Education in Russia
In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia's expenditure on education has grown from 2.7% of the GDP in 2005 to 3.8% in 2013, but remains below the OECD average of 5.2%. Before 1990 the course of school training in the Soviet Union lasted 10 years, but at the end of 1990 an 11-year course came into operation. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. Male and female students have equal shares in all stages of education, except in tertiary education where women lead with 57%. A 2015 estimate by the United States Central Intelligence Agency puts the literacy rate in Russia at 99.7%. According to a 2016 OECD estimate, 54% of Russia's adults has attained a tertiary education, giving Russia the second-highest attainment of tertiary education among 35 OECD member-countries. 47.7% have completed secondary education.
Highest rates of tertiary education are recorded among women aged 35 to 39 years. Compared with other OECD countries, Russia has some of the smallest class-sizes and some of the shortest instruction-hours per year. In 2014 the Pearson/Economist Intelligence Unit rated Russia's education as the 8th-best in Europe and the 13th-best in the world. In 2015 the OECD ranked Russian students' mathematics and science skills as the 34th-best in the world, between Sweden and Iceland. In 2016 the US company Bloomberg rated Russia's higher education as the third-best in the world, measuring the percentage of high-school graduates who go on to attend college, the annual science and engineering graduates as a percentage of all college graduates, science and engineering graduates as a percentage of the labor force. In 2014 Russia ranked as the 6th most-popular destination for international students. Joseph Stiglitz, a former chief economist of the World Bank, has stated that one of the good things that Russia inherited from the Soviet era was "a high level of education in technical areas so important for the New Economy".
According to the 2002 census, 68% of children aged 5 were enrolled in kindergartens. According to UNESCO data, enrollment in any kind of pre-school programme increased from 67% in 1999 to 84% in 2005. Kindergartens, unlike schools, are regulated by local authorities; the Ministry of Education and Science regulates only a brief pre-school preparation program for the 5–6-year-old children. In 2004 the government attempted to charge the full cost of kindergartens to the parents. Local authorities can charge the parents not more than 20% of costs. Twins, children of university students, Chernobyl veterans and other protected social groups are entitled to free service; the Soviet system provided for nearly universal primary and kindergarten service in urban areas, relieving working mothers from daytime childcare needs. By the 1980s, there were 88,000 preschool institutions. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the number decreased to 46,000. At the same time, a minority share of successful state-owned kindergartens, regarded as a vertical lift to quality schooling, flourished throughout the 1990s.
Owned kindergartens, although in high demand, did not gain a significant share due to administrative pressure. The improvement of the economy after the 1998 crisis, coupled with historical demographic peak, resulted in an increase in birth rate, first recorded in 2005. Large cities encountered shortage of kindergarten vacancies earlier, in 2002. Moscow's kindergarten waiting list included 15,000 children; the city of Moscow instituted specialised kindergarten commissions that are tasked with locating empty slots for the children. The degree of the problem varies between districts, e.g. Moscow's Fili-Davydkovo District has lost all of its kindergartens while Zelenograd claims to have short queue. Independent authors assert that bribes or "donations" for admission to kindergartens compete in amount with university admissions while authorities refute the accusation. There were 59,260 general education schools in 2007–2008 school year, an increase from 58,503 in the previous year. However, prior to 2005–2006, the number of schools was decreasing from 65,899 in 2000–2001.
The 2007–2008 number includes 4,965 advanced learning schools specializing in foreign languages, mathematics etc.. Private scho
An undergraduate degree is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is an oxymoron, since one cannot hold a degree as an undergraduate. In the United States, it is offered at an institution of higher education, such as a college or university; the most common type of these undergraduate degrees are bachelor's degree. Bachelor's degree takes at least three or four years to complete; these degrees can be categorised as basic degrees. In the United Kingdom, a bachelor's degree is the most common type of "undergraduate degree"; some master's degrees can be undertaken after finishing secondary education. Most bachelor's degrees take three years to complete, with some notable exceptions, such as Medicine taking five years. Students can enroll in a 4-year program leave after three years and be awarded a bachelor's degree. First professional degrees sometimes contain the word Doctor, but are still considered undergraduate degrees in most countries, including Canada.
For example, the Doctor of Medicine program in Canada is considered an "undergraduate degree." However, in the United States, most first professional degrees are considered graduate programs by the U. S. Department of Education and require students to possess an "undergraduate degree" before admission; these degrees are not research doctorates and are therefore not equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy Many countries offer bachelor's degrees that are equivalent to American graduate degrees. For example, the Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degrees offered in the U. S. are equivalent to the Bachelor of Surgery degree. In the United States and sometimes in Canada, an Associate's Degree is a two-year degree, it is undertaken as the beginning of a four-year degree. Some two-year institutions have articulation agreements with four-year institutions, which specify which courses transfer without problems; the Arizona General Education Curriculum certification, awarded for the completion of an Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, or Associate of Business degree indicates the completion of all bachelor's degree lower level course work and permits the student to block transfer to any of the three state universities and several private universities as a third-year student or "Junior."To obtain an AGEC certification, one must: Complete all associate degree credits at regionally accredited colleges.
Associates degrees with an AGEC certification are custom tailored with electives to meet the prerequisite requirements for the program and university the student wishes to transfer to. Virginia’s community college has signed system-wide agreements, allowing students who graduate from one of the 23 community colleges with a transfer associate degree and a minimum grade point average to obtain guaranteed admission to more than 20 of the Commonwealth's four-year colleges and universities. Argentine higher education system is based, since its conception during the colonial period, on the old and dogmatic Spanish higher education system, a Continental education system. A historic event took place in the University Reform of 1918, a popular series of reforms that took place in the oldest university of the country, the Universidad de Córdoba that paved the way to the modernization of the Argentinian higher university systems as it is known nowadays. Since its foundation, it was focused on the teaching of Professions offering Professional degrees.
It is divided into three levels. Tertiary Education level: 1- to 4-years degrees related to education or technical professions like Teachers, Technicians. University level: 4- to 6-years Professional education taught at Universities offering many different degrees Licentiate, Engineering degree, Medic Title, Attorney Title, Translation degrees, etc. Post-graduate level: This is a specialized and research-oriented education level, it is divided in a first sub-level where a Specialist degree can be obtained in a 12–18 months period or Master degree, requiring 24–30 months and an original research work and a higher sub-level where a Doctorate degree could be achieved. The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria.
Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school.
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Spain, South Africa, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Russia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country. Australian equivalent of post graduate diploma is called Graduate Diploma. AQF level of the graduate diploma is eight. New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. NZQA level of post graduate diploma is eight. A postgraduate diploma indicates master's-level studies, it constitutes as the first year of a two-year master's degree. A university degree is required. In Canada, a postgraduate certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances.
A University's degree or a master's degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of to focus on a concise subject, it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary: Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, Post-Baccalaureate or D. E. S. S.. See links to the Canadian education system. In India, there are a number of universities offering postgraduate diploma programs; these post-graduate diploma programs are one-year programs that are divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work, credit requirements. These are master's level programs; these programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for the better employment opportunity and industry readiness. It is designed to provide in-depth exposure to concepts, scientific principles, implementation methodology of new approaches.
Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Post-graduate diploma in Banking & Finance, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, are examples of courses offered in India. Certain institutes provide postgraduate diploma programs which satisfies the credit requirement for a master's program with increased number of lower credit courses for 2 years, this programs are provisionally considered equivalent to a master's level. Postgraduate diploma programs are meant for those with a bachelor's degree to gain an advanced technical grasp and to those with a master's degree to enhance their interdisciplinary/translation grasp. Referred to as PgD, the postgraduate diploma has been awarded by the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, since June 2005 in institutions associated with and accredited by the council; this postgraduate qualification is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 8 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelor's degree or vocational degrees, such as the Meister or Staatlich Geprüfter Betriebswirt in Germany.
Most institutions operate under the Recognition of Prior Experiential Learning scheme meaning applicants who do not meet the normal academic requirements may be considered based on publications, relevant work or research experience, which will involve an assessment centre or interview process. In Ireland, the vast majority of postgraduate diplomas require the same duration and level of studies as a Master's degree, namely EQF Level 9, yet additional coursework or an independent research project replace the thesis. While progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the Irish postgraduate diploma is accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 doctoral degree's in most countries. In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances: 1) as part of an independent program of studies; the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelor's degree. It is awarded by a university or a graduate school, it takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered.
It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a master's degree. Only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry; the postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System grading system. For example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International; the University of the Basque Country offers an English-language PgDip in International Election Observation and Electoral Assistance, run in cooperation with many organisations in the field of election monitoring, such as The Carter Center, Electoral Reform I
A magister degree is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education. The magister degree arose in mediaeval universities in Europe and was equal to the doctorate. In some countries, the title has retained this original meaning until the modern age, while in other countries, magister has become the title of a lower degree, in some cases parallel with a master's degree. In Argentina, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration by depending on each university's statutes; the admission to a Master program in an Argentine University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years duration from any recognized university. Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is equivalent to a Ph. D. or Doctorate in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna comparison system among academic programs.
In Egypt, Magister degree is a postgraduate degree, awarded after three to 6 years duration. It is equivalent to MSc degree, it is a prerequisite to have an MSc before applying to a Ph. D. or Doctorate degrees. In Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Latvia and Slovakia, obtaining the Magister requires at least five years of study including coursework and a final thesis, similar to a Diplom degree. Magisters tend to be awarded in the humanities and the social sciences, while Diplomas dominate in the natural sciences and in engineering. In Austria, major universities have partitioned all their Mag. Phil. Programs into a three- or four-year bachelor's and two-year master's program; this move is an attempt to standardize requirements with other EU countries as part of the Bologna process, would give students the option to exit with a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree after four years, or continue with additional coursework towards a Mag. Phil. Degree a two-year program. In Poland magister is awarded after 5 years of University level education and it is an equivalent to Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Laws, Master of Music in an academic discipline.
Before around 1999 and the implementation of the Bologna Process the first academic degree awarded in Poland was magister. After implementation of the Bologna Process the person who obtained a Licentiate degree can continue education to the magister level. With the implementation of the Bologna Process, curriculums leading to Magister degrees have been phased out in many countries. In the United States, the Department of Education calls the Magister an equivalent to the master's degree. Evaluations by U. S. "high research activity" universities vary. For example, the Oregon State University consider holders of a German or Austrian Magister for admission to graduate studies; the University of California, Los Angeles requires the Magister and considers the Vordiplom, the Diplom or a German bachelor's degree as insufficient. In Canada the German or Austrian Magister is at most universities the prerequisite to enter a graduate study program. There is no consensus between Canadian Universities whether a Mag.
Phil. Degree should be regarded as equivalent to Bachelor's with Honours degree. In the United Kingdom Aberystwyth University, University College London and the University of Sheffield consider the Magister as being equivalent to an honours bachelor's degree, while the University of Edinburgh states that it considers the Magister degree as sufficient to enter postgraduate programmes; the title magister has had many different meanings in the Swedish educational system, from a degree equal to the doctorate to a graduate degree. Since 2007 in Sweden, the Magister Examination is a one-year graduate degree which requires at least three years of undergraduate studies, it is translated into either Master of Arts, Master of Social Science or Master of Science depending on the subject. In Sweden, magister was the highest degree at the faculties of philosophy and was equivalent to the doctorate used in theology and medicine; the degree was abolished in 1863, replaced with the Doctor of Philosophy. The magister degrees used in Denmark and Norway most resemble this degree.
Magister has since referred to several degrees in Sweden which are unrelated to the original magister degree and unrelated to the magister degrees in the other Scandinavian countries. Some universities conferred a degree called magister between 1908 and 1969, comparable to a master's degree; this master's degree was traditionally taken as a first degree before the Bologna Process. The degree lasted about 5–6 years and is structured into Basic and Advanced progressional components. A new undergraduate magister degree, requiring at least 4 years of studies, was introduced in 1993. Since the introduction of the Bologna Process in 2005, the Magister has been broken into bachelor and master components. However, the vast majority of students continue right through to complete the maste
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar