Nandi is the gate-guardian deity of Kailasa, the abode of Lord Shiva. He is depicted as a bull, which serves as the mount to Shiva. According to Saivite siddhantic tradition, he is considered as the chief guru of eight disciples of Nandinatha Sampradaya, Sanaka, Sanandana, Tirumular, Vyagrapada and Sivayoga Muni, who were sent in eight different directions, to spread the wisdom of Shaivism; the word Nandi has come from Tamil root word, which means to grow, to flourish, or to appear, used to indicate growing or flourishing of white bulls, as well as divine bull nandi. The Sanskrit word nandi has the meaning of happy and satisfaction, the properties of divine guardian of Shiva- Nandi. All Shiva temples display stone-images of a seated Nandi facing the main shrine, it is documented, that the application of the name Nandi to the bull, is in fact a development of recent syncretism of different regional beliefs within Saivism. The name Nandi was used instead for an anthropomorphic door-keeper of Kailasha, rather than his mount, in the oldest Saivite texts in Sanskrit and other Indian languages.
Siddhantic texts distinct Nandi from Vṛṣabha. According to them, Chandesha, Mahakala, Vṛṣabha, Ganesha and Murugan, are the eight Ganeshwaras of Shiva; the worship of Shiva and Nandi can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization time-period. The famous'Pasupati Seal' depicts a seated figure, identified as Shiva, there were many bull-seals found in Mohenjo daro and Harappa, which led to conclusion of the researchers, that it might be the origin of Bull-cum-Nandi worship. Nandi is described as the son of the sage Shilada. Shilada underwent severe penance to have a boon– a child with immortality and blessings of Lord Shiva, received Nandi as his son, it is said that Nandi was born from a Yajna performed by the Shilada, his body was clad in armour made out of diamonds, when he was born. Nandi grew as an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva and he did penance to become his gate-keeper, as well as his mount, on the banks of river Narmada, near Tripur Tirth Kshetra in present-day Nandikeshwar Temple, in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
Nandi got the divine-knowledge of Agamic and Tantric wisdom taught from goddess Parvati. He could teach that divine-knowledge to his eight disciples, who are identified as the progenitors of Nandinatha Sampradaya, Sanaka, Sanandana, Tirumular, Vyagrapada and Sivayoga Muni; these eight disciples were sent in eight different directions of the world by Nandi, to spread this knowledge. Many other puranic tales are available about Nandi. One describes his conflict with the anti-hero of Ramayana. Nandi cursed Ravana. Hanuman burned Lanka when he went in search of Sita, imprisoned by Ravana in Ashok Vatika. Tamil Thiruvilaiyadal Puranam mentions another story, it says. Parvati incarnated as a fisher-woman to atone. To unite his master and his beloved-wife, Nandi took the form of a whale and started to trouble the people. Fisher-woman Parvati's father told. Shiva took the form of a fisherman and killed the whale, received Parvati in her previous form. Agamas describe him in a zoo-anthropomorphic form, with the head of bull and four hands, with antelope, axe and abhayamudra.
In his mount form, Nandi is depicted as a seated bull in all Shiva temples, all over the world. This form has been found in Southeast Asian countries including Cambodia; the white color of the bull symbolizes justice. Symbolically, the seated Nandi towards sanctum in Shiva temples, represents an individual jiva and the message that the jiva should always be focused on the Parameshwara. From the yogic perspective, Nandi is the mind dedicated to the absolute. In other words, to understand and absorb light, the experience and the wisdom is Nandi, the guru within. Nandi flag or Vrshabha flag, a flag with the emblem of seated bull is recognized as the flag of Saivism among Tamil community all over the world. Nandi was the emblem of historical Tamil Saivite monarchs, such as Pallava dynasty and Jaffna Kingdom. Several campaigns to aware the Saivites about their Nandi flag is carried out continuously during the Shivaratri session among Tamil community of Sri Lanka, Tamil Nadu, diaspora; the nandi flag used nowadays was designed by Ravindra Sastri of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, according to the request and guidance of S. Danapala, a Sri Lankan Saivite personage, in the 1990s.
The first Nandi flag was hoisted at Colombo Hindu College at Ratmalana, Sri Lanka. Following years, It was declared as the official Saivite flag in fourth International Saiva Siddhanta Conference, held in Zurich in 2008. Nowadays, Tamil Saivites in Sri Lanka, Australia, UK, South Africa, Switzerland, hoist the flag in all religious and cultural festivals. Nandi flag was declared as the official Hindu flag of Sri Lanka. Kamadhenu Cattle in religion Gavaevodata, the primordial cow in Zoroastrianism Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend 2004 by Anna Dallapiccola
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Aarti spelled arti, arathi, aarthi is a Hindu religious ritual of worship, a part of puja, in which light is offered to one or more deities. Aarti refers to the songs sung in praise of the deity, when the light is being offered. Aarti is derived from the Sanskrit word आरात्रिक which means something that removes darkness. A Marathi language reference says it is known as Mahaneeranjana. Aarti is said to have descended from homa. In the traditional aarti ceremony, the flower represents the earth, the water and accompanying handkerchief correspond with the water element, the ghee or oil lamp represents the fire component, the peacock fan conveys the precious quality of air, the yak-tail fan represents the subtle form of ether; the incense represents a purified state of mind, one's "intelligence" is offered through the adherence to rules of timing and order of offerings. Thus, one's entire existence and all facets of material creation are symbolically offered to the Lord via the aarti ceremony; the word may refer to the traditional Hindu devotional song, sung during the ritual.
Aarti always includes flame or light. It is sometimes performed one to five times daily, at the end of a puja or bhajan session, it is performed during all Hindu ceremonies and occasions. It involves the circulating of an'Aarti plate' or'Aarti lamp' around a person or deity and is accompanied by the congregation singing songs in praise of that deva or person - many versions exist. In most versions the plate, lamp, or flame represents the power of the deity; the priest circulates the lamp to all those present. They cup their down-turned hands over the flame and raise their palms to their forehead – the blessing has now been passed to the devotee; the aarti plate is made of metal silver, bronze or copper. On it must repose a lamp made of kneaded flour, mud or metal, filled with oil or ghee. One or more cotton wicks are put into the oil and lighted, or camphor is burnt instead; the plate may contain flowers and akshata. In some temples, a plate is not used and the priest holds the ghee lamp in his hand when offering it to the Deities.
The purpose of performing aarti is the waving of lighted wicks before the deities in a spirit of humility and gratitude, wherein faithful followers become immersed in god's divine form. It symbolises the five elements: Space Wind Fire Water Earth Community Aarti is performed in the mandir. Aarti can be an expression of many things including love, gratitude, prayers, or desires depending on the object it is done to/ for. For example, it can be a form of respect when performed to elders, prayers when performed to deities, or hope when performed for homes or vehicles. Emotions and prayers are silent while doing Aarti, but this is determined by the person carrying out the ritual or the holiday involved. It's believed that goodwill and luck can be taken through symbolic hand movements over the flame; when aarti is performed, the performer faces the deity of god and concentrates on the form of god by looking into the eyes of the deity to get immersed. The flame of the aarti illuminates the various parts of the deity so that the performer and onlookers may better see and concentrate on the form.
Aarti is waved in clockwise manner around the deity. After every circle, when Aarti has reached the bottom, the performer waves it backwards while remaining in the bottom and continues waving it in clockwise fashion; the idea here is that aarti represents our daily activities, which revolves around god, a center of our life. Looking at god while performing aarti reminds the performer to keep god at the center of all activities and reinforces the understanding that routine worldly activities are secondary in importance; this understanding would give the believers strength to withstand the unexpected grief and keeps them humble and remindful of god during happy moments. Apart from worldly activities aarti represents one's self - thus, aarti signifies that one is peripheral to godhead or divinity; this would help one remain humble in spite of high social and economic rank. A third held understanding of the ritual is that aarti serves as a reminder to stay vigilant so that the forces of material pleasures and desires cannot overcome the individual.
Just as the lighted wick provides light and chases away darkness, the vigilance of an individual can keep away the influence of the material world. Aarti is not only limited to god. Aarti can performed not only to all forms of life, but inanimate objects which help in progress of the culture; this is exemplified by performer of the aarti waving aarti to all the devotees as the aarti comes to the end – signifying that everyone has a part of god within that the performer respects and bows down to. It is a common practice to perform aarti to inanimate objects like vehicles, electronics etc. at least when a Hindu starts using it, just as a gesture of showing respect and praying that this object would help one excel in the work one would use it for. It is similar to the ritual of doing auspicious red mark using rice. Hinduism h
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house and body of god. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism; the symbolism and structure of a Hindu temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares. It represents recursion and equivalence of the macrocosm and the microcosm by astronomical numbers, by "specific alignments related to the geography of the place and the presumed linkages of the deity and the patron". A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmos—presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of Hindu sense of cyclic time and the essence of life—symbolically presenting dharma, artha and karma; the spiritual principles symbolically represented in Hindu temples are given in the ancient Sanskrit texts of India, while their structural rules are described in various ancient Sanskrit treatises on architecture. The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism.
A Hindu temple is a spiritual destination for many Hindus, as well as landmarks around which ancient arts, community celebrations and economy have flourished. Hindu temples come in many styles, are situated in diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs, yet all of them share certain core ideas and themes, they are found in South Asia India and Nepal, in southeast Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Cambodia and islands of Indonesia and Malaysia, countries such as Canada, the Caribbean, France, Kenya, the Netherlands, South Africa, Tanzania and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States, countries with a significant Hindu community. The current state and outer appearance of Hindu temples reflect arts and designs as they evolved over two millennia; the Swaminarayanan Akshardham in Robbinsville, New Jersey, United States, between the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas, was inaugurated in 2014 as one of the world's largest Hindu temples.
A Hindu temple reflects a synthesis of arts, the ideals of dharma, beliefs and the way of life cherished under Hinduism. It is a link between man and the Universal Purusa in a sacred space, it represents the triple-knowledge of the Vedic vision by mapping the relationships between the cosmos and the cell by a unique plan, based on astronomical numbers. Subhash Kak sees the temple form and its iconography to be a natural expansion of Vedic ideology related to recursion and equivalence. In ancient Indian texts, a temple is a place for Tirtha – pilgrimage, it is a sacred site whose ambience and design attempts to symbolically condense the ideal tenets of Hindu way of life. All the cosmic elements that create and sustain life are present in a Hindu temple – from fire to water, from images of nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from the fleeting sounds and incense smells to the eternal nothingness yet universality at the core of the temple. Susan Lewandowski states that the underlying principle in a Hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected.
The pilgrim is welcomed through 64-grid or 81-grid mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life – the pursuit of artha, the pursuit of kama, the pursuit of dharma and the pursuit of moksha. At the center of the temple below and sometimes above or next to the deity, is mere hollow space with no decoration, symbolically representing Purusa, the Supreme Principle, the sacred Universal, one without form, present everywhere, connects everything, is the essence of everyone. A Hindu temple is meant to encourage reflection, facilitate purification of one’s mind, trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee; the specific process is left to the devotee’s school of belief. The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum. In Hindu tradition, there is no dividing line between the lonely sacred. In the same spirit, Hindu temples are not just sacred spaces, they are secular spaces.
Their meaning and purpose have extended beyond spiritual life to social rituals and daily life, offering thus a social meaning. Some temples have served as a venue to mark festivals, to celebrate arts through dance and music, to get married or commemorate marriages, commemorate the birth of a child, other significant life events, or mark the death of a loved one. In political and economic life, Hindu temples have served as a venue for the succession within dynasties and landmarks around which economic activity thrived. All Hindu temples take two forms: a house or a palace. A house-themed temple is a simple shelter; the temple is a place where the devotee visits, just like he or she would visit a friend or relative. The use of moveable and immoveable images is mentioned by Pāṇini. In Bhakti school of Hinduism, temples are venues for puja, a hospitality ritual, where the deity is honored, where devotee calls upon, attends to and connects with the deity. In other schools of Hinduism, the person may perform jap, or meditation, or yoga, or introspection in his or her temple.
Butter is a dairy product with high butterfat content, solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions, liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk, it is used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, added salt. Most made from cow's milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks. Salt and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter, removing the water and milk solids, produces clarified butter or ghee, entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a firm solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 to 35 °C.
The density of butter is 911 grams per Litre. It has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white, its natural, unmodified color is dependent on the source animal's feed and genetics, but the commercial manufacturing process manipulates the color with food colorings like annatto or carotene. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον; this may be a compound of βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese", "cow-cheese". The word turos is attested in Mycenaean Greek; the unlatinized form is found in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors; the word is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as "butters".
Non-dairy items that have a dairy-butter consistency may use "butter" to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, rock butter. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules; these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream.
This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands; this consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Commercial butter is about 15 % water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl; the density of butter is about the same as ice. In some countries, butter is given a grade before commercial distribution. Before modern factory butter making, cream was collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter.
During fermentation, the cream sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product. Today, cultured butter is made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes more space than storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter. Dairy products are pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
Vijayanagara was the capital city of the historic Vijayanagara Empire. Located on the banks of the Tungabhadra River, it spread over a large area and included the modern era Group of Monuments at Hampi site in Ballari district and others in and around that district in Karnataka, India. A part of Vijayanagara ruins known as Hampi have been designated as a UNESCO world heritage site. Vijayanagara is in the eastern part of central Karnataka, close to the Andhra Pradesh border. Hampi is an ancient human settlement, mentioned in Hindu texts and has pre-Vijayanagara temples and monuments. In early 14th century, Deccan region including the Hoyasala and tiny Kampli Empire were invaded and plundered by armies of Khalji and Tughlaq dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate. From these ruins was founded Vijayanagara by the Sangama brothers, who were working as soldiers in Kampli Kingdom under Kampalidevaraya; the city grew rapidly. The Vijayanagara centered empire functioned as a barrier to the Muslim sultanates in the north, leading to the reconstruction of Hindu life, multi-religious activity, rapid infrastructure improvements and economic activity.
Along with Hinduism, Vijayanagara accepted communities of other faiths such as Jainism and Islam, leading to multi-religious monuments and mutual influences. Chronicles left by Persian and European travelers state Vijayanagara to be a prosperous and wealthy city. By 1500 CE, Hampi-Vijayanagara was the world's second largest medieval era city and India's richest at that time, attracting traders from Persia and Portugal. Wars between nearby Muslim Sultanates and Hindu Vijayanagara continued through the 16th century. In 1565, the Vijayanagara leader was captured and beheaded, the city fell to a coalition of Muslim Sultanates; the conquered capital city of Vijayanagara was looted and destroyed, after which it remained in ruins. Vijayanagara is located in the modern era Indian state of Karnataka, along the banks of the Tungabhadra River, it is eastern part of the state, close to the Andhra Pradesh border. The city grew from an ancient pilgrimage center in 13th-century, to being founded as a capital of Vijayanagara Empire in early 14th century, to being a metropolis stretching by some estimates to 650 square kilometers by early 16th century.
It became the world's second largest city, after Beijing, by about 1500 CE. Estimates of the population vary and are based on the size of the city and number of houses mentioned in the memoirs of foreigners who visited India and wrote about Vijayanagara; some estimate the population was about 500,000 around 1500 CE, but others consider this estimate to be generous or too conservative. The capital city was founded around the religious Hindu temple complex, Pampa Tirtha and Kishkinda that existed at Hampi; the name of the city center, Hampi, is derived from Pampa, another name of goddess Parvati in Hindu theology. According to Sthala Purana, Parvati pursued her ascetic, yogini lifestyle to win and bring ascetic Shiva back into householder life on the banks of Tungabhadra river, on Hemakuta hill now a part of Hampi. Shiva is called Pampapati; the river came to be known as Pampa river. The Sanskrit word Pampa morphed into Kannada word Hampa, the place Parvati pursued what she wanted came to be known as Hampe or Hampi.
Its significance to the Hindus comes from the Kishkindha chapters of the Hindu epic Ramayana, where Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman and the monkey army in their search for kidnapped Sita. Hampi area has many close resemblances between the place described in the epic; the regional tradition believes that it is that place mentioned in the Ramayana, attracting pilgrims. Prior to its founding and kings of various kingdoms visited Hampi. Hoysala Empire's Hindu kings built and supported the Hampi pilgrimage center before the 14th century. At the start of the 14th century, the armies of Delhi Sultanate, first those of Alauddin Khalji and of Muhammad bin Tughlaq invaded and pillaged South India; the Hoysala Empire and temple cities such as those in Halebidu and Somanathapura were plundered in early 14th century. From the ruins of this collapse and destruction emerged Vijayanagara Empire and its new capital Vijayanagara; the city was founded by the Sangama brothers. The city was a sacred site of pilgrimage for devotees of Shiva in the 10th century.
It became the most powerful urban centre in the Deccan between 14th to 16th centuries and one of the ten largest cities of the world. The Renaissance Portuguese and Persian traders reported it as a marvelous achievement; the city was a powerful urban centre in South India from 14th to 16th century and one of the ten largest cities of the world. It stood as a bastion of Hindu values dedicated to fighting back the encroachments of the Muslim sultans from the north, who soon came to be operating from Golkonda; the Sangama dynasty was involved in repeated conflicts with the Bahamani Sultanate. The Bahamanis had disintegrated into five sultanates which formed a Deccan alliance. Krishnadevaraya after the Battle of Raichur allowed one sultan to stay in power rather than let it split into smaller kingdoms; however Vijayanagara kings had to contend with multiple Sultanates to their north. The Vijayanagara kingdom befriended and allowed the Portuguese to take control of Goa and western territories of the Bahamani Sultanate.
The sultanates united against the Vijayanagara Empire. An ongoing war between Muslim Sultanates and the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire led to the Battle of Talikota in 1565 CE, fought about 175 kilometres north, it resulted in the capture and beheading of the leader, mass confusion within the Vijayanagara forces and a shock defeat. The Sultanate army th