University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited referred to as Deloitte, is a multinational professional services network. Deloitte is one of the "Big Four" accounting organizations and the largest professional services network in the world by revenue and number of professionals. Deloitte provides audit, consulting, enterprise risk and financial advisory services with more than 286,200 professionals globally. In FY 2018, the network earned a record $43.2 billion USD in aggregate revenues. As of 2017, Deloitte is the 4th largest owned company in the United States; as of 2015, Deloitte has the highest market share in auditing among the top 500 companies in India. Deloitte has been ranked number one by market share in consulting by Gartner, for the fourth consecutive year, Kennedy Consulting Research and Advisory ranks Deloitte number one in both global consulting and management consulting based on aggregate revenue. In 1845, William Welch Deloitte opened an office in United Kingdom. Deloitte was the first person to be appointed an independent auditor of a public company, namely the Great Western Railway.
He went on to open an office in New York in 1880. In 1890, Deloitte opened a branch office on Wall Street headed by Edward Adams and P. D. Griffiths as branch managers; that was Deloitte's first overseas venture. Other branches were soon opened in Chicago and Buenos Aires. in 1898 P. D. Griffiths became a partner in the London office. In 1896, Charles Waldo Haskins and Elijah Watt Sells formed Sells in New York, it was described as "the first major auditing firm to be established in the country by American rather than British accountants". In 1898, George Touche established an office in London and in 1900, joined John Ballantine Niven in establishing the firm of Touche Niven in the Johnston Building at 30 Broad Street in New York. On 1 March 1933, Colonel Arthur Hazelton Carter, President of the New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants and managing partner of Haskins & Sells, testified before the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency. Carter helped convince Congress. In 1947, Detroit accountant George Bailey president of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, launched his own organization.
The new entity enjoyed such a positive start that in less than a year, the partners merged with Touche Niven and A. R. Smart to form Touche, Bailey & Smart. Headed by Bailey, the organization grew in part by creating a dedicated management consulting function, it forged closer links with organizations established by the co-founder of Touche Niven, George Touche: the Canadian organization Ross and the British organization George A. Touche. In 1960, the firm was renamed Touche, Bailey & Smart, becoming Touche Ross in 1969. In 1968 Nobuzo Tohmatsu formed Tohmatsu Aoki & Co, a firm based in Japan, to become part of the Touche Ross network in 1975. In 1972 Robert Trueblood, Chairman of Touche Ross, led the committee responsible for recommending the establishment of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. In 1952, Deloitte's firm merged with Sells to form Deloitte Haskins & Sells. In 1989, Deloitte Haskins & Sells merged with Touche Ross in the USA to form Touche; the merged firm was led jointly by Edward A. Kangas.
Led by the UK partnership, a smaller number of Deloitte Haskins & Sells member firms rejected the merger with Touche Ross and shortly thereafter merged with Coopers & Lybrand to form Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte. Some member firms of Touche Ross rejected the merger with Deloitte Haskins & Sells and merged with other firms. In UK, Touche Ross merged with Spicer & Oppenheim in 1990. At the time of the US-led mergers to form Deloitte & Touche, the name of the international firm was a problem, because there was no worldwide exclusive access to the names "Deloitte" or "Touche Ross" – key member firms such as Deloitte in the UK and Touche Ross in Australia had not joined the merger; the name DRT International was therefore chosen, referring to Deloitte and Tohmatsu. In 1993, the international firm was renamed Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. In 1995, the partners of Deloitte & Touche decided to create Touche Consulting Group. In 2000, Deloitte acquired Eclipse to add Internet design-based solutions to its consulting capabilities.
Eclipse was separated into Deloitte Online and Deloitte Digital. In 2002, Arthur Andersen's UK practice, the firm's largest practice outside the US, agreed to merge with Deloitte's UK practice. Andersen's practices in Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium, Mexico and Canada agreed to merge with Deloitte; the spinoff of Deloitte France's consulting division led to the creation of Ineum Consulting. In 2005, Deloitte acquired Beijing Pan-China CPA to become the largest accountancy firm in China. Just prior to this acquisition Deloitte China had about 3,200 employees; this acquisition was part of a five-year plan to invest $150 million in China. Deloitte has had a presence in China since 1917. In 2007, Deloitte began hiring former employees of the Central Intelligence Agency for their competitive intelligence unit known as Deloitte Intelligence. In 2009, Deloitte purchased the North American public service practice of BearingPoint for $350 million after it filed for bankruptcy protection. Deloitte LLP took over the UK property consultants Drivers Jonas in January 2010.
As of 2013, this business unit was known as Deloitte Real Estate. In 2011, Deloitte acquired DOMANI Sustainability Consulting and ClearCarbon Consulting in orde
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun
Ross School of Business
The Stephen M. Ross School of Business is the business school of the University of Michigan. Numerous publications have ranked the Ross School of Business' Bachelor of Business Administration, Master of Business Administration and Executive Education programs among the top in the country and the world; the school offers bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees, as well as an executive education program. Ross offers dual degrees with other University of Michigan colleges and schools. In 1924, Ross School of Business was founded; the school's BBA program is regarded as one of the best in the United States, having ranked within the top three of U. S. News & World Report rankings every year since the ranking's inception. In 1980, the BBA program was ranked #2 in the US by Parade. In 1990, B. Joseph White began a transformation of the school's character and image, he led a major MBA curriculum overhaul, which aimed to intensify the development of students' professional and practical skills, teamwork and overall ability to turn knowledge and ideas into action.
The signature innovation, called MAP, put students into "live cases" inside companies for seven weeks. MAP's "action learning" or "experiential learning" approach was the first curriculum innovation in management education since the introduction of the case method in the 1940s, it has continued to be a hallmark of Michigan's MBA program. Other initiatives, such as research on how to supplement the GMAT with a test of "practical intelligence", helped cement the school's reputation for innovations that produce business leaders who are not only smart, but effective. White's approach built on a historical strength of the school, known for producing hard-working, practically-oriented graduates. In addition, White added a focus on corporate citizenship to the school's MBA training program, moving aggressively to globalize the school. Most notably, he founded the William Davidson Institute to position Michigan as a leader on economies transitioning from communism to free markets. Following White's changes, Michigan was ranked "most innovative" in Business Week's surveys of corporate executives and was recognized for turning out "can-do" graduates.
In 1996, Michigan was ranked second in Business Week's prestigious business school rankings, the highest ranking the School has achieved, which the magazine attributed to the School's growing reputation for innovation. As a corporate hunting ground, Michigan attracted a broader set of recruiters beyond the auto manufacturers and packaged goods companies, its core customers. Under White, several of the school's hallmark programs and centers were created, including The Erb Institute for Sustainable Global Enterprise, The Joel D. Tauber Institute for Global Operations, The Zell-Lurie Institute for Entrepreneurship, the Wolverine Venture Fund, the William Davidson Institute. In 2001, Robert J. Dolan was named dean, he oversaw a dramatic re-building and facilities modernization initiative and worked to build the school's identity and reputation in the management education marketplace. Under Dolan, the school received one of the two-largest donations made to a business school. In the Master of Business Administration program, Dolan pressed the school's distinction for turning out leaders with a practical, "can-do" orientation.
This leveraged and accelerated a re-definition of the school's curriculum and image made by his predecessor. Dolan made profound changes to the school's image through his ambitious rebuilding of the dated facilities he inherited, creating a showcase property, the Stephen M. Ross School of Business designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox. On Dolan's watch, the school earned the #1 ranking in the Wall Street Journal's 2006 and 2004 list of MBA programs, #8 in The Economist, #5 in the BusinessWeek, #11 in the U. S. News & World Report rankings in 2006; the rankings in these three publications are based on a variety of criteria, one of, reputation among academics. In 2005, the school introduced a 3-year version of the 2-year undergraduate program. During the Dolan administration, the school transformed itself further. In 2004, it was named for alumnus Stephen M. Ross. At the time of the donation, this had been the largest gift to a U. S. business school, the largest to the University of Michigan. The Ross gift funded a campus overhaul.
The school demolished 180,000 square feet of existing building space and renovated or added 270,000 square feet. On 14 February 2011, it was announced that Alison Davis-Blake would become the new Dean of the Ross School of Business, succeeding Robert J. Dolan; the first female dean at Ross, Davis-Blake introduced a new mission statement for the school: "At Ross, we develop leaders who make a positive difference in the world." During her term as dean, the school created new degree programs, including a minor in business for undergraduates and a one-year master’s in management. In late 2013, the school launched a major fundraising campaign, part of the broader Victors For Michigan campaign. In 2014, the school began sponsoring the annual Positive Business Conference. During Davis-Blake's tenure, the school broadened its global presence, increasing the number of overseas experiences for students and beginning a partnership with Shanghai
University of Virginia Darden School of Business
The Darden School of Business is the graduate business school associated with the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia. The Darden School offers MBA, Ph. D. and Executive Education programs. The School was founded in 1955 and is named after Colgate Whitehead Darden, Jr. a former Democratic congressman, governor of Virginia, former president of the University of Virginia. Darden is on the grounds of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville; the School is famous for being one of the most prominent business schools to use the case method as its sole method of teaching. The Dean of the school is former McKinsey & Company executive, Scott C. Beardsley; the Darden School was the first graduate school of business of the Southern United States when it was founded in 1955. The original business school used to be nestled in the central grounds of the University of Virginia, before being moved the its current location at the North Grounds. Designed by renowned American architect Robert A. M. Stern, the Darden school's buildings feature sand-struck Virginia brick, Chippendale balustrades and red-metal standing seam roofs.
In 2018, the Sands Family Grounds was inaugurated by the Darden School, in Arlington County, Virginia, in proximity to Washington D. C.'s central business district. The Sands Family Grounds occupy the top two floor of a 31-story skyscraper emblazoned with the UVA Darden Logo, provides extensive facilities for students and event guests. Designed for students who seek to strengthen their leadership and communication skills, Darden’s two-year MBA program — ranked #1 in educational experience by Economist — combines core and elective courses in Charlottesville, Virginia with opportunities to study abroad. Admission requirements for the MBA include an earned four-year bachelor's degree from an accredited U. S. institution or the international equivalent, completion of application forms and essays, GMAT or GRE score, academic transcripts, two professional recommendations, the payment of a fee. The MBA Class of 2020 has an average GMAT score of 718 and an average GPA of 3.5, an average age of 27 years old.
Of the 335 students enrolled, 31% are international students, 38% are women and 18% are domestic minority students. The School had an acceptance rate of 24.5% as of 2017. The required curriculum in the First Year is designed to provide students with an integrated perspective on general management. Beginning in the final term of the First Year, the curriculum is made up of electives to allow students to develop more depth in chosen areas of interest. Students may choose two from among the following optional concentrations: A total of 94% of MBA graduates from the class of 2018 received full time offers within three months of graduation, the average weighted salary upon graduation was $157,437. Among the graduates, 31% entered consulting positions, 26% obtained investment banking and financial services roles, 18% entered careers in technologies. Top employers include Co.. Boston Consulting Group, Microsoft, Danaher Corporation, JP Morgan Chase, Credit Suisse. Students are offered study abroad programs as well as Darden Worldwide Courses which offer international immersion courses which are funded by a $15 million gift from philanthropist and donor, Frank Batten.
The following schools participate in Darden's exchange program: Peking University, China Hitotsubashi University, Japan HEC Paris, France Bocconi University, Italy Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong SAR Indian School of Business, India IESE Business School, Spain Melbourne Business School, Australia University of St. Gallen, Switzerland Seoul National University, South Korea Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden The inaugural Executive Education program was offered in 1955. Darden Executive Education offers both short courses and custom solutions, as well as consortia, corporate university design and development, industry specific partnerships. Short course focus areas include leadership, general management and decision-making, negotiation and innovation, project management and marketing, financial management and corporate aviation. Year-after-year these programs are ranked in the top five of the Financial Times annual survey. Darden’s doctoral program allows students to obtain a Ph.
D. degree in management, specializing in either ethics, entrepreneurship, or leadership and organizational behavior. The program prepares individuals for careers in research and teaching at major universities and corporations. Darden is ranked as being among the Top 15 business schools in the U. S. and Top 30 in the world. Its current rankings are as follows: #3 - The Economist 2016 #3 - The Economist 2016 #13 U. S. News & World Report 2019 #11 - Forbes 2017 #9 Bloomberg Business Week 2019 #12 Vault Best Business Schools 2017 #1 Education Experience - The Economist 2014 #1 Personal development and educational experience - The Economist 2014 #1 Student Satisfaction - Bloomberg Businessweek 2010 #1 General Management - Financial Times 2016 #1 Best Faculty - The Princeton Review 2011 #3 Corporate Social Responsibility - Financial Times 2011 #3 Entrepreneurship - The Princeton Review for Entrepreneur magazine 2011 #5 Placement Success - Financial Times 2011 #2 Open-Enrollment Programs /#5 Open-Enrollment Programs - Financial Times 2011 #2 Course Design - Financial Times 2011 #1 Course Design - Financial Times 2003-2010 #1 Faculty - Financial Times 2004-2011 Darden's list of alumni includes: John H. Bryan, CEO and Chairman of Sara Lee from 1976 to 2001 Robert Citrone billionaire hedge fund manager and co-founder of Discovery Capital Management George David, CEO and Chairman of United Technologies Corporat
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true; the term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the required minimum study period may thus vary in duration; the word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work; the term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning "discussion".
Aristotle was the first philosopher to define the term thesis. "A'thesis' is a supposition of some eminent philosopher that conflicts with the general opinion...for to take notice when any ordinary person expresses views contrary to men's usual opinions would be silly". For Aristotle, a thesis would therefore be a supposition, stated in contradiction with general opinion or express disagreement with other philosophers. A supposition is a statement or opinion that may or may not be true depending on the evidence and/or proof, offered; the purpose of the dissertation is thus to outline the proofs of why the author disagrees with other philosophers or the general opinion. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents. Dissertations report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic; the structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature impinging on the topic of the study, the methods used, the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance. Degree-awarding institutions define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.
Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, ISO 31 on quantities or units. Some older house styles specify that front matter must use a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals; the relevant international standard and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page. Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout and color of paper, use of acid-free paper, paper size, order of components, citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued. However, strict standards are not always required.
Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, leave much freedom for the actual typographic details. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee. In the US, these committees consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis. At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, may consist of members of the comps committee; the committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other des
Air National Guard
The Air National Guard known as the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force as well as the militia air force of each U. S. state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U. S. Virgin Islands. It, along with each state's, district's, commonwealth's or territory's Army National Guard component, makes up the National Guard of each state and the districts and territories as applicable; when Air National Guard units are used under the jurisdiction of the state governor they are fulfilling their militia role. However, if federalized by order of the President of the United States, ANG units become an active part of the United States Air Force, they are jointly administered by the states and the National Guard Bureau, a joint bureau of the Army and Air Force that oversees the United States National Guard. Air National Guard units are organized and federally recognized federal military reserve forces in each of the fifty U. S. states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.
S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia of the United States; each state, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has a minimum of one ANG flying unit with either assigned aircraft or aircraft shared with a unit of the active duty Air Force or the Air Force Reserve under an "Associate" arrangement. The ANG of the territories of Guam and the Virgin Islands have no aircraft assigned and perform ground support functions. Air National Guard activities may be located on active duty air force bases, air reserve bases, naval air stations/joint reserve bases, or air national guard bases and stations which are either independent military facilities or collocated as tenants on civilian-controlled joint civil-military airports. ANG units operate under Title 32 USC. However, when operating under Title 10 USC all ANG units are operationally gained by an active duty USAF major command. ANG units of the Combat Air Forces based in the Continental United States, plus a single air control squadron of the Puerto Rico ANG, are gained by the Air Combat Command.
CONUS-based ANG units in the Mobility Air Forces, plus the Puerto Rico ANG's airlift wing and the Virgin Islands ANG's civil engineering squadron are gained by the Air Mobility Command. The vast majority of ANG units fall under either ACC or AMC. However, there remain a few exceptions, such as the Alaska ANG, Hawaii ANG and Guam ANG, whose CAF and MAF units are operationally gained by Pacific Air Forces, while a smaller number of ANG units in CONUS are operationally gained by Air Education and Training Command, Air Force Global Strike Command, Air Force Special Operations Command, Air Force Space Command, United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. Established under Title 10 and Title 32 of the U. S. Code, the Air National Guard is part of the state National Guard and is divided up into units stationed in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the two U. S. territories. Each state, the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico have at least one Air National Guard wing level unit with a flying mission, while the Air National Guard in Guam and the U.
S. Virgin Islands are non-flying support organizations at the group or squadron level; when not in a "federal" status, the Air National Guard operates under their respective state, commonwealth or territorial governor. The exception to this rule is the District of Columbia Air National Guard; as a federal district, the units of the DC ANG are under the direct jurisdiction of the President of the United States though the office of the Commanding General, District of Columbia National Guard. In their "state" role, the Air National Guard may be called up for active duty by the governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods and earthquakes. In the case of the DC Air National Guard in this role, the Adjutant General of the District of Columbia reports to the Mayor of the District of Columbia, who may only activate DC ANG assets for local purposes after consulting with the President of the United States. With the consent of state governors or equivalents, members or units of the Air National Guard may be appointed, temporarily or indefinitely, to be federally recognized members of the armed forces, in the active or inactive service of the United States.
If federally recognized, the member or unit becomes part of the Air National Guard of the United States, one of two reserve components of the United States Air Force, part of the National Guard of the United States. Because both state Air National Guard and the Air National Guard of the United States go hand-in-hand, they are both referred to as just Air National Guard. Air National Guard of the United States units or members may be called up for federal active duty in times of Congressionally sanctioned war or national emergency; the President may call up members and units of the Air National Guard using a process called "federalization", with the consent of state governors or equivalents, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or execute federal laws if the United States or any of its states or territories are invaded or is in danger of invasion by a foreign nation, or if there is a rebellion or danger of a rebellion against the authority of the federal government, or if the president is unable to execute the laws of the United States with the regular armed forces.
The United States Air National Guard has about 107,100 women in service. Like the Air Force Reserve Command, the ANG is described as a "reserve" force