Duke University School of Law
Duke University School of Law is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, North Carolina, United States. One of Duke's 10 schools and colleges, the School of Law began as the Trinity College School of Law in 1868. In 1924, following the renaming of Trinity College to Duke University, the school was renamed the Duke University School of Law. Duke Law is ranked as one of the top law schools in the United States and admits 20% of applicants; the law school is one of the "T14" law schools, that is, schools that have ranked within the top 14 law schools since U. S. News & World Report began publishing rankings. On average, 95% of students are employed at graduation, with a median starting salary in the private sector of over $160,000; the class of 2017 had the highest employment number in the country for the category of long-term, full-time jobs that require bar passage and are not funded by the school at 93.8%. Duke's 2017 class bar passage rate was 97.44%, among the top five law schools in first time bar passage rates.
The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $285,725. Duke Law is ranked within the top 14 law schools in the country, is a member of the "T-14" law schools, a prestigious group of 14 schools that have national recognition. In fact, it has never been ranked lower than 12th by U. S. News, or less than 7th by Above the Law. Duke Law is one of three T14 law schools to have graduated a President of the United States. Duke Law was ranked by Forbes as having graduated lawyers with the 2nd highest median mid-career salary amount, it is tied as the #8 best law school by the 2015 U. S. News overall law school Rankings. In 2017, The Times Higher Education World University Rankings listed Duke Law as the number one ranked law school in the world. Duke Law is one of the most selective law schools in the United States; the law school is one of few that have experienced an increase in law school applications despite an overall national decline of applications in recent years.
For the class entering in the fall of 2014, 221 students enrolled out of 5,358 applicants. The 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2014 entering class were 166 and 170 with a median of 169; the 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.66 and 3.85 with a median of 3.77. The School has 640 J. D. students and 75 students in the LL. M. and S. J. D. Programs; the date of founding is considered to be 1868 or 1924. However, in 1855 Trinity College, the precursor to Duke University, began offering lectures on Constitutional and International Law. In 1865, Trinity's Law Department was founded, while 1868 marked the official chartering of the School of Law. After a ten-year hiatus from 1894 to 1904, James B. Duke and Benjamin Newton Duke provided the endowment to reopen the school, with Samuel Fox Mordecai as its senior professor; when Trinity College became part of the newly created Duke University upon the establishment of the Duke Endowment in 1924, the School of Law continued as the Duke University School of Law.
In 1930, the law school moved from the Carr Building on Duke's East Campus to a new location on the main quad of West Campus. During the three years preceding this move, the size of the law library tripled. Among other well-known alumni, President Richard Nixon graduated from the school in 1937. In 1963, the school moved to its present location on Science Drive in West Campus. Law students at Duke University established the first U. S. Chapter of the International Criminal Court Student Network in 2009. 1st Best Law School in the world, Times Higher Education 1st Best Professors according to the Princeton Review 1st Best Quality of Life according to the Princeton Review 2nd Highest Median Mid-Career Salary 2nd Best Classroom Experience according to Princeton Review 3rd Best Law School by Above the Law 3rd Best Law School according to the Best Law Schools ranking published by the National Jurist in 2013. 5th Best Law School by Vault 5th Best Law School by Business Insider 5th Toughest to get into according to the Princeton Review 5th Best Law School for BigLaw Hiring according to National Law Journal's "Go-To Law Schools" ranking 6th Best Law School according to CNN Money 6th Best Law School for Federal Clerkships according to National Jurist 6th Best Law School for Moot Court according to National Jurist 8th Best Law School as Ranked by Law Firm Recruiters* 10th Best in the world in the subject of law according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017 10th Best for Standard of Living according to National Jurist Tied for 10th Best Law School by U.
S. News Rankings 12th Most Median Grant Money and Percentage of Students Receiving Grants according to National Jurist 17th Best Law Review according to National Jurist 19th Best Law School Library according to National Jurist The Trinity College School of Law was located in the Carr Building prior to the renaming of Trinity to Duke University in 1924; the Duke University Law School was housed in what is now the Languages Building, built in 1929 on Duke's West Campus quad. The law school is presently located at the corner of Science Drive and Towerview Road and was constructed in the mid-1960s; the first addition to the law school was completed in 1994, a dark polished granite façade was added to the rear exterior of the building, enclosing the interi
Columbia Law School
Columbia Law School is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. It has always been ranked in the top five law schools in the United States by U. S. News and World Report. Columbia is well known for its strength in corporate law and its placement power in the nation's elite law firms. Columbia Law School was founded in 1858 as the Columbia College Law School, was known for its legal scholarship dating back to the 18th century. Graduates of the university's colonial predecessor, King's College, include such notable early-American legal figures as John Jay, the first chief justice of the United States, Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, who were both co-authors of The Federalist Papers. Columbia has produced a large number of distinguished alumni, including US presidents Teddy Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. S. Cabinet members and presidential advisers. According to Columbia Law School's 2013 ABA-required disclosures; the law school was ranked #1 of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of sending the highest percentage of 2015 graduates to the largest 100 law firms in the US.
The teaching of law at Columbia reaches back to the 18th century. Graduates of the university's colonial predecessor, King's College, included such notable early American judicial figures as John Jay, who would become the first Chief Justice of the United States. Columbia College appointed its first professor of law, James Kent, in 1793; the lectures of Chancellor Kent in the course of four years had developed into the first two volumes of his Commentaries, the second volume being published November 1827. Kent did not, succeed in establishing a law school or department in the College. Thus, the formal instruction of law as a course of study did not commence until the middle of the 19th century; the Columbia College Law School, as it was officially called, was founded in 1858. The first law school building was a Gothic Revival structure located on Columbia's Madison Avenue campus. Thereafter, the college became Columbia University and moved north to the neighborhood of Morningside Heights; as Columbia Law Professor Theodore Dwight observed, at its founding the demand for a formal course of study in law was still speculative: It was considered at that time as an experiment.
No institution resembling a law school had existed in New York. Most of the leading lawyers had obtained their training in offices or by private reading, were skeptical as to the possibility of securing competent legal knowledge by means of professional schools. Legal education was, however, at a low ebb; the clerks in the law offices were left wholly to themselves. They were not acquainted with the lawyers with whom, by a convenient fiction, they were supposed to be studying. Examinations for admission to the bar were held by committees appointed by the courts, where they inquired at all, sought for the most part to ascertain the knowledge of the candidate of petty details of practice. In general, the examinations were purely perfunctory. A politician of influence was not turned away. Few studied law as a science. Indeed, Columbia Law School was one of the few law schools established in the United States before the Civil War. During the 18th and 19th centuries, most legal education took place in law offices, where young men, serving as apprentices or clerks, were set to copying documents and filling out legal forms under the supervision of an established attorney.
For example, in New York John Jay, revolutionary founding father and first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, read law with Benjamin Kissam, whose busy practice kept his clerks occupied in transcribing records and opinions. Jay was fortunate to have attentive supervision because the quality and time of learning the law varied within the profession. Theodore Dwight, head of the law department of Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, believed formal legal education, conducted in the classroom with regular lectures, was far superior to casual law office instruction. At its founding, four distinct courses of lectures of this class were established: one on Philology, offered by distinguished scholar and statesman, George P. Marsh; the original course of study to obtain a degree consisted of just two years, rather than the modern standard of three. The first lecture in the law school was delivered on Monday, Nov 1, 1858, by Mr. Dwight, at the rooms of the Historical Society.
It was an introductory lecture, afterwards printed. The audience consisted of lawyers, it was plain. The result was an immediate attendance of thirty-five students, who showed their
UCLA School of Law
The UCLA School of Law referred to as UCLA Law, is one of 12 professional schools at the University of California, Los Angeles. UCLA Law has been ranked by U. S. News & World Report as one of the top 20 law schools in the United States since the late 1990s, its 17,000 alumni include more judges on the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit than any other law school, as well as leaders in private law practice, government service, the judiciary and entertainment law, public interest law; as part of a renowned public university, the school's mission is to provide an excellent legal education while expanding access to the legal professional to those who otherwise would not be able to pursue a legal degree. The dean of the school is Jennifer L. Mnookin. An evidence scholar who joined the UCLA Law faculty in 2005 and became the school's ninth dean, third female dean, in 2015. Founded in 1949, the UCLA School of Law is the third oldest of the five law schools within the University of California system.
In the 1930s, initial efforts to establish a law school at UCLA went nowhere as a result of resistance from UC President Robert Gordon Sproul, because UCLA's supporters refocused their efforts on first adding medical and engineering schools. During the mid-1940s, the impetus for the creation of the UCLA School of Law emerged from outside of the UCLA community. Assemblyman William Rosenthal of Boyle Heights conceived of and fought for the creation of the first public law school in Southern California as a convenient and affordable alternative to the expensive private law school at USC. Rosenthal's first attempt in 1945 failed, but his second attempt was able to gain momentum when the State Bar of California and the UCLA Alumni Association announced their support for the bill. On July 18, 1947, Governor Earl Warren authorized the appropriation of $1 million for the construction of a new law school at UCLA by signing Assembly Bill 1361 into state law; the search for the law school's first dean delayed its opening by a year.
UCLA's Law School Planning Committee prioritized merit, while the then-conservative Regents of the University of California prioritized political beliefs. Another factor was a simultaneous deanship vacancy at Berkeley Law. Near the end of 1948, the Committee identified a sufficiently conservative candidate willing to take the job: L. Dale Coffman the dean of Vanderbilt University Law School; the Regents believed Coffman would help bring balance to the UCLA campus, which they saw as overrun by Communists. Dean Coffman was able to recruit several distinguished faculty to UCLA, including Roscoe Pound, Brainerd Currie, Rollin M. Perkins, Harold Verrall. To build a law library, he hired Thomas S. Dabagh the law librarian of the Los Angeles County Law Library; the UCLA School of Law opened in September 1949 in temporary quarters in former military barracks behind Royce Hall, moved into a permanent home upon the completion of the original Law Building in 1951. Coffman's deanship did not end well, due to his vindictive and prejudiced personality.
One sign of early trouble was when he drove out Dabagh in 1952 after they could not bridge their fundamental differences over how to run the law library, regarded around the UCLA community as contributing to Dabagh's early death in 1959. On September 21, 1955, the faculty revolted in the form of a memorandum to Chancellor Raymond B. Allen alleging that Coffman was categorically refusing to hire Jews or anyone he perceived to be leftist, that the school's reputation was deteriorating because Coffman's abrasive personality had led to excessive faculty turnover. On May 24, 1956, Coffman was stripped of his deanship after a lengthy investigation by a panel of deans of his biases and his "dictatorial and autocratic" management style, he remained on the faculty until his forced retirement in 1973, but continued to face allegations as late as 1971 that he was "an unreconstructed McCarthyite and pro-segregationist."Coffman's successor was Richard C. Maxwell, who served as the second dean of UCLA Law from 1958 to 1969.
Dean Maxwell "presided over happier, more harmonious years of institutional growth," and it was under his deanship that UCLA became "the youngest top-ranked law school in the country." Dabagh's successor, Louis Piacenza, was able to grow the law school's library collection to 143,000 volumes by May 1963, which at that time was the 14th largest law school library in the United States. By 1963, the law school had 600 students in a building designed for 550, the Law Building's deficiencies had become all too evident, such as a complete lack of air conditioning. In October 1963, the law school administration announced a major remodeling and expansion project, which added air conditioning and a new wing to the building. During the 1960s, the law school grew so that the new wing was insufficient upon its completion in January 1967. From its founding to the end of the 20th century, UCLA Law struggled with severe overcrowding, as librarians, staff, as many as 18 student organizations—at one point, more than any other law school in the United States—competed for limited space in the Law Building for books, classes and offices.
After four grueling years of construction, the chronic space shortage was relieved by the completion of the new Hugh and Hazel Darling Law Library on January 22, 2000. UCLA Law has 950 students in its Juris Doctor program and 200 students in its Masters of Law program, popular among foreign students intending to take the California Bar Exam, it offers a Doctor of Juridical Science program for students who hav
International Criminal Court
The International Criminal Court is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands. The ICC has the jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, crimes of aggression; the ICC is intended to complement existing national judicial systems and it may therefore exercise its jurisdiction only when certain conditions are met, such as when national courts are unwilling or unable to prosecute criminals or when the United Nations Security Council or individual states refer situations to the Court. The ICC began functioning on 1 the date that the Rome Statute entered into force; the Rome Statute is a multilateral treaty which serves as the ICC's foundational and governing document. States which become party to the Rome Statute, for example by ratifying it, become member states of the ICC; as of March 2019, there are 124 ICC member states. The ICC has four principal organs: the Presidency, the Judicial Divisions, the Office of the Prosecutor, the Registry.
The President is the most senior judge chosen by his or her peers in the Judicial Division, which hears cases before the Court. The Office of the Prosecutor is headed by the Prosecutor who investigates crimes and initiates proceedings before the Judicial Division; the Registry is headed by the Registrar and is charged with managing all the administrative functions of the ICC, including the headquarters, detention unit, public defense office. The Office of the Prosecutor has opened ten official investigations and is conducting an additional eleven preliminary examinations, thus far, 44 individuals have been indicted in the ICC, including Ugandan rebel leader Joseph Kony, Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, Kenyan president Uhuru Kenyatta, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, DR Congo vice-president Jean-Pierre Bemba. The ICC has faced a number of criticisms from states and civil society, including objections about its jurisdiction, accusations of bias, questioning of the fairness of its case-selection and trial procedures, doubts about its effectiveness.
The establishment of an international tribunal to judge political leaders accused of international crimes was first proposed during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the First World War by the Commission of Responsibilities. The issue was addressed again at a conference held in Geneva under the auspices of the League of Nations in 1937, which resulted in the conclusion of the first convention stipulating the establishment of a permanent international court to try acts of international terrorism; the convention was signed by 13 states, but none ratified it and the convention never entered into force. Following the Second World War, the allied powers established two ad hoc tribunals to prosecute axis power leaders accused of war crimes; the International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders. In 1948 the United Nations General Assembly first recognised the need for a permanent international court to deal with atrocities of the kind prosecuted after the Second World War.
At the request of the General Assembly, the International Law Commission drafted two statutes by the early 1950s but these were shelved during the Cold War, which made the establishment of an international criminal court politically unrealistic. Benjamin B. Ferencz, an investigator of Nazi war crimes after the Second World War, the Chief Prosecutor for the United States Army at the Einsatzgruppen Trial, became a vocal advocate of the establishment of international rule of law and of an international criminal court. In his first book published in 1975, entitled Defining International Aggression: The Search for World Peace, he advocated for the establishment of such a court. A second major advocate was Robert Kurt Woetzel, who co-edited Toward a Feasible International Criminal Court in 1970 and created the Foundation for the Establishment of an International Criminal Court in 1971. In June 1989 Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago A. N. R. Robinson revived the idea of a permanent international criminal court by proposing the creation of such a court to deal with the illegal drug trade.
Following Trinidad and Tobago's proposal, the General Assembly tasked the ILC with once again drafting a statute for a permanent court. While work began on the draft, the United Nations Security Council established two ad hoc tribunals in the early 1990s; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was created in 1993 in response to large-scale atrocities committed by armed forces during Yugoslav Wars, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was created in 1994 following the Rwandan Genocide. The creation of these tribunals further highlighted the need for a permanent international criminal court. In 1994, the ILC presented its final draft statute for the International Criminal Court to the General Assembly and recommended that a conference be convened to negotiate a treaty that would serve as the Court's statute. To consider major substantive issues in the draft statute, the General Assembly established the Ad Hoc Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, which met twice in 1995.
After considering the Committee's report, the General Assembly created the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of the ICC to prepare a consolidated draft text. From 1996 to 1998, six sessions of the Preparatory Committee were held at the United Nations headquarters in New York City, during which NGOs provided input and attended meetings under the umbrella organisation of the Coalition for the International Criminal Court. In January 1998, the Bureau and coordinators
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the