The Juris Doctor degree, known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. It is earned by completing law school in Australia and the United States and it has the academic standing of a second-entry, professional baccalaureate degree in Canada, a masters degree in Australia and a professional doctorate in the United States. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the study of law. It involves a program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a state in the United States. Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English, as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law.
Juris Doctor literally means Teacher of Law, while the Latin for Doctor of Jurisprudence—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means Teacher of Legal Knowledge, the J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Laws or Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e. g. D, the LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the school in that city. This served as the model for law schools of the Middle Ages. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris, the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was mainly for philosophical or scholarly purposes, the universities taught only civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions.
The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, by the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though very specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the role grew tremendously. The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the rules as the apprenticeship programs for the trades
Education in Russia
Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the framework of federal laws. Russias expenditure on education has grown from 2. 7% of the GDP in 2005 to 3. 8% in 2013, before 1990 the course of school training in Soviet Union was 10 years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course had been officially entered. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free, first tertiary education is free with reservations and female students have equal shares in all stages of education, except tertiary education where women lead with 57%. The literacy rate in Russia, according to a 2015 estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency, is 99. 7%, according to a 2016 OECD estimate, 54% of Russias adults has attained a tertiary education, giving Russia the second highest attainment of college-level education in the world. 47. 7% have completed secondary education,26. 5% have completed school and 8. 1% have elementary education.
Highest rates of education,24. 7% are recorded among women aged 35–39 years. Compared with other OECD countries, Russia has some of the smallest class sizes, in 2015, OECD ranked Russian students mathematics and science skills as the 34th best in the world, between Sweden and Iceland. In 2014, Russia was the 6th most popular destination for international students, according to the 2002 census, 68% of children aged 5 were enrolled in kindergartens. According to UNESCO data, enrollment in any kind of pre-school programme increased from 67% in 1999 to 84% in 2005, unlike schools, are regulated by regional and local authorities. The Ministry of Education and Science regulates only a brief pre-school preparation programme for the 5–6-year-old children, in 2004 the government attempted to charge the full cost of kindergartens to the parents, widespread public opposition caused a reversal of policy. Currently, local authorities can legally charge the parents not more than 20% of costs, children of university students, Chernobyl veterans and other protected social groups are entitled to free service.
The Soviet system provided for universal primary and kindergarten service in urban areas. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the number decreased to 46,000, kindergarten buildings were sold as real estate, irreversibly rebuilt and converted for office use. At the same time, a minority share of successful state-owned kindergartens, regarded as a lift to quality schooling. The improvement of the economy after the 1998 crisis, coupled with historical demographic peak, resulted in an increase in birth rate, large cities encountered shortage of kindergarten vacancies earlier, in 2002. Moscows kindergarten waiting list included 15,000 children, in the smaller city of Tomsk it reached 12,000. The degree of the varies between districts, e. g. Moscows Fili-Davydkovo District has lost all of its kindergartens while Zelenograd claims to have short queue
A bachelors degree or baccalaureate is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years. In some institutions and educational systems, some bachelors degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate degrees after a first degree has been completed. The term bachelor in the 12th century referred to a knight bachelor, by the end of the 13th century, it was used by junior members of guilds or universities. By folk etymology or wordplay, the word came to be associated with bacca lauri in reference to laurels being awarded for academic success or honours. An honours degree generally requires an academic standard than a pass degree. In most African countries, the university systems follow the model of their former colonizing power, for example, the Nigerian university system is similar to the British system, while the Ivorian system is akin to the French. The degree is typically identical to the program of Frances universities, bachelors degree programs cover most of the fields in Algerian universities, except some fields, such as Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science.
Bachelors degrees at the University of Botswana normally take four years, the system draws on both British and American models. Degrees are classified as First Class, Second Class Division One, Second Class Division Two and Third as in English degrees, but without being described as honours. The main degrees are named by British tradition, but in recent years there have been a numbers of degrees named after specific subjects, such as Bachelor of Library, in Morocco, a bachelors degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah. The course of study takes three years, which are divided into two cycles. The first cycle comprises the first, or propaedeutic, after successfully completing their first two years, students can pursue either theoretical specialization or professional specialization. The second cycle is one long, after whose completion students receive the licence détudes fondamentales or the licence professionnelle. This academic degree system was introduced in September 2003, University admission is extremely competitive, with attendant advantages and disadvantages.
Nonetheless, it takes four to five years to complete a bachelors degree, in cases of poor performance, the time limit is double the standard amount of time. For example, one may not study for more than 10 years for a five-year course, students are normally asked to leave if they must take longer. B. Arch. and other specialized undergraduate degrees, such as B. Eng, Science undergraduate degrees may require six months or a semester dedicated to SIWES but it is usually mandatory for all engineering degrees. A semester for project work/thesis is required, not excluding course work, the classifications of degrees, first-class, second-class, third-class and a pass
Doctor of Divinity
Doctor of Divinity is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity. Many universities award a Ph. D. rather than a Th. D. to graduates of higher-level religious studies programs, Doctor of Sacred Theology is a research doctorate in theology, but particular to Catholic Pontifical Universities and Faculties. Doctor of Ministry is another doctorate-level religious degree, but is a rather than a research doctorate. In the United Kingdom, the degree is a higher doctorate conferred by universities upon a religious scholar of standing, the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-reviewed context and pay an examination fee. The university assembles a committee of both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission. Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years standing, in the United States, the degree is generally conferred honoris causa by a church-related college, seminary, or university to recognize the recipients ministry-orientated accomplishments.
For example, Martin Luther King subsequently received honorary Doctor of Divinity degrees from the Chicago Theological Seminary, Boston University, Wesleyan College, billy Graham is regularly addressed as Dr. Graham, though his highest earned degree is a B. A. in anthropology from Wheaton College. Under federal law, a 1974 judgement accepted expert opinion that an Honorary Doctor of Divinity is a religious title with no academic standing. A reference to the theological or religious aspect of the subject area. A degree awarded under this subdivision shall reflect the nature of the title, such as associate of religious studies, bachelor of religious studies, master of divinity. In a 1976 interview with Morley Safer of 60 Minutes, Universal Life Church founder Rev. Kirby J. Hensley professed that the Churchs honorary Doctor of Divinity degree was. just a piece of paper. And it aint worth anything, you know, under Gods mighty green Earth—you know what I mean. —as far as value, in the Catholic Church, Doctor of Divinity is an honorary degree denoting ordination as bishop.
Christopher St. Lambeth degree Doctor of the Church Bachelor of Divinity Master of Divinity The Doctor and Student pdf files
A magister degree is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education. In Argentina, the Master of Science or Magister is a degree of two to four years of duration by depending on each universitys statutes. In Egypt, Magister degree is a degree which is awarded after three to 6 years duration. It is equivalent to MSc degree and it is a prerequisite to have an MSc before applying to a Ph. D. or Doctorate degrees. Magisters tend to be awarded in the humanities and the sciences, while Diplomas dominate in the natural sciences. In Austria, major universities began to partition the Mag. Phil, coursework into a four-year bachelors and two-year masters program. Phil. In Poland magister is awarded after 5 years of University level education and it is an equivalent to Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Laws, before +/-1999 and the implementation of the Bologna Process the first academic degree awarded in Poland was magister. After implementation of the Bologna Process the person who obtained Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science can continue education to the magister level, with the implementation of the Bologna Process, curricula leading to Magister degrees have been phased out in many countries.
In the United States, the Department of Education calls the Magister an equivalent to the masters degree, evaluations by U. S. high research activity universities vary. For example, the Oregon State University consider holders of a German or Austrian Magister for admission to graduate studies, the University of California, Los Angeles requires the Magister and considers the Vordiplom, the Diplom or a German bachelors degree as not sufficient. In Canada the German or Austrian Magister is at most universities the prerequisite to enter a graduate study program, there is no consensus between Canadian Universities whether a Mag. Phil. Degree should be regarded as equivalent to a Masters or Bachelors with Honours degree, since 2007 in Sweden, the Magister is a one-year graduate degree which requires at least three years of undergraduate studies. It is officially translated into either Master of Arts, Master of Social Science or Master of Science depending on the subject, in Sweden, magister historically was the highest degree at the faculties of philosophy and was equivalent to the doctorate used in theology and medicine.
The degree was abolished in 1863, and replaced with the Doctor of Philosophy, the magister degrees used in Denmark and Norway most closely resemble this degree. Magister has since referred to several degrees in Sweden which are unrelated to the magister degree. Some universities conferred a degree called magister between 1908 and 1969, which was comparable to a masters degree. This masters degree taken as a first degree before the Bologna Process. The degree usually lasted about 5–6 years and is structured into Basic, Intermediate, a new undergraduate magister degree, requiring at least 4 years of studies, was introduced in 1993
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma and New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. A postgraduate diploma indicates masters-level studies and it typically constitutes as the first year of a two-year masters degree. A Universitys degree is required, although in rare cases an advanced diploma is sufficient. In Canada, a certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances. A Universitys degree or a degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of not requiring to write a thesis and it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary, Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, see links to the Canadian education system, as the various regions can be quite different.
In India, there are a number of institutes and universities offering postgraduate diploma programs and these post-graduate diploma programs are mainly one year programs that is divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work and credit requirements. These are masters level program that cover the essentials. This programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for better employment opportunity. It is designed to provide exposure to concepts, scientific principles. Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and this postgraduate degree is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 6 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelors degree or vocational degrees, while progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the postgraduate diploma is widely accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 degrees in most countries.
In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances, 1) as part of an independent program of studies, 2) after the completion of the first year of study in a masters program, the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelors degree. It is usually awarded by a university or a graduate school and it usually takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered. It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a masters degree, only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry. The postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer, for example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International
An academic degree is a qualification awarded on successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, typically including bachelors, master’s and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates, and professional degrees. The most common degree is the bachelors degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. The degrees awarded by European universities—the bachelor’s degree, the licentiate, the degree. The doctorate appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach at a medieval university and its roots can be traced to the early church when the term doctor referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was originally reserved to the church required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance.
The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now largely free of charge – of all able applicants, at the university, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of Master of Arts, originally the terms master and doctor were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. The earliest doctoral degrees reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into three fields. Over time, the D. D. has gradually become less common outside theology, Studies outside theology and medicine were called philosophy, due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation. The degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is of a time. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as sciences and humanities, Master of Arts were eligible to enter study under the higher faculties of Law, Medicine or Theology, and earn first a bachelors and master or doctors degrees in these subjects.
Thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a qualified master – hence the English word graduate. The naming of degrees eventually became linked with the subjects studied, scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as master, but those in theology and law were known as doctor. As study in the arts or in grammar was a prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology and law. The practice of using the doctor for PhDs developed within German universities. The French terminology is tied closely to the meanings of the terms. The baccalauréat is conferred upon French students who have completed their secondary education
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching, Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has an effect on the way one thinks, feels. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy, in most regions education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the education is derived from the Latin ēducātiō from ēducō which is related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē-. Education began in prehistory, as trained the young in the knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation, story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom, plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe.
The city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE476, after the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe. The church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education, some of these establishments ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europes modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous, founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, and the oldest continually operating university. The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek, around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly. The European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, arts, the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe.
In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age, formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching students. Usually, formal education takes place in a environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject. Most school systems are designed around a set of values or ideals that govern all educational choices in that system, such choices include curriculum, organizational models, design of the physical learning spaces, student-teacher interactions, methods of assessment, class size, educational activities, and more
An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows, Doctorate in Business Administration. The degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitors contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in ones CV as an award, rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford and he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common, universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees, these nominees usually go through several committees before receiving approval. Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation, the dissertation et jure dignitatis is considered to be a full academic degree.
Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are often awarded honoris causa, the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. Usually, the applicant must have some strong connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff. The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees, some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy - see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the way as honorary degrees are awarded by universities. A typical example of university regulations is, Honorary graduates may use the approved post-nominal letters and it is not customary, for recipients of an honorary doctorate to adopt the prefix Dr. In some universities, it is however a matter of preference for an honorary doctor to use the formal title of Doctor. Written communications where an honorary doctorate has been awarded may include the letters h. c. after the award to indicate that status.
In some countries, a person who holds an honorary doctorate may use the title Doctor prenominally, abbreviated Dr. h. c. or Dr. Sometimes, they use Hon before the letters, for example. In recent years, some universities have adopted entirely separate post nominal titles for honorary degrees and this is in part due to the confusion that honorary degrees have caused. It is now common in countries to use certain degrees, such as LLD or HonD. For instance, a doctor of the Auckland University of Technology takes the special title HonD. Some universities, including the Open University grant Doctorates of the University to selected nominees, most American universities award the degrees of LLD, LittD, LHD, ScD, PedD and DD only as honorary degrees
Candidate of Sciences
The degree was first introduced in the USSR on January 13,1934, by a decision of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR. According to the UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education, for purposes of educational statistics Candidate of Sciences is equivalent to PhD. On the other hand, Immigration New Zealand places both Candidate of Sciences and Doctor of Sciences at Level 10, only holders of masters and specialists degrees are eligible for Candidate of Sciences programs. In countries with only one degree, the degree of Candidate of Sciences should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this degree. It is performed either within an institution or a scientific research institution. It can be carried out without a connection to the academy. In exceptional cases, the Candidate of Sciences degree may be awarded on the basis of published scholarly works without writing a thesis, a necessary prerequisite is taking courses in philosophy and foreign language, and passing a qualifying examination called candidate minimum.
In the Soviet Union, the candidate minimum included exams in the specialty field of the dissertant, in a language of his/her choice. The dissertation is presented at the educational or scientific institutions before a committee called the Scientific Council. The Council consists of about 20 members, who are the leading specialists in the field of the dissertation, the summary of the dissertation must be published before public defense in the form of autoreferat in about 150-200 copies, and distributed to major research organizations and libraries. The seeker of the degree must have a research supervisor. The dissertation must be delivered together with references of several reviewers. If the defense is successful, it is recommended and must be approved by the central statewide board called Higher Attestation Commission or Vysshaya attestacionnaya komissiya or VAK. In Czechoslovakia, the Candidate and Doctor of Sciences degrees were modeled precisely after the Soviet one by Law 60/1953 in 1953, requirements to attain the degree were thus literally the same as in the USSR.
The degree could be awarded by the Slovak Academy of Sciences and universities, the abbreviation of the degree is CSc. added behind the bearers name and a comma. There have been other academic degrees in Czechoslovakia and its successional states and these doctor degrees are not to be confused with a Ph. D. although its holders are addressed doctor. Applicants need a degree or a comparable degree with excellent grades. This degree is stated before names and awarded after writing a thesis of 50.000 to 80.000 words and defending it at an viva voce
Doctor of Law
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, and includes such as the Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor juris, Doctor of Philosophy, Juris Doctor. In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence, to obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have previously achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney. In some of the countrys most important universities there is a title known as livre docência. However, this title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title. The doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência, two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution.
In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are required to earn a minimum number of credits. Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree, copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institutions library. Usually, doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title, if one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. Admission to doctoral courses is almost universally reserved to holders of a masters degree, there are, however, a few universities that allow direct admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Masters course in exceptional circumstances. Thus, in cases, a bachelor of Laws, can be admitted directly to a doctoral course. Usually, one is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, and four years time to complete the doctoral course.
On the other hand, in the cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a direct doctorate. Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain a contribution to the field of Law under study. In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates, the Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science, Doctor of Civil Law, the Doctor of Jurisprudence is the professional doctorate degree that is usually required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. The first law degree was known until recently as the Bachelor of Laws, after the first law degree, one may pursue a second, the Masters of Laws and after that, the Doctor of Law, at some Canadian universities. Of the universities in Canada that offer earned academic doctorates in law, four offer LL. Ds, four offer Ph. Ds, the differences largely reflect the divide between Canadas two legal systems