Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case regardless of empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true. In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: pistis and doxa. Simplified, we may say that pistis refers to "trust" and "confidence", while doxa refers to "opinion" and "acceptance"; the English word "orthodoxy" derives from doxa. Jonathan Leicester suggests that belief has the purpose of guiding action rather than indicating truth. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts. However, "belief" does not require active circumspection. For example, we never ponder. We assume the sun will rise. Since "belief" is an important aspect of mundane life, according to Eric Schwitzgebel in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, a related question asks: "how a physical organism can have beliefs?"
Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, involved with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge. The primary problem in epistemology is to understand what is needed in order for us to have knowledge. In a notion derived from Plato's dialogue Theaetetus, where the epistemology of Socrates most departs from that of the sophists, who at the time of Plato seem to have defined knowledge as what is here expressed as "justified true belief"; the tendency to translate from belief to knowledge, which Plato utterly dismisses, results from failing to distinguish a dispositive belief from knowledge when the opinion is regarded true, in terms of right, juristically so, the task of the rhetors to prove. Plato dismisses this possibility of an affirmative relation between belief and knowledge when the one who opines grounds his belief on the rule, is able to add justification to it. Plato has been credited for the "justified true belief" theory of knowledge though Plato in the Theaetetus elegantly dismisses it, posits this argument of Socrates as a cause for his death penalty.
Among American epistemologists and Goldman, have questioned the "justified true belief" definition, challenged the "sophists" of their time. Mainstream psychology and related disciplines have traditionally treated belief as if it were the simplest form of mental representation and therefore one of the building blocks of conscious thought. Philosophers have tended to be more abstract in their analysis, much of the work examining the viability of the belief concept stems from philosophical analysis; the concept of belief presumes an object of belief. So, like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind, whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial. Beliefs are sometimes divided into dispositional beliefs. For example, if asked "do you believe tigers wear pink pajamas?" A person might answer that they do not, despite the fact they may never have thought about this situation before.
This has important implications for understanding the neuroscience of belief. If the concept of belief is incoherent any attempt to find the underlying neural processes that support it will fail. Philosopher Lynne Rudder Baker has outlined four main contemporary approaches to belief in her controversial book Saving Belief: Our common-sense understanding of belief is correct – Sometimes called the "mental sentence theory," in this conception, beliefs exist as coherent entities, the way we talk about them in everyday life is a valid basis for scientific endeavour. Jerry Fodor is one of the principal defenders of this point of view. Our common-sense understanding of belief may not be correct, but it is close enough to make some useful predictions – This view argues that we will reject the idea of belief as we know it now, but that there may be a correlation between what we take to be a belief when someone says "I believe that snow is white" and how a future theory of psychology will explain this behaviour.
Most notably, philosopher Stephen Stich has argued for this particular understanding of belief. Our common-sense understanding of belief is wrong and will be superseded by a radically different theory that will have no use for the concept of belief as we know it – Known as eliminativism, this view argues that the concept of belief is like obsolete theories of times past such as the four humours theory of medicine, or the phlogiston theory of combustion. In these cases science hasn't provided us with a more detailed account of these theories, but rejected them as valid scientific concepts to be replaced by different accounts; the Churchlands argue that our common-sense concept of belief is similar in that as we discover more about neuroscience and the brain, the inevitable conclusion will be to reject the belief hypothesis in its entirety. Our common-sense unders
Transubstantiation is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that in the Eucharistic offering bread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ; the reaffirmation of this doctrine was expressed, using the word "transubstantiate", by the Fourth Council of the Lateran in 1215. It was challenged by various 14th-century reformers, John Wycliffe in particular; the manner in which the change occurs, the Roman Catholic Church teaches, is a mystery: "The signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ." The precise terminology to be used to refer to the nature of the Eucharist and its theological implications has a contentious history in the Protestant Reformation. In the Greek Orthodox Church, the doctrine has been discussed under the term of metousiosis, coined as a direct loan-translation of transsubstantiatio in the 17th century.
In Eastern Orthodoxy in general, the Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist is more discussed using alternative terms such as "trans-elementation", "re-ordination", or "change". The belief that the bread and wine that form the matter of the Eucharist become the body and blood of Christ appears to have been widespread from an early date, with early Christian writers referring to them as his body and the blood, they speak of them as the same blood which suffered and died on the cross. The short document known as the Teaching of the Apostles or Didache, which may be the earliest Christian document outside of the New Testament to speak of the Eucharist, says, "Let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord. A figure, there could not have been, unless there were first a veritable body. An empty thing, or phantom, is incapable of a figure. If, however, He pretended the bread was His body, because He lacked the truth of bodily substance, it follows that He must have given bread for us."The Apostolic Constitutions says: "Let the bishop give the oblation, The body of Christ.
And let the deacon take the cup. Let us prove that this is not what nature made, but what the blessing consecrated, the power of blessing is greater than that of nature, because by blessing nature itself is changed.... For that sacrament which you receive is made, but if the word of Elijah had such power as to bring down fire from heaven, shall not the word of Christ have power to change the nature of the elements?... Why do you seek the order of nature in the Body of Christ, seeing that the Lord Jesus Himself was born of a Virgin, not according to nature? It is the true Flesh of Christ, crucified and buried, this is truly the Sacrament of His Body; the Lord Jesus Himself proclaims: "This Is My Body." Before the blessing of the heavenly words another nature is spoken of, after the consecration the Body is signified. He Himself speaks of His Blood. Before the consecration it has another name, and you say, that is, It is true. Let the heart within confess what the mouth utters, let the soul feel. Other fourth-century Christian writers say that in the Eucharist there occurs a "change", "transelementation", "transformation", "transposing", "alteration" of the bread into the body of Christ.
In AD 400, Augustine quotes Cyprian: "For as Christ says'I am the true vine,' it follows that the blood of Christ is wine, not water.
Catholic Mariology refers to Mariology—the systematic study of the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, of her place in the Economy of Salvation—within Catholic theology. Mary is seen as having a singular dignity above the saints; the Catholic Church teaches that she was conceived without original sin, therefore receiving a higher level of veneration than all other saints. Catholic Mariology thus studies not only her life but the veneration of her in daily life, hymns, art and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages; the four dogmas of perpetual virginity, Mother of God, Immaculate Conception and Assumption form the basis of Mariology. However, a number of other Catholic doctrines about the Virgin Mary have been developed by reference to sacred scripture, theological reasoning and Church tradition; the development of Mariology is ongoing and since the beginnings it has continued to be shaped by theological analyses, writings of saints, papal statements, e.g. while two Marian dogmas are ancient, the other two were defined in the 19th and 20th centuries.
In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Catholic Mariology. Other Christian views see Mariology as unbiblical and a denial of the uniqueness of Christ as redeemer and mediator to modern psychological interpretations of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Guan Yin; the study of Mary and her place in the Catholic Church has been undertaken from a number of perspectives and within a number of contexts, in his address to the 2012 Mariological congress, Pope Benedict XVI stated that this study must be "understood and examined from different and complementary viewpoints". Pope Benedict XVI emphasized that the study of Mary cannot be performed in isolation from other disciplines and that Mariology is inherently related to the study of Christ and of the Church, expresses the inner coherence of these disciplines. Pope Benedict XVI has stated that Marian studies have three separate characteristics: first personalizing the Church so it is not seen just as a structure but as a person, secondly the incarnational aspect and the relation to God, third Marian piety which involves the heart and the emotional component.
Mary's position in Church can be compared to the aspect of the Petrine office in a dual sense. This perspective on the duality of the roles of Mary and Peter highlights the subjective holiness of the heart and the holiness of the structure of the Church. In this duality, the Petrine office logically examines the charisms for their theological soundness, while the Marian dual provides a balance in the spiritual and emotional sense via the service of love that the office can never encompass. Mariology and the doctrine of office are thus not "side chapels" in Roman Catholic teachings, but are central and integrating elements of it; as referenced in the encyclical on the Mystical Body of Christ, Pius XII, 1943, her fiat gave consent for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature, thus giving humanity the means to salvation. Mary's rights, Mary's love are essential to salvation. Mariology is a field in which felt pious beliefs of the faithful and hagiography may conflict with theological and critical historical reviews of beliefs and practices.
This conflict was recognized as early as the year 1300 by William of Ware who described the tendency of some believers to attribute everything to Mary. Bonaventura warned against Marian maximalism. "One has to be careful as to not to minimize the honour of our Lord, Jesus Christ." Both minimalist and maximalist have always seen in Mary a sign of the Church and viewed her as a model for all Catholics. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XII, "the most Marian Pope in Church history" warned against both exuberant exaggerations and timid minimalism in the presentation of Mary; the Vatican II dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium was written in 1964 to avoid both Marian maximalism and minimalism. Pope John Paul II was careful to avoid both maximalism and minimalism in his Mariology and avoided taking personal positions on issues which were subject to theological debate. Mariology has been related to Christology and in the Roman Catholic theological and papal writings has been viewed as interwoven with the mystery of Christ.
Pope John Paul II discussed the "precise place of Mary" in the plan of salvation in the encyclical Redemptoris Mater and stated: "Following the line of the Second Vatican Council, I wish to emphasize the special presence of the Mother of God in the mystery of Christ and his Church. For this is a fundamental dimension emerging from the Mariology of the Council". Roman Catholic theologians have explored the interwoven natures of Mariology and Christology. Pope Benedict XVI characterized the relationship by stating that "Christology and Mariology are inseparably interwoven" from their beginnings. In his view, Mariology underscores the nexus of the mysteries of Christology and ecclesiology, reflects they are intrinsically interwoven. Early Christians and numerous saints focused on this connection and popes highlighted the inner link between Marian doctrines and a fuller understanding of Christological themes. Given the Catholic perspective that the Church lives in its relation to Christ, being the Body of Christ, it has a relation to his mother, whose study is the subject of Roman Catholic Mariology.
Pope Saint Pius X in Ad diem illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ."In Roman Catholic theology the study of Mary, while contributing to the study
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
A catechism is a summary or exposition of doctrine and serves as a learning introduction to the Sacraments traditionally used in catechesis, or Christian religious teaching of children and adult converts. Catechisms are doctrinal manuals – in the form of questions followed by answers to be memorised – a format, used in non-religious or secular contexts as well; the term catechumen refers to the designated recipient of the catechetical instruction. In the Catholic Church, catechumens are those. Traditionally, they would be placed separately during Holy Mass from those, baptized, would be dismissed from the liturgical assembly before the Profession of Faith and General Intercessions. Catecheticals are characteristic of Western Christianity but are present in Eastern Orthodox Christianity. In 1973, The Common Catechism, the first joint catechism of Catholics and Protestants, was published by theologians of the major Western Christian traditions, as a result of extensive ecumenical dialogue. Before the Protestant Reformation, Christian catechesis took the form of instruction in and memorization of the Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, basic knowledge of the sacraments.
The word "catechism" for a manual for this instruction appeared in the Late Middle Ages. The use of a question and answer format was popularized by Martin Luther in his 1529 Small Catechism, he wanted the catechumen to understand what he was learning, so the Decalogue, Lord's Prayer, Apostles' Creed were broken up into small sections, with the question "What does this mean" following each portion. The format calls upon a master and a student, or a parent and a child; the Westminster Shorter Catechism is an example: Q. What is the chief end of man? A. To glorify God and enjoy Him forever! Q. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy Him? A; the word of God, contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. The catechism's question-and-answer format, with a view toward the instruction of children, was a form adopted by the various Protestant confessions from the beginning of the Reformation. Among the first projects of the Reformation was the production of catechisms self-consciously modelled after the older traditions of Cyril of Jerusalem and Augustine.
These catechisms showed special admiration for Chrysostom's view of the family as a "little church", placed strong responsibility on every father to teach his children, in order to prevent them from coming to baptism or the Lord's table ignorant of the doctrine under which they are expected to live as Christians. Luther's Large Catechism typifies the emphasis which the churches of the Augsburg Confession placed on the importance of knowledge and understanding of the articles of the Christian faith. Intended as instruction to teachers to parents, the catechism consists of a series of exhortations on the importance of each topic of the catechism, it is meant for those who have the capacity to understand, is meant to be memorized and repeatedly reviewed so that the Small Catechism could be taught with understanding. For example, the author stipulates in the preface: Therefore it is the duty of every father of a family to question and examine his children and servants at least once a week and to ascertain what they know of it, or are learning and, if they do not know it, to keep them faithfully at it.
The catechism, Luther wrote, should consist of instruction in the rule of conduct, which always accuses us because we fail to keep it, the rule of faith, the rule of prayer, the sacraments. Luther adds: However, it is not enough for them to comprehend and recite these parts according to the words only, but the young people should be made to attend the preaching during the time, devoted to the catechism, that they may hear it explained and may learn to understand what every part contains, so as to be able to recite it as they have heard it, when asked, may give a correct answer, so that the preaching may not be without profit and fruit. Luther's Small Catechism, in contrast, is written to accommodate the understanding of a child or an uneducated person, it begins: The First CommandmentYou shall have no other gods. Q. What does this mean? A. We should fear and trust in God above all things. Calvin's 1545 preface to the Genevan catechism begins with an acknowledgement that the several traditions and cultures which were joined in the Reformed movement would produce their own form of instruction in each place.
While Calvin argues that no effort should be expended on preventing this, he adds: We are all directed to one Christ, in whose truth being united together, we may grow up into one body and one spirit, with the same mouth proclaim whatever belongs to the sum of faith. Catechists not intent on this end, besides fatally injuring the Church, by sowing the materials of dissension in religion introduce an impious profanation of baptism. For where can any longer be the utility of baptism unless this remain as its foundation — that we all agree in one faith? Wherefore, those who publish Catechisms ought to be the more on their guard, by producing anything rashly, they may not for the present only, but in regard to posterity do grievous harm to piety, inflict a deadly wound on the Church; the scandal of diverse instruction is that it produces diverse baptisms and diverse communions, diverse faith. However, forms may v
Self-defense is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions. Physical self-defense is the use of physical force to counter an immediate threat of violence; such force can be either unarmed. In either case, the chances of success depend on a large number of parameters, related to the severity of the threat on one hand, but on the mental and physical preparedness of the defender. Many styles of martial arts include self-defense techniques; some styles train for self-defense, while other martial or combat sports can be applied for self-defense. Some martial arts train how to escape from a knife or gun situation, or how to break away from a punch, while others train how to attack. To provide more practical self-defense, many modern martial arts schools now use a combination of martial arts styles and techniques, will customize self-defense training to suit individual participants.
A wide variety of weapons can be used for self-defense. The most suitable depends on the threat presented, the victim or victims, the experience of the defender. Legal restrictions greatly influence self-defence options. In many cases there are legal restrictions. While in some jurisdictions firearms may be carried or concealed expressly for this purpose, many jurisdictions have tight restrictions on who can own firearms, what types they can own. Knives those categorized as switchblades may be controlled, as may batons, pepper spray and personal stun guns and Tasers - although some may be legal to carry with a license or for certain professions. Non-injurious water-based self-defense indelible dye-marker sprays, or ID-marker or DNA-marker sprays linking a suspect to a crime scene, would in most places be legal to own and carry. Everyday objects, such as flashlights, baseball bats, keyrings with keys, kitchen utensils and other tools, hair spray aerosol cans in combination with a lighter, can be used as improvised weapons for self-defense.
Tie-wraps double as an effective restraint. Weapons such as the Kubotan have been built for ease of to resemble everyday objects. Ballpoint pen knives, cane guns and modified umbrellas are similar categories of concealed self-defense weapons that serve a dual purpose. Being aware of and avoiding dangerous situations is one useful technique of self-defense. Attackers will select victims they feel they have an advantage against, such as greater physical size, numerical superiority or sobriety versus intoxication. Additionally, any ambush situation inherently puts the defender at a large initiative disadvantage; these factors make fighting to defeat an attacker unlikely to succeed. When avoidance is impossible, one has a better chance at fighting to escape, such methods have been referred to as'break away' techniques. Understanding the'mindset' of a potential attacker is essential if we are to avoid or escape a life-threatening situation. Verbal Self Defense known as Verbal Judo or Verbal Aikido, is defined as using one's words to prevent, de-escalate, or end an attempted assault.
This kind of'conflict management' is the use of voice and body language to calm a violent situation before violence ensues. This involves techniques such as deflecting the conversation to individuals who are less passionately involved, or entering into a protected empathetic position to understand the attacker better. Lowering an attacker's defense and raising their ego is one way to de-escalate a violent situation. Personal alarms are a way to practice passive self-defense. A personal alarm is a small, hand-held device that emits strong, high-pitched sounds to deter attackers because the noise will sometimes draw the attention of passersby. Child alarms can function as locators or device alarms such as for triggering an alert when a swimming pool is in use to help prevent dangerous situations in addition to being a deterrent against would-be aggressors. Self-defense techniques and recommended behavior under the threat of violence is systematically taught in self-defense classes. Commercial self-defense education is part of the martial arts industry in the wider sense, many martial arts instructors give self-defense classes.
While all martial arts training can be argued to have some self-defense applications, self-defense courses are marketed explicitly as being oriented towards effectiveness and optimized towards situations as they occur in the real world. There are a large number of systems taught commercially, many tailored to the needs of specific target audiences. Notable systems taught commercially include: civilian versions of modern military combatives, such as Krav-Maga, Defendo and Systema Jujutsu and arts derived from it, such as Aikijujutsu, Bartitsu, German ju-jutsu, Kodokan Goshin Jutsu. Model Mugging Traditional unarmed fighting styles like Karate, Kung fu, Pencak Silat, etc; these styles can include competing. Traditional armed fighting styles like Kali Eskrima and Arnis; these include competing, as well as unarmed combat. Street Fighting oriented, unarmed systems, such as. A course in self defense will compr