; as it was an educational programme, it used the Doctor Who format and elements to explore the processes of the creation of the Earth. It was recorded on 27 April 1976 with Tom Baker and Elisabeth Sladen reprising their TV roles as the Doctor and Sarah Jane. Joining them was John Westbrook as Megron, High Lord of Chaos, it was broadcast on 4 October 1976 on BBC Radio 4. Exploration Earth: The Time Machine was released on CD, paired with Genesis of the Daleks, in 2001, it was given away on its own as a free CD with the 28 April 2010 edition of The Daily Telegraph newspaper via WHSmith. It was re-released on CD in The BBC Radio Episodes but this time paired with What Happened to... Susan?, a 1994 spoof from the radio comedy series What Happened to...? Exploration Earth: The Time Machine on Tardis Data Core, an external wiki