Boomerang (1947 film)
Boomerang! is a 1947 American crime film noir based on the true story of a vagrant, accused of murder, only to be found not guilty through the efforts of the prosecutor. It stars Lee J. Cobb, Karl Malden, Arthur Kennedy and Jane Wyatt; the film was directed by Elia Kazan, based on a story in Reader's Digest and was shot in Stamford, Connecticut after Kazan was denied permission to film in Bridgeport, where the actual events occurred. This semidocumentary contains voice-overs by Reed Hadley; the film was entered into the 1947 Cannes Film Festival. Father Lambert, a priest, is shot dead on a Connecticut street at night; the police, led by Chief Robinson, fail to find the murderer. It soon becomes a political hot potato, with the police accused of incompetence, the city's reform-minded administration comes under attack. Robinson and the prosecutor Henry Harvey come under severe pressure by political leaders to find the killer or bring in outside help. After strenuous efforts yield nothing, a vagrant ex-serviceman, John Waldron, is apprehended and identified in a lineup.
He is interrogated for two days by police. The evidence seems solid, a gun in his possession is believed to be the gun, used in the shooting. Harvey, however, is not convinced, he questions Waldron, investigates the evidence and the witnesses. Harvey risks his reputation and incurs the wrath of the police and the public in proposing that the defendant is innocent, while he and his wife are being threatened by a businessman named Harris. In court though he is the prosecutor, Harvey lays out the flaws in the case before the judge, indicates he intends to dismiss the charges; the judge suspects Harvey's motives. A sub-plot involving Paul Harris and a property under consideration for sale to the city—at a price Harris needs to keep himself afloat—also has a prominent place in the film. Harris tries to blackmail Harvey by threatening to destroy his wife, a planning committee member, unless he supports the sale and sits idle, allowing Waldron to be convicted. At a preliminary hearing, Harvey once again presents evidence that would lead to Waldron's exoneration.
When a reporter gets wind of the double-dealing and threatens Harris with exposure, Harris commits suicide in the courtroom. The film ends with a narration that the murder was never solved, the real Henry Harvey was Homer Cummings who rose to the position of U. S. Attorney General. Dana Andrews as State's Atty. Henry L. Harvey Jane Wyatt as Madge Harvey Lee J. Cobb as Chief Harold F. "Robby" Robinson Cara Williams as Irene Nelson Arthur Kennedy as John Waldron Sam Levene as Dave Woods Taylor Holmes as T. M. Wade Robert Keith as "Mac" McCreery Ed Begley as Paul Harris Karl Malden as Det. Lt. White William Challee as Stone, Harvey's assistant Lewis Leverett as Whitney, Harvey's assistant Arthur Miller as a suspect in the police line-up Wyrley Birch as Father Lambert The film is based on an actual murder case in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1924. While walking near the Lyric Theatre in downtown Bridgeport, the Rev. Hubert Dahme was fatally shot behind the left ear by a gun fired at close range; those in the theatre were so shocked that no one thought to call for an ambulance until 10 minutes had passed.
Two hours the priest was pronounced dead at St. Vincent's Hospital in Bridgeport. A vagrant and discharged soldier, Harold Israel, was indicted for the murder. Israel confessed to the crime, a.32 revolver was found in his possession that police believe was used in the murder. Fairfield County, Connecticut state's attorney Homer Cummings conducted a thorough investigation and found Israel innocent of the crime. Cummings became Attorney General of the United States under Franklin D. Roosevelt; the Morning Record was the name used in the film for the Bridgeport Post. All of the film was shot in Stamford, except for the courtroom scene shot in White Plains, New York. Stamford locations: The South End of Stamford at Saint Luke's Chapel. Old Town Hall the Police Department offices and the stairway leading up from them to the courtroom; the Altschul home on Den Road in Stamford. For a scene in which the pastor was killed, the movie used the front and sidewalk of the Plaza Theatre, which stood on Greyrock Place.
The former offices of The Advocate of Stamford, the local daily newspaper, on Atlantic Street. Some members of the Advocate editorial staff members were used in a scene about the news breaking that the priest killer had been caught; the movie premiered at the Palace Theatre in Stamford on March 5, 1947, with Kazan and Andrews in attendance. When first released film critic Bosley Crowther discussed the filmmaking, writing the "...style of presentation has resulted in a drama of rare clarity and punch."The staff at Variety gave the film a positive review and wrote, "Boomerang! is gripping, real-life melodrama, told in semi-documentary style. Lensing
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Call Northside 777
Call Northside 777 is a 1948 reality-based film noir directed by Henry Hathaway and starring James Stewart. The picture parallels a true story of a Chicago reporter who proved that a man in prison for murder was wrongly convicted 11 years before; the names of the real wrongly convicted men were Majczek and Marcinkiewicz for the murder of Chicago Traffic Police Officer William D. Lundy. Stewart stars as Richard Conte plays the imprisoned Frank Wiecek. Wiecek is based on Joseph Majczek, wrongly convicted of the murder of a Chicago policeman in 1932, one of the worst years of organized crime during Prohibition. In Chicago in 1932, during Prohibition, a policeman is murdered inside a speakeasy. Frank Wiecek and another man are arrested, are sentenced to serve 99 years imprisonment each for the killing. Eleven years Wiecek's mother puts an ad in the newspaper offering a $5,000 reward for information about the true killers of the police officer; this leads the city editor of the Chicago Times, Brian Kelly, to assign reporter P.
J. McNeal to look more into the case. McNeal is skeptical at first, but he starts to change his mind, meets increased resistance from the police and the state attorney's office, who are unwilling to be proved wrong. This is followed by political pressure from the state capital, where politicians are anxious to end a story that might prove embarrassing to the administration. Wiecek is proved innocent by, among other things, the enlarging of a photograph showing the date on a newspaper that proves that a key witness statement was false. In actuality, innocence was determined not as claimed in the film but when it was found out that the prosecution had suppressed the fact that the main witness had declared that she could not identify the two men involved in the police shooting; this was the first Hollywood feature film to be shot on location in Chicago. Views of the Merchandise Mart as well as Holy Trinity Polish Mission can be seen throughout the film, it was reported on Jan 24, 1947, according to the studio, the picture would be filmed in the documentary manner.
Fox had obtained the necessary legal clearances from the persons involved in the story and had dispatched Otto Lang and Leonard Hoffman, writer, to Chicago to gather material for the film. Quentin Reynolds and Jay Dratler joined Hoffman in writing the script. Casting the film proved complex. According to Mar. 7 report in The New York Times, Twentieth Century-Fox had named Henry Fonda to play the newspaper reporter in "Call Northside 777", which would precede "Chicken Every Sunday" and "Loan Star Preacher" on Fonda's schedule. However, after a month, another report pointed out that Fox had named Fonda for a leading role in the screen adaptation of Elizabeth Janeway's novel, "Daisy Kenyon", which necessitated Fonda's replacement in "Call Northside 777". Two months another report said that Twentieth Century-Fox was "negotiating for the services of James Stewart for the leading role in'Call Northside 777'." Lloyd Nolan was named to play the role of Brian Kelly, but Lee J. Cobb replaced him in the end.
Leopoldine Konstantine was scheduled to play the wrongly convicted man's mother, but in the end the role went to Kasia Orzazewski. For an episode of CBS Radio's "Hollywood Sound Stage", broadcast December 27, 1951, Harry Cronman adapted and directed a condensed 30-minute version of the film, casting Dana Andrews and Thomas Gomez in the leads. Tony Barrett, Bob Sweeney, Betty Lou Gerson, Frank Nelson played supporting roles; the April 17, 1951, audition episode of the radio program "Defense Attorney" starring Mercedes McCambridge was based on the same plot, with some modifications. The film received positive reviews when it was first released, again when it was released on DVD in 2004. In 2004, the Onion AV Club Review argued that the film may not be a true film noir, but is good nonetheless: "Outstanding location shooting and Stewart's driven performance turn a sober film into a vibrant, exciting one though the hero and the jailbird he champions are too noble for noir." The website DVD Verdict made the case that the lead actor may be the best reason to see the film: "Its value exists in Stewart's finely drawn characterization of a cynical man with a nagging conscience.""By far the best documentary-style movie yet...
Hands down the most expert, informative and develops the most substantial audience rooting interest of them all"---AGER, PM. "Calls for three cheers from every working newspaper man and, for that matter, for at least two from every moviegoer."---CREELMAN N. Y Sun Wins Edgar Award: from the Mystery Writers of America for Best Motion Picture Screenplay. Nominations Writers Guild of America: WGA Award. "Call Northside 777" was advertised in a novel manner by the Valerie Theatre. The manager picked at random numbers from the phone book. If the party called answered by saying "Are you calling Northside 777," free tickets to see the show were given; the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2001: AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – Nominated Call Northside 777 on IMDb Call Northside 777 at AllMovie Call Northside 777 at the TCM Movie Database Call Northside 777 at the American Film Institute Catalog Joseph M. Majczek legal case at Northwestern University School of Law Call Northside 777 film trailer on YouTube More follow-up on `Call Northside 777' Call Northside 777 on Scr
The Gallant Hours
The Gallant Hours is an American docudrama from 1960 about William F. Halsey, Jr. and his efforts in fighting against Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto and the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Guadalcanal campaign of World War II. This film was directed by Robert Montgomery, who did uncredited narration, it stars James Cagney as Admiral Halsey. Featured in the cast are Dennis Weaver, Ward Costello, Vaughn Taylor, Richard Jaeckel, Les Tremayne; the screenplay was by Frank D. Gilroy and Beirne Lay, Jr. and the unusual a cappella choral score was composed and conducted by Roger Wagner, although the theme song was written by Ward Costello. The film was produced by Montgomery and Cagney, it was the only film made by their joint production company, it was Cagney's last starring role in a dramatic film. The Gallant Hours was released by the United Artists company on June 22, 1960; the film starts and ends with these words from the score's song performed by the Roger Wagner Chorale group, which sums up the story of the film: I knew a lad who went to sea and left the shore behind him.
– from the opening choraleThe Gallant Hours depicts the crucial five-week period in October–November 1942 after Admiral Halsey took command of the beleaguered American forces in the South Pacific Area. That period of combat became a turning point in the struggle against the Japanese Empire during the World War II; the story is told in flashback, framed by Halsey's ceremony of going on inactive duty in 1947. Unusual for a war film, The Gallant Hours has no battle scenes. All the fighting takes place off-screen, there is an emphasis throughout the film on logistics and strategy rather than the tactics and combat. Fundamentally, the film becomes a battle of wills and wits between the dogged Halsey and his brilliant Japanese counterpart, Admiral Yamamoto. For dramatic effect, the secret mission to kill Yamamoto is made contemporaneous with the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. In fact, Yamamoto was killed over Bougainville five months in April 1943. Somewhat unorthodox is that scenes depicting Japanese staff officers were performed in Japanese, with only summary translations provided by the narrator.
This narration was remarkably evenhanded in its characterization of the enemy for an American feature film of this period. The film's coda is a quote from Admiral Halsey: "There are no great men, only great challenges that ordinary men are forced by circumstances to meet." The sons of the film's two principals, James Cagney, Jr. and Robert Montgomery, Jr. both appear in the film, uncredited, as U. S. Marines. For Cagney, this was his only film appearance, whereas Montgomery appeared in four other films and a half-dozen television episodes. Director Robert Montgomery had served under Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr. as a Commander in the U. S. Navy during World War II, he came up with the idea of making a film about Halsey when he attended the 75th birthday celebration honoring the Admiral in 1957. Montgomery and his good friend James Cagney acquired the rights to Halsey's life story that year, they formed a production company, Cagney-Montgomery Productions, to make the film. Montgomery had started directing on 1945's They Were Expendable, substituting for John Ford when Ford was ill, made his credited directorial debut in 1947 with Lady in the Lake.
He had produced for television before, but The Gallant Hours was the first feature film he both directed and produced. It turned out to be his last involvement of any kind in film and television as a producer, director, or actor. Cagney's foray into production was his first, his last. Under his contract agreement with Cagney-Montgomery Productions, Admiral Halsey would receive 10 percent of the profits from the motion picture. During a visit with his son, William F. Halsey III, in La Jolla, Admiral Halsey went to Camp Pendleton where The Gallant Hours was being filmed. William F. Halsey III remarked that he was startled at how much James Cagney looked like his father did during World War II; the voiceover narration technique Montgomery utilized was similar to what he had done in Lady in the Lake, although in that case the narration was in the first person. What is striking about the narrative in The Gallant Hours is the degree of detail provided to introduce both main and minor characters to the audience sometimes indicating the manner of their death in the near future.
Unusual is that both American and Japanese characters are treated in a neutral and evenhanded way. The production team utilized the services of three technical advisors in making the film – Captain Joseph U. Lademan, Captain Idris Monahan, James T. Goto, who not only was the Japanese advisor but portrayed Admiral Yamamoto in the film. For James Cagney, The Gallant Hours was "a labor of love, a tribute to that wonderful man Admiral William F.'Bull' Halsey" for himself and his long-time friend Robert Montgomery. Cagney praised Montgomery because he "steered away from roaring guns. We concentrated on Halsey himself, trying to convey some of the tension of high command" in the film. In researching his role as Halsey, Cagney interviewed many men who had served under the Admiral, including two interviews with the admiral himself, but he found the role a difficult one, despite the physical similarities between the two men. Cagney was concerned that he not impose any of his usual acting mannerisms on the character of Halsey – on the other hand, despite having met his subject several times, he didn't try to imitate Halsey's manneris
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
13 Rue Madeleine
13 Rue Madeleine is a 1947 World War II spy film directed by Henry Hathaway and starring James Cagney and Richard Conte. The title refers to the Le Havre address. Bob Sharkey, an instructor with a group of American espionage candidates, teaches his students the art of enemy infiltration. However, he is alerted that one of the students is a Nazi-German agent named "Bill O'Connell". Sharkey's boss, Charles Gibson, confirms that O'Connell is Wilhelm Kuncel, one of Germany's top spies, but tells Sharkey to pass him through the course, as they know Kuncel's mission is to determine the date and location of the planned Allied invasion of Europe, they intend to provide Kuncel with false information to pass along to his superiors. At the end of their training, three of the new agents—Frenchwoman Suzanne de Beaumont, American Jeff Lassiter, Kuncel—are sent to Great Britain. From there, they prepare to embark on a mission into German-occupied France. Kuncel is briefed on a fictitious invasion of Europe through Holland, but at the last minute, he asks Gibson to send Lassiter with him.
Lassiter has been briefed on a different mission—to locate the factory depot for V-2 rockets that will be used against the Allied invasion ports, with Suzanne as his radio operator. Sharkey tells Lassiter about Kuncel and assigns him to accompany Kuncel into Holland, but to continue on his own mission. If Kuncel tries to follow Lassiter instead of completing his own mission, Lassiter is to kill him. However, Lassiter's uneasiness alerts Kuncel; when the trio parachutes into Holland, Lassiter's parachute fails to open, he plummets to his death. The jumpmaster of the B-24 Liberator transporting the group discovers that the strap to Lassiter's static line was deliberately cut. Gibson and Sharkey realize that Kuncel knows that the information he was given is false and that he can identify every agent with whom he trained. With no time to brief another agent to act in Lassiter's stead, Sharkey parachutes into France. With the help of the local French resistance led by the town's mayor and his driver, Sharkey completes his mission, apprehending the collaborator who designed the V-2 depot and returning him to Great Britain.
However, while intercepting Kuncel as he tries to stop the pickup airplane from taking off, Sharkey is captured. Suzanne is killed while transmitting the news to England; the Gestapo torture Sharkey. Back in Great Britain, Gibson has no choice but to order a bombing raid to destroy the Gestapo headquarters and kill Sharkey before he cracks; as the bombs strike and Kuncel both perish. James Cagney as Robert Emmett'Bob' Sharkey Richard Conte as Wilhelm Kuncel / William H.'Bill' O'Connell Annabella as Suzanne de Beaumont Frank Latimore as Jeff Lassiter Walter Abel as Charles Gibson Melville Cooper as Pappy Simpson Sam Jaffe as Mayor Galimard Karl Malden as B-24 Jumpmaster E. G. Marshall as Emile Trevor Bardette as Resistance fighter Red Buttons as Second Jump Master Arno Frey as German Officer Donald Randolph as La Roche Roland Winters as Van Duyval Blanche Yurka as Madame Thillot Prohibited from mentioning the OSS during the war due to secrecy, several Hollywood studios made their own films about the agency after the war, such as Paramount's O.
S. S. Warner Bros./United States Pictures Cloak and Dagger, RKO/Alfred Hitchcock's Notorious. Though 13 Rue Madeleine was written to showcase the O. S. S. with Cagney playing a character based on William Donovan and featuring Peter Ortiz as a technical advisor, Donovan raised major objections to the film, including the idea that his agency had been infiltrated by an enemy agent. The spy group was renamed "O77" and Cagney's character had no similarities to Donovan; the film followed Fox's The House on 92nd Street, a true story of Federal Bureau of Investigation counter espionage, which shared the same director and one of the writers. Much of the filming was done in Quebec City, Canada; the scene where Sharkey is leaving the "local French HQ", on his way to meet with the local resistance was shot on rue Donnacona, with the Ursulines School in the background. The Breen Office objected to the Americans bombing a building to kill Sharkey, but Sy Bartlett, one of the film's scriptwriters, had been in the Army Air Corps during World War II and such an incident did take place, though in a different context.
According to Henry Hathaway, the film's director, that actual occurrence was the basis for the film's final scene. 13 Rue Madeleine on IMDb 13 Rue Madeleine at AllMovie 13 Rue Madeleine at the TCM Movie Database 13 Rue Madeleine at Rotten Tomatoes 13 Rue Madeleine at the American Film Institute Catalog
20th Century Fox
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation is an American film studio, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The studio is located on its namesake studio lot in the Century City area of Los Angeles. For over 84 years, it was one of the "Big Six" major American film studios. In 1985, the studio was acquired by News Corporation, succeeded by 21st Century Fox in 2013 following the spin-off of its publishing assets. In 2019, The Walt Disney Company acquired 20th Century Fox through its merger with 21st Century Fox. Starting with Breakthrough, all studio releases will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. Disney now owns the rights to the studio's pre-merger film library. Twentieth Century Pictures' Joseph Schenck and Darryl F. Zanuck left United Artists over a stock dispute, began merger talks with the management of financially struggling Fox Film, under President Sidney Kent. Spyros Skouras manager of the Fox West Coast Theaters, helped make it happen.
The company had been struggling since founder William Fox lost control of the company in 1930. The new company, 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation, began trading on May 31, 1935. Kent remained at the company, joining Zanuck. Zanuck replaced Winfield Sheehan as the company's production chief; the company established a special training school. Lynn Bari, Patricia Farr and Anne Nagel were among 14 young women "launched on the trail of film stardom" on August 6, 1935, when they each received a six-month contract with 20th Century Fox after spending 18 months in the school; the contracts included a studio option for renewal for as long as seven years. For many years, 20th Century Fox claimed to have been founded in 1915, the year Fox Film was founded. For instance, it marked 1945 as its 30th anniversary. However, in recent years it has claimed the 1935 merger as its founding though most film historians agree it was founded in 1915; the company's films retained the 20th Century Pictures searchlight logo on their opening credits as well as its opening fanfare, but with the name changed to 20th Century-Fox.}
After the merger was completed, Zanuck signed young actors to help carry 20th Century-Fox: Tyrone Power, Linda Darnell, Carmen Miranda, Don Ameche, Henry Fonda, Gene Tierney, Sonja Henie, Betty Grable. Fox hired Alice Faye and Shirley Temple, who appeared in several major films for the studio in the 1930's. Higher attendance during World War II helped Fox overtake RKO and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to become the third most profitable film studio. In 1941, Zanuck was commissioned as a lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Signal Corps and assigned to supervise production of U. S. Army training films, his partner, William Goetz, filled in at Fox. In 1942, Spyros Skouras succeeded Kent as president of the studio. During the next few years, with pictures like The Razor's Edge, Gentleman's Agreement, The Snake Pit and Pinky, Zanuck established a reputation for provocative, adult films. Fox specialized in adaptations of best-selling books such as Ben Ames Williams' Leave Her to Heaven, starring Gene Tierney, the highest-grossing Fox film of the 1940s.
Fox produced film versions of Broadway musicals, including the Rodgers and Hammerstein films, beginning with the musical version of State Fair, the only work that the partnership wrote for films. After the war, with the advent of television, audiences drifted away. 20th Century-Fox held on to its theaters until a court-mandated "divorce". That year, with attendance at half the 1946 level, 20th Century-Fox gambled on an unproven gimmick. Noting that the two film sensations of 1952 had been Cinerama, which required three projectors to fill a giant curved screen, "Natural Vision" 3D, which got its effects of depth by requiring the use of polarized glasses, Fox mortgaged its studio to buy rights to a French anamorphic projection system which gave a slight illusion of depth without glasses. President Spyros Skouras struck a deal with the inventor Henri Chrétien, leaving the other film studios empty-handed, in 1953 introduced CinemaScope in the studio's groundbreaking feature film The Robe. Zanuck announced in February 1953.
To convince theater owners to install this new process, Fox agreed to help pay conversion costs. Seeing the box-office for the first two CinemaScope features, The Robe and How to Marry a Millionaire, Warner Bros. MGM, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures and Disney adopted the process. In 1956 Fox engaged Robert Lippert to establish a subsidiary company, Regal Pictures Associated Producers Incorporated to film B pictures in CinemaScope. Fox produced new musicals using the CinemaScope process including Carousel and The King and I. CinemaScope brought a brief upturn in attendance; that year Darryl Zanuck announced his resignation as head of production. Zanuck moved to Paris, setting up as an independent producer being in the United States for many years. Zanuck's successor, producer Buddy Adler, died a year later. President Spyros Skouras brought in a series of production executives, but none had Zanuck's success. By the early 1960s, Fox was in trouble. A new version of Cleopatra had begun in 1959 with Joan Collins in the