1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Goodhue County, Minnesota
Goodhue County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,183, its county seat is Red Wing. Nearly all of Prairie Island Indian Community is within the county. Goodhue County comprises the Red Wing, MN Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area; the county was created on March 1853, with territory partitioned from Wabasha County. It was named for James Madison Goodhue, who published the first newspaper in the territory, The Minnesota Pioneer; the county was settled by "Yankee" settlers, meaning that they both came to Goodhue County either directly from the six New England states or from upstate New York, where they were born to parents who had moved to that region from the six New England states in the immediate aftermath of the American Revolution, that they were descended from the English Puritans who emigrated to North America during the early 1600s. Because of the prevalence of New Englanders and New England transplants from upstate New York the county was said to have a "distinctly New England character".
While this was true of many neighboring counties it was considered exceptionally true of Goodhue County. The New Englanders brought with them many of their New England values, including a love of education and fervent support of the abolitionist movement; when the New Englanders arrived, they laid out farms, established post routes, built schools and government buildings out of locally available materials. The New Englanders and their descendants made up the great majority of Goodhue County's inhabitants until the late 19th and early 20th century, when immigrants from Germany and Norway began arriving in the Minnesota-Wisconsin border region in large numbers. There were small numbers of immigrants from Germany and Sweden during the first several decades of Goodhue County's history as well. Hamline University, Minnesota's first college of higher learning, was started in Red Wing in 1854, it closed during the Civil War, reopened in 1869 in Saint Paul. The county was a leading producer of wheat during the mid-19th century, for several years the county boasted the highest wheat production in the country.
Fires at two of Red Wing's mills in the 1880s and developing railroad routes across Minnesota encouraged farmers from neighboring counties to begin sending their wheat to Minneapolis mills, reducing the county's importance in the wheat trade around the start of the 20th century. The first municipal swimming pool in the state was built in Goodhue County. In October 1960, President Dwight D. Eisenhower visited the county for a bridge dedication ceremony; the Hiawatha Bridge had been built to replace the Old High Bridge that spanned the Mississippi River since 1895. This visit drew 20,000 people. Eisenhower hoped his visit would help in the elections, swaying Minnesota voters to vote for Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election in the coming month, but John F. Kennedy carried the state on his way to being elected the next president. Goodhue County lies on Minnesota's border with Wisconsin; the Cannon River flows eastward through the northern part of the county on its way to discharge into Lake Pepin.
The Little Cannon River flows northward through the west-central part of the county, discharging into the Cannon River at Cannon Falls. The North Fork of the Zumbro River flows eastward through the lower part of the county; the county terrain consists of rolling hills, etched with drainages and gullies, with high bluffs against the river valleys. The terrain slopes to the north; the county has a total area of 780 square miles, of which 757 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. Goodhue is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than either forest soils; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 44,127 people, 16,983 households, 11,905 families in the county. The population density was 58.3/sqmi. There were 17,879 housing units at an average density of 23.6/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 96.57% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 0.98% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.53% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. 1.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 16,983 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.20% were married couples living together, 7.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. The county population contained 26.50% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,972, the median income for a family was $55,689. Males had a median income of $36,282 versus $25,442 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,934. About 3.70% of families and 5.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.20% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.
Frontenac Thoten/Belvidere Goodhue County voters lean Republican. In 78% of national elections since 1980, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. List of County Roads in Goodhue County, Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Goodhue County, Minnesota G
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Henry Dodge was a Democratic member of the U. S. House of Representatives and U. S. Senate, Territorial Governor of Wisconsin and a veteran of the Black Hawk War, his son was Augustus C. Dodge with whom he served in the U. S. Senate, the first, so far only, father-son pair to serve concurrently. Henry Dodge was the half brother of Lewis F. Linn. James Clarke, the Governor of Iowa Territory, the son-in-law of Henry Dodge. Henry Dodge was the son of Nancy Hunter Dodge. Israel was from Connecticut and a veteran of the Battle of Brandywine, who came west to serve under his brother in the military command of George Rogers Clark. Nancy's family moved west and settled in Kentucky, for a period of time the Hunter family was part of the settler colony whose population was recruited to support the garrison at the confluence of the Ohio River and the Mississippi River, known as Fort Jefferson. Henry Dodge was born in Vincennes when Nancy stopped over to visit Israel on her way from Kaskaskia to Louisville.
Henry was the first child in what is now Indiana, born to parents from the colonies, the other residents of Vincennes being of Indian and French Canadian heritage. Dodge was raised in Kentucky. In 1788 Israel abandoned Henry was raised by his mother. At age 14 Dodge moved to Missouri to live with his father, who ran lead operations. Although Henry returned to Kentucky his move to Missouri was permanent. In 1800, he married Christiana McDonald. In 1805 Dodge was appointed deputy sheriff. In 1806 Dodge was recruited by Aaron Burr to participate in Burr's spurious attempt at creating a new country in the southwest, an incident known as the Burr conspiracy. Dodge and a companion went so far as to report to a concentration point for the affair in New Madrid. However, when they learned that Thomas Jefferson had deemed it a treasonous act, they abandoned the effort and returned home. Dodge was indicted as a participant in the conspiracy. In 1806 Dodge was named lieutenant of the militia. In 1813 he was appointed U.
S. Marshal, as well as Sheriff of Ste. Genevieve County. In the War of 1812, Dodge enlisted as a captain in the Missouri State Volunteers, he was part of a mounted company. He finished the war as a major general of the Missouri militia, his crowning achievement was saving about 150 Miami Indians from certain massacre after their raid on the Boone's Lick settlement in the summer of 1814. Dodge emigrated with his large family and slaves inherited from his father to the U. S. Mineral District in early July 1827, he served as a commander of militia during the Red Bird uprising of that year, in October settled a large tract in present-day downtown Dodgeville, known as "Dodge's Camp." He worked a large claim until around 1830, when he moved several miles south in a beautiful forested area known still as "Dodge's Grove." Here he began building what would become a large two-story frame house for his ever-growing extended family. Dodge rose to prominence during the Black Hawk War of 1832; as colonel of the western Michigan Territory Militia, Dodge brought a credible fighting force into being in a short time.
More than fifteen forts, fortified homes and blockhouses sprang up overnight. From these forts and the mounted volunteers, with four companies of Territorial militia and one of Illinois mounted rangers, took to the field as the "Michigan Mounted Volunteers." Dodge and his men saw action at the battles of Horseshoe Bend, Wisconsin Heights, Bad Axe. In June 1832, he accepted a commission as Major of the Battalion of Mounted Rangers, commissioned by an Act of Congress; the ranger experiment lasted a year, in 1833, was replaced by the United States Regiment of Dragoons. Dodge served as colonel; the United States Regiment of Dragoons was the first mounted Regular Army unit in United States Army history. In the summer of 1834, Colonel Dodge engaged on First Dragoon Expedition and made successful contact with the Comanches, he was an Indian fighter, most noted for his 1835 peace mission commissioned by President Andrew Jackson, who had called out the U. S. Dragoons to assist. Dodge was the first Territorial governor of Wisconsin Territory from 1836 to 1841 and again from 1845 to 1848, an area which encompassed what became the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota.
In between his two terms as governor, Dodge was elected as a non-voting Democratic delegate to the Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth Congresses representing Wisconsin Territory's at-large congressional district. He declined the opportunity to have his name put forward for the Presidency of the United States at the 1844 Democratic National Convention, he was loyal to both men opposed the annexation of Texas. Despite their efforts, James K. Polk, the Democrat who favored annexation, became President. Upon Wisconsin being admitted to the Union, Dodge was elected one of its first two senators, he served two terms. He turned down the appointment of Territorial Governor of Washington from Franklin Pierce in 1857. Dodge died in 1867 in Iowa, he is interred at the Aspen Grove Cemetery in Burlington. In 1948, Iowa County presented a 160-acre estate to the State of Wisconsin, named Governor Dodge State Park. Over the years, this park has grown to include 5,270 acres in the area Henry Dodge once called his home.
Dodge County, Wisconsin, Do
Episcopal Church (United States)
The Episcopal Church is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces; the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position. In 2017, the Episcopal Church had 1,871,581 baptized members, of whom 1,712,563 were in the United States. In 2011, it was the nation's 14th largest denomination. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.2 percent of the adult population in the United States, or 3 million people, self-identify as mainline Episcopalians. The church was organized after the American Revolution, when it became separate from the Church of England, whose clergy are required to swear allegiance to the British monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England; the Episcopal Church describes itself as "Protestant, yet Catholic". The Episcopal Church claims apostolic succession, tracing its bishops back to the apostles via holy orders.
The Book of Common Prayer, a collection of traditional rites, blessings and prayers used throughout the Anglican Communion, is central to Episcopal worship. The Episcopal Church was active in the Social Gospel movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the 1960s and 1970s, the church has pursued a decidedly more liberal course, it has supported the civil rights movement and affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests are known for marching with influential civil rights demonstrators such as Martin Luther King Jr; the church calls for the full legal equality of LGBT people. In 2015, the church's 78th triennial General Convention passed resolutions allowing the blessing of same-sex marriages and approved two official liturgies to bless such unions; the Episcopal Church ordains women and LGBT people to the priesthood, the diaconate, the episcopate, despite opposition from a number of other member churches of the Anglican Communion. In 2003, Gene Robinson became the first gay person ordained as a bishop.'The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America and "The Episcopal Church" are both official names specified in the church's constitution.
The latter is much more used. In other languages, an equivalent is used. For example, in Spanish, the church is called La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América or La Iglesia Episcopal. and in French L'Église protestante épiscopale dans les États Unis d'Amérique or L'Église épiscopale. Until 1964, "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" was the only official name in use. In the 19th century, High Church members advocated changing the name, which they felt did not acknowledge the church's Catholic heritage, they were opposed by the church's evangelical wing, which felt that the "Protestant Episcopal" label reflected the Reformed character of Anglicanism. After 1877, alternative names were proposed and rejected by the General Convention. One proposed alternative was "the American Catholic Church". By the 1960s, opposition to dropping the word "Protestant" had subsided. In a 1964 General Convention compromise and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The 66th General Convention voted in 1979 to use the name "The Episcopal Church" in the Oath of Conformity of the Declaration for Ordination. The evolution of the name can be seen in the church's Book of Common Prayer. In the 1928 BCP, the title page read, "According to the use of The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", whereas on the title page of the 1979 BCP it states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church"; the Episcopal Church in the United States of America has never been an official name of the church but is an alternative seen in English. Since several other churches in the Anglican Communion use the name "Episcopal", including Scotland and the Philippines, for example Anglicans Online, add the phrase "in the United States of America"; the full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", incorporated by the legislature of New York and established in 1821.
The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". This should not be confused with the name of the church itself, as it is a distinct body relating to church governance; the Episcopal Church has its origins in the Church of England in the American colonies, it stresses continuity with the early universal Western Church and claims to maintain apostolic succession. The first parish was founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, under the charter of the Virginia Company of London; the tower of Jamestown Church is one of the oldest surviving Anglican church structures in the United States. The Jamestown church building itself is a modern reconstruction. Although no American Anglican bishops existed in the colonial era, the Church of England had an official status in several colonies, which meant that local governments paid tax money to local parishes, the parishes handled some civic functions; the Church of England was designated the established church in Virginia in 1609, in New York in 1693, in Maryland in 1702, in South Carolina in 1706, in North Carolina in 1730, in Georgia in 1758.
From 1635 the vestries and the clergy came loosely under the diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. After 1702, the Society for the Propagation of the Gos
The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group, who lived in the region of what is now Green Bay, when first encountered by the French in 1667. Their autonym is oθaakiiwaki, their exonym is Ozaagii in Ojibwe; the latter name was transliterated into English by colonists of those cultures. Today they have three federally recognized tribes, together with the Meskwaki, located in Iowa and Kansas; the Sauk, an Algonquian languages people, are believed to have developed as a people along the St. Lawrence River, they were driven by pressure from other tribes the powerful Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee. It is believed by some historians that they migrated to what is now eastern Michigan, where they settled around Saginaw Bay; this leads to the theory that, due to the yellow-clay soils found around Saginaw Bay, they called themselves the autonym of Oθaakiiwaki Some native Ojibwe oral histories place the Sauk in the Saginaw Valley some time before the arrival of Europeans.
However, this location near Lake Huron for the Sauk at that time may be in error. In the early 17th century, when natives told French explorer Samuel de Champlain that the Sauk nation was located on the west shore of Lake Michigan, Champlain mistakenly placed them on the western shore of Lake Huron; this mistake was copied on subsequent maps, future references identified this as the place of the Sauks. Champlain himself never visited. There is little archaeological evidence; the neighboring Anishanabeg Ojibwe and Ottawa peoples referred to them by the exonym Ozaagii, meaning "those at the outlet". French colonists transliterated that as Sac and the English as "Sauk". Anishinaabe expansion and the Huron attempt to gain regional stability drove the Sac out of their territory; the Huron were armed with guns supplied by their French trading partners. The Sac moved south to territory in parts of what are now Wisconsin. A allied tribe, the Meskwaki, were noted for resisting French encroachment, having fought two wars against them in the early 18th century.
After a devastating battle of September 9, 1730, in Illinois, in which hundreds of warriors were killed and many women and children taken captive by French allies, Fox refugees took shelter with the Sac, making them subject to French attack. The Sac continued moving west to Kansas. Two important leaders arose among the Sac: Black Hawk. At first Keokuk accepted the loss of land as inevitable in the face of the vast numbers of white soldiers and settlers coming west, he tried to preserve tribal land and his people, to keep the peace. Having failed to receive expected supplies from the Americans on credit, Black Hawk wanted to fight, saying his people were "forced into war by being deceived". Led by Black Hawk in 1832, the Sac band resisted the continued loss of lands Their warfare with United States forces resulted in defeat at the hands of General Edmund P. Gaines in the Black Hawk War. About this time, one group of Sac moved into Missouri, to Kansas and Nebraska. In 1869 the larger group of Sac moved into reservations in Oklahoma, where they merged with the Meskwaki as the federally recognized Sac and Fox Nation.
A smaller number returned to the Midwest from Oklahoma They joined the Mesquakie at the Mesqwaki Settlement, Iowa. The Sauk had a patrilineal clan system, in which descent and inheritance was traced through the father. Clans which continue are: Fish, Ocean/Sea, Bear, Potato, Beaver and Wolf; the tribe was governed by a council of sacred clan chiefs, a war chief, the head of families, the warriors. Chiefs were recognized in three categories: civil and ceremonial. Only the civil chiefs were hereditary; the other two chiefs were recognized by bands after they demonstrated their ability or spiritual power. This traditional manner of selecting historic clan chiefs and governance was replaced in the 19th century by the United States appointing leaders through their agents at the Sac and Fox Agency, or reservation in Indian Territory. In the 20th century, the tribe adopted a constitutional government patterned after the United States form, they elect their chiefs. Today the federally recognized Sac and Fox tribes are: Sac and Fox Nation, headquartered in Stroud, Oklahoma.
Sauk is one of the many Algonquian languages. It is closely related to the varieties spoken by the Meskwaki and the Kickapoo tribes; each of the dialects contains innovations that distinguish them from each other. Sauk and Meskwaki appear to be the most related of the three, reflecting the peoples' long relationship. Sauk is considered to be mutually intelligible, to a point, with Fox. In their own language, the Sauk at one time called themselves asakiwaki, "people of the outlet"; the Sauk people have a syllabic orthography for their language. They published a Primer Book in 1975, based on a "traditional" syllabary that existed in 1906, it is intended to help modern-day Sauk to learn to speak their ancestral tongue. A newer orthography was proposed around 1994 to aid in language revival; the former syllabary was aimed at remaining native speakers of Sauk.
Rochester is a city founded in 1854 in the U. S. State of Minnesota and is the county seat of Olmsted County located on the Zumbro River's south fork in Southeast Minnesota, it is Minnesota's third-largest city and the largest city located outside the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of 2015, the Rochester metropolitan area has a population of 215,884. According to the 2010 United States Census the city has a population of 106,769; the U. S. Census Bureau estimated that the 2017 population was 115,733, it is the home of the Mayo Clinic and an IBM facility one of the company's largest. The city has long been rated as one of the best places to live in the United States by multiple publications such as Money; the area developed as a stagecoach stop between Saint Paul and Dubuque, Iowa near the Zumbro River. The community was founded by George Head and his wife Henrietta who built log cabin Head's Tavern in 1854 and named the city after his hometown of Rochester, New York; when the Winona and St Peter Railroad initiated service in October 1864, it brought new residents and business opportunities further spurring growth and expansion.
In 1863, Dr. William W. Mayo arrived as the examining surgeon for Union draftees in the Civil War. Rochester celebrated its sesquicentennial in 2004. On August 21, 1883, the Great Tornado demolished much of Rochester, leaving 37 dead and 200 injured; as there was no medical facility in the immediate area at the time, Dr. Mayo and his two sons worked together to care for the wounded. Donations of US$60,000 were collected and the Sisters of St. Francis, assisted by Mayo, opened a new facility named St. Marys Hospital in 1889; the Mayo practice grew and is today among the largest and most well-respected medical facilities in the world. Many notable people from around the world, including former Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, George H. W. Bush, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, have visited Rochester as patients of the Mayo Clinic. Rochester has been hit by two F4 tornadoes since 1950. Rochester lies alongside the South Fork of the Zumbro River, 57.6 miles long and is ringed by gentle hills and surrounded by farmland within a deciduous forest biome.
The Zumbro Watershed flows through 1,422 square miles of urban lands. Located in southeast Minnesota, the City of Rochester falls within the Driftless Area: the only region in North America, never glaciated and contains deeply-carved river valleys; the rugged terrain is due both to the lack of glacial deposits, or drift, to the incision of the upper Mississippi River and its tributaries into bedrock. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.75 square miles, of which 54.59 square miles of it is land and 0.16 square miles is water. The city is located 85 miles southeast of Minneapolis-St. Paul. Rochester is in one of only four counties in Minnesota without a natural lake. Artificial lakes exist in the area, including Silver Lake, a dammed portion of the South Fork Zumbro River just below the convergence with Silver Creek near the city center. Silver Lake was once used as a cooling pond when the coal-burning power plant was operated by Rochester Public Utilities at the lake.
When operational, the RPU coal plant's heated water output prevented the lake from freezing over during the winter months. Rochester has an extensive parks system, the largest of which are Silver Lake and Soldiers Field in the central part of the city. A major flood in 1978 led the city to embark on an expensive and successful flood-control project that involved altering many nearby rivers and streams; the Zumbro river flowing through the center of the city is presently being readdressed for increased development and use as part of city planning in conjunction with funding from the Destination Medical Center project. Rochester features a humid continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters; the city features four distinct seasons. Rochester sees on 48 inches of snowfall per year. Significant snow accumulation is common during the winter months. Spring and fall are transitional seasons, with a general warming trend during the spring and a general cooling trend during the fall. However, it is not uncommon to see some snowfall during the early months of spring and the months of fall.
Rochester is the second windiest city in the United States, with wind speeds averaging 12.6 mph. January to April are the windiest months on average, according to The Weather Channel; as of the census of 2010, there were 106,769 people, 43,025 households, 26,853 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,955.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 45,683 housing units at an average density of 836.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.0% White, 6.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.8% Asian, 2.0% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, the 2005–2007 American Community Survey found German Americans to be the largest single ethnic group in Rochester, making up 35.5% of the city's population. Norwegian Americans made up 15.9%, while Irish Americans contributed to 11.6% of the city's populace. English Americans made up 8.2% of the populatio