Doctor of Medicine
A Doctor of Medicine is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In the United States and other countries, the MD denotes a professional graduate degree awarded upon graduation from medical school. In the United Kingdom and other countries, the MD is a research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to those who hold a professional degree in medicine. In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine. University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees. North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century.
The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB. Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Harvard, McGill; these first few North American medical schools that were established were founded by physicians and surgeons, trained in England and Scotland. A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, was used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. A doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction. In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor's degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country.
Entry to medical school is competitive, only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum, during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded "MD" and validated by the "Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan". All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the "Ministry of Public Health" before they begin to practice, they may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency; the MD specification: Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as "Master of Medicine".
After the civil wars, medical education has changed, the MD certification has been reduced to "Medicine Bachelor". In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation. Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor's degrees together with other undergraduate programs.
The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master's degrees which permits the use of the term'Doctor' in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master's level MD, universities have renamed their previous medical research doctorates; the University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science. In French-speaking Belgium, the medical degree awarded after six years of study is "Docteur en Médecine". Physicians would have to register with the Ordre des Medicins to practice medicine in the country. At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician - Doctor of Medicine.
After 6 years of general medical education, all students will graduate with
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, values and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, teaching and directed research. Education takes place under the guidance of educators and learners may educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational; the methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Formal education is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and college, university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age. Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin word ēducātiō from ēducō, related to the homonym ēdūcō from ē- and dūcō. Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society.
In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge and skills from one generation to the next; as cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. Plato founded the Academy in the first institution of higher learning in Europe; the city of Alexandria in Egypt, established in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There, the great Library of Alexandria was built in the 3rd century BCE. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in CE 476. In China, Confucius, of the State of Lu, was the country's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea and Vietnam. Confucius gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.
The Aztecs had a well-developed theory about education, which has an equivalent word in Nahuatl called tlacahuapahualiztli. It means "the art of raising or educating a person" or "the art of strengthening or bringing up men." This was a broad conceptualization of education, which prescribed that it begins at home, supported by formal schooling, reinforced by community living. Historians cite that formal education was mandatory for everyone regardless of social class and gender. There was the word neixtlamachiliztli, "the act of giving wisdom to the face." These concepts underscore a complex set of educational practices, oriented towards communicating to the next generation the experience and intellectual heritage of the past for the purpose of individual development and his integration into the community. After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe; the church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centres of advanced education.
Some of these establishments evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. During the High Middle Ages, Chartres Cathedral operated the famous and influential Chartres Cathedral School; the medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe, encouraged freedom of inquiry, produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers, including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples, Robert Grosseteste of the University of Oxford, an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation, Saint Albert the Great, a pioneer of biological field research. Founded in 1088, the University of Bologne is considered the first, the oldest continually operating university. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages, Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate, established across the Middle East, extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.
The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press, which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly; the European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy, religion and sciences spread out across the globe. Missionaries and scholars brought back new ideas from other civilizations – as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge and culture between China and Europe, translating works from Europe like Euclid's Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for European audiences; the Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in Europe. In most countries today, full-time education, whether at school or otherwise, is compulsory for all children up to a certain age. Due to this the proliferation of compulsory education, combined with population growth, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment. Formal education takes place in a school environme
WordNet is a lexical database for the English language. It groups English words into sets of synonyms called synsets, provides short definitions and usage examples, records a number of relations among these synonym sets or their members. WordNet can thus be seen as a combination of thesaurus. While it is accessible to human users via a web browser, its primary use is in automatic text analysis and artificial intelligence applications; the database and software tools have been released under a BSD style license and are available for download from the WordNet website. Both the lexicographic data and the compiler for producing the distributed database are available. WordNet was created in the Cognitive Science Laboratory of Princeton University under the direction of psychology professor George Armitage Miller starting in 1985 and has been directed in recent years by Christiane Fellbaum; the project was funded by the U. S. Office of Naval Research and also by other U. S. government agencies including the DARPA, the National Science Foundation, the Disruptive Technology Office, REFLEX.
George Miller and Christiane Fellbaum were awarded the 2006 Antonio Zampolli Prize for their work with WordNet. As of November 2012 WordNet's latest Online-version is 3.1. The database contains 155 327 words organized in 175 979 synsets for a total of 207 016 word-sense pairs. WordNet includes the lexical categories nouns, verbs and adverbs but ignores prepositions and other function words. Words from the same lexical category that are synonymous are grouped into synsets. Synsets include simplex words as well as collocations like "eat out" and "car pool." The different senses of a polysemous word form are assigned to different synsets. The meaning of a synset is further clarified with a short defining gloss and one or more usage examples. An example adjective synset is: good, ripe – All synsets are connected to other synsets by means of semantic relations; these relations, which are not all shared by all lexical categories, include: Nouns hypernyms: Y is a hypernym of X if every X is a Y hyponyms: Y is a hyponym of X if every Y is a X coordinate terms: Y is a coordinate term of X if X and Y share a hypernym meronym: Y is a meronym of X if Y is a part of X holonym: Y is a holonym of X if X is a part of Y Verbs hypernym: the verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X is a Y troponym: the verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y is doing X in some manner entailment: the verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be doing Y coordinate terms: those verbs sharing a common hypernym These semantic relations hold among all members of the linked synsets.
Individual synset members can be connected with lexical relations. For example, the noun "director" is linked to the verb "direct" from which it is derived via a "morphosemantic" link; the morphology functions of the software distributed with the database try to deduce the lemma or stem form of a word from the user's input. Irregular forms are stored in a list, looking up "ate" will return "eat," for example. Both nouns and verbs are defined by hypernym or IS A relationships. For instance, one sense of the word dog is found following hypernym hierarchy; each set of synonyms has a unique index. At the top level, these hierarchies are organized into 25 beginner "trees" for nouns and 15 for verbs. All are linked to a unique beginner synset, "entity". Noun hierarchies are far deeper than verb hierarchies Adjectives are not organized into hierarchical trees. Instead, two "central" antonyms such as "hot" and "cold" form binary poles, while'satellite' synonyms such as "steaming" and "chilly" connect to their respective poles via a "similarity" relations.
The adjectives can be visualized in this way as "dumbbells" rather than as "trees". The initial goal of the WordNet project was to build a lexical database that would be consistent with theories of human semantic memory developed in the late 1960s. Psychological experiments indicated that speakers organized their knowledge of concepts in an economic, hierarchical fashion. Retrieval time required to access conceptual knowledge seemed to be directly related to the number of hierarchies the speaker needed to "traverse" to access the knowledge. Thus, speakers could more verify that canaries can sing because a canary is a songbird, but required more time to verify that canaries can fly and more time to verify canaries have skin. While such experiments and the underlying theories have been subject to criticism, some of WordNet's organization is consistent with experimental evidence. For example, anomic aphasia selectively affects speakers' ability to produce words from a specific semantic category, a WordNet hierarchy.
Antonymous adjectives are found to co-occur
Doctor of Law
Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor juris, Doctor of Philosophy, Juris Doctor, Legum Doctor. In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence. To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.. The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow: Doctorate in Law Doctorate in Criminal Law Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences Doctorate in Juridical Sciences Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences Doctorate in Private Law Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available. In some of the country's most important universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries.
However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title, that applies within the institution granting it. In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; the doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência. Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are required to earn a minimum number of credits. Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution's library.
Doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title. If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees. Admission to doctoral courses is universally reserved to holders of a master's degree. Therefore, a bachelor of Laws, seeking the degree of doctor must complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws, only after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course. There are, however, a few universities that allow "direct" admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master's course in exceptional circumstances.
Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws, can be admitted directly to a doctoral course. One is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a "direct" doctorate, he is allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course. Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain an original contribution to the field of Law under study. In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws; the Doctor of Jurisprudence is the professional doctorate degree, required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law. The first law degree was known until as the Bachelor of Laws. However, since law schools in Canada insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.
B. degrees awarded by programs abroad. The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL. B.. B. with a J. D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL. B. is equivalent to the J. D. All Canadian J. D. programs are three years, all have similar mandatory firs
Doctor of Letters
Doctor of Letters is an academic degree, a higher doctorate which, in some countries, may be considered to be equal to the Ph. D. and equal to the Doctor of Science. It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of achievement in the humanities, original contribution to the creative arts or scholarship and other merits. In some countries it regarded as the highest degree of education; when awarded without an application by the conferee, it is awarded as an honorary degree. In the United Kingdom, Australia and the Republic of Ireland, the degree is a higher doctorate, above the Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Education, for example, is issued on the basis of high achievement in the respective field or a long record of research and publication; the Litt. D. degree is awarded to candidates whose record of published work and research shows conspicuous ability and originality and constitutes a distinguished and sustained achievement. University committee and board approval is required, candidates must provide documented mastery of a particular area or field.
The degree may be awarded honoris causa to such individuals as the university or the learned body in question deems worthy of this highest academic award. At the University of Oxford, the degree was established in 1900 as part of the development of graduate-level research degrees that began with the introduction of the B. Litt. and B. Sc. degrees in 1895. Up until that point, Oxford had focused on undergraduate teaching, with the doctorates, such as those in divinity and medicine traditionally reserved for established scholars; the German paradigm, adopted by the Americans, that created a demand for the philosophiae doctor degree as a basic qualification for an academic career was not adopted at Oxford, but it did create pressure for Oxford to offer a degree for this purpose. Rather than use the D. Litt. Degree, Oxford created its doctor of philosophy degree in 1915, deliberately using a distinctive English, rather than a Latin and abbreviation for it; the D. Phil. became an accelerated, lower-status degree to the D.
Litt. When it was established in 1900, the Oxford doctor of letters, degree could be awarded to individuals who had a standing of thirty-four terms from the award of a B. Litt. Degree, or of thirty-nine terms from the award of an Oxford master of arts M. A. degree, providing they could provide "fitness for the degree in published books or papers, containing an original contribution to the advancement of learning." The length of the required number of terms changed over the years, depending on the prior Oxford degree that a candidate held, the requirements became more specific. By 2015, The Oxford University Examination Regulations called for a faculty board at Oxford to "appoint judges to consider the evidence submitted by any candidate, to report thereon to the board. In making their report the judges shall state whether the evidence submitted constitutes an original contribution to the advancement of knowledge of such substance and distinction as to give the candidate an authoritative status in some branch or branches of learning."
Between 1923 and 2016, Oxford awarded 219 D. Litt. Degrees, of which 196 were awarded to men and 23 to women. Among the six higher doctoral degrees at Oxford, the D. Litt. Comprised 27.5% of the higher doctorates awarded during this 93-year period. In June 2016, the Oxford D. Litt. was suspended, pending a reform of the higher doctorates. The reforms were completed in June 2018 and applications reopened in September 2018; the new regulations reduced the higher doctorates to five by dropping the Doctor of Medicine as a higher doctorate. The standards for the remaining doctorates, including the D. Litt. Require the judges "to consider whether the evidence submitted demonstrates excellence in academic scholarship and is: a) of the absolute highest quality. There is, however, at least one earned D. Litt. Programme at Drew University, where the degree requires 36 graduate credit hours post-Master's and a prepared and defended nine-credit doctoral dissertation. In France the doctorat is awarded with a speciality.
Candidates for a doctorat in literature are awarded a Doctorat ès lettres, abbreviated Dr ès l. There is a higher degree, the Habilitation à diriger des recherches, obtained following different rules in each field. In literature, the candidates must present a new and unpublished work; the habilitation allows holders to apply for a position of professor in French universities. Before the 1950s, the now-abolished Doctorat d'État degree was called Doctorat ès lettres; the highest educational attainment at Sanskrit Colleges in India is the Vidya Vachaspati recognized as the equivalent to the Western D. Litt. Enrollment in a Vidya Vachaspati program requires both having published