Thessaloniki (regional unit)
Thessaloniki is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the Region of Central Macedonia and its capital is the city of Thessaloniki; the regional unit stretches from the Thermaic Gulf in the southwest to the Strymonic Gulf in the east. Two bodies of water are located in the north, Lake Koroneia in the heart of the regional unit and Lake Volvi in the east. There are farmlands throughout the west and southwest, with fewer in the northeast and along the Axios River valley. Mountainous areas include the Chortiatis in the west-central part, the Vertiskos in the north and parts of the Kerdylio mountains in the northeast; the regional unit borders on the Imathia regional unit to the southwest, Pella to the west, Kilkis to the north, Serres to the east and Chalkidiki to the south. Its climate includes hot Mediterranean summers and cool to mild winters in low-lying areas and plains. Winter weather is common in areas 500m above sea level and into the mountains; the area, to become the Thessaloniki regional unit was annexed by Greece in 1912, during the First Balkan War.
The area was struck by an earthquake in 1978, by flooding due to rainfall in October 2006. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern Turkey, was born in Salonica, the name for the city of Thessaloniki when it was part of the Ottoman Empire; the Thessaloniki regional unit is subdivided into 14 municipalities. These are: Ampelokipoi-Menemeni Chalkidona Delta Kalamaria Kordelio-Evosmos Lagkadas Neapoli-Sykies Oraiokastro Pavlos Melas Pylaia-Chortiatis Thermaikos Thermi Thessaloniki Volvi The Thessaloniki Prefecture was created when the area was annexed by Greece during the First Balkan War in 1913. At that time, its area was the largest prefecture in the country, covering about 7% of the total land. The prefectures of Pella and Kilkis were split off in 1930 and 1937 and after World War II in 1947, Imathia and Pieria were additionally created from land belonging to the Thessaloniki Prefecture; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the prefecture was transformed into a regional unit within the Central Macedonia region, without any change in boundaries.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Thessaloniki Province of LagkadasNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece; the regional unit of Thessaloniki is connected with the following highways. Motorways: A1/E75 A2/E90 A25/Ε79 A25 National Roads: ΕΟ2/Ε86 W ΕΟ12/Ε79 Ν ΕΟ16, SW ΕΟ65, Ν Until the A1/E75 motorway and the A2/E90 motorway were constructed, GR-1 and GR-2 were the main road links connecting the regional unit of Thessaloniki with other parts of the country. Furthermore, parts of GR-67 linking Chalkidiki, GR-65 linking Kilkis, were converted into motorways during the 2000s. Public transport services are provided by the Thessaloniki Urban Transport Organization Thessaloniki Metro Most of the stations are in the city. Here are list of stations outside the city: Thermi TV - Thermi Iraklis Aris PAOK Apollon Kalamarias Agrotikos Asteras List of settlements in the Thessaloniki regional unit Macedonia
Central Greece (region)
Central Greece is one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece. The region occupies the eastern half of the traditional region of Central Greece, including the island of Euboea. To the south it borders the regions of Attica and the Peloponnese, to the west the region of West Greece and to the north the regions of Thessaly and Epirus, its capital city is Lamia. The region was established in the 1987 administrative reform. With the 2010 Kallikratis plan, its powers and authority were extended. Along with Thessaly, it is supervised by the Decentralized Administration of Thessaly and Central Greece based at Larissa; the region is based at Lamia and is divided into five regional units, Euboea, Evrytania and Phthiotis, which are further subdivided into 25 municipalities. The region's current governor is Kostas Bakoyannis of the New Democracy party, assuming office from Klearchos Pergantas, elected in the November 2010 local administration elections for the PASOK party. Biggest towns in each regional unit, according to the census of 2001: Official website
Kythira is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula. It is traditionally listed as one of the seven main Ionian Islands, although it is distant from the main group. Administratively, it belongs to the Islands regional unit, part of the Attica region; the island is strategically located between the Greek mainland and Crete, from ancient times until the mid 19th century was a crossroads of merchants and conquerors. As such, it has had a long and varied history and has been influenced by many civilisations and cultures; this is reflected in its architecture, as well as the traditions and customs, influenced by centuries of coexistence of the Greek and Ottoman cultures. Kythira and the nearby island of Antikythira were separate municipalities until they were merged at the 2011 local government reform; the municipality has an area of 300.023 km2, the municipal unit 279.593 km2. The province of Kythira was one of the provinces of the Piraeus Prefecture, it had the same territory as the present municipality Kythira.
It was abolished in 2006. There are archaeological remains from contemporary with the Minoans. There is archaeological evidence of Kythiran trade as far as Mesopotamia. Kythira had a Phoenician colony in the early archaic age. Xenophon refers to a Phoenician Bay in Kythira; the archaic Greek city of Kythira was at Scandea on Avlemonas. Its acropolis, now Palicastro, has the temple of Aphrodite Ourania, who may well represent a Phoenician cult of Astarte. In classical times, Kythira was part of the territory of several larger city-states. Sparta took the island from Argos early in the sixth century, ruled it under a kytherodíkes, in Thucydides' time. Kythira was independent, issued her own coins in 195 after the Achaean defeat of Sparta. In Augustus' time, it was again subject to Sparta, being the property of Gaius Julius Eurycles, both a Spartan magnate and a Roman citizen. By this time, the Greek cities were in practice subject to the Roman Empire. Kythira continued to exist under its Byzantine successor state for centuries.
Christianity is attested from the time of Constantine. Kythira is not mentioned in the literary sources for centuries after its conversion. Archaeological evidence suggests the island was abandoned about 700 AD; when Saint Theodore of Cythera led a resettlement after the Byzantine reconquest of Crete in 962, he found the island occupied only by wandering bands of hunters. He established a great monastery at Paliochora; when the Byzantine Empire was divided among the conquerors of the Fourth Crusade, the Republic of Venice took her share, three eighths of the whole, as the Greek islands, Kythira among them. She established a coast patrol on Kythira and Antikythera to protect her trade route to Constantinople. During the Venetian domination the island was known as Cerigo. Kythirans still talk about the looting of Paliochora by Barbarossa. One can accept the stories of locals by noticing the number of monasteries embedded in the rocky hillsides to avoid destruction by the pirates. Barbary pirates ranged across the Mediterranean waters, raiding ships and islands, taking booty and slaves for the Barbary slave trade.
Kythira was at the mercy of Barbary pirates due to its strategic location in the Mediterrean. In order to intercept merchant vessels, islands along the trade routes were of course more interesting for pirates. In the 17th century the small islands like Sapientza south of Messinia, Cergio south of the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, along the coast of Asia minor, the deserted islands of Fourni southwest of Samos, the island of Psara, west of Chios, all functioned as pirates nests; when Napoleon put an end to the Venetian Republic in 1797, Kythira was among the islands incorporated in that most distant départment of France, called Mer-Égée. Kythira shared a common destiny with the other Ionian islands during the turbulent Napoleonic era, is still regarded as one of them. In 1799, the Ionian islands became the Septinsular Republic, nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in practice dominated by Russia. In 1807, France took them back only to have the British seize the islands in 1809 and set up one of their first protectorates, the United States of the Ionian Islands.
Phthiotis is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece; the capital is the city of Lamia. It is bordered by the Malian Gulf to the east, Boeotia in the south, Phocis in the south, Aetolia-Acarnania in the southwest, Evrytania in the west, Karditsa regional unit in the north, Larissa regional unit in the north, Magnesia in the northeast; the name dates back to ancient times. It is best known as the home of Achilles. Phthiotis covers the northern and southern shorelines of the Malian Gulf, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, it stretches inland towards the west along the valley of the river Spercheios. In the south it covers the upper part of the Cephissus valley. There are several mountain ranges in Phthiotis, including the Othrys in the northeast, the Tymfristos in the west, the Vardousia in the southwest, Oeta in the south and the Kallidromo in the southeast. "Phthiotis" means "the region of Phthia", the southernmost region of ancient Thessaly around Pharsalus and home of Achilles.
In Classical times, it referred to the region of Achaea Phthiotis, which bordered on Thessalian Phthiotis to the south and east. Achaea Phthiotis covered the northern part of the present regional unit Phthiotis and the southern part of present Magnesia; the southeastern part of present Phthiotis was covered by the ancient region Locris, the southwestern part was ancient Malis and Ainis. E65, S, Cen. NE Greek National Road 1/E75, SE, E, Cen. NE Greek National Road 3, SE, S, Cen. N Greek National Road 27, S, Cen. Greek National Road 38, W, Cen; the regional unit Phthiotis is subdivided into 7 municipalities. These are: Amfikleia-Elateia Domokos Lamia Lokroi Makrakomi Molos-Agios Konstantinos Stylida The prefecture Phthiotis and Phocis was created in 1845. In 1947 this prefecture was split into the northern part Phthiotis; as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Phthiotis was created out of the former prefecture Phthiotis. The prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit.
At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Domokos - Domokos Province of Phthiotis - Lamia Province of Locris - AtalantiNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. Thanos Livaditis Dimitrios Holevas Lamia F. C. Ionikos Lamias BC List of traditional Greek place names List of settlements in Phthiotis Media related to Phthiotis at Wikimedia Commons
Ioannina called Yannena within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece. Its population is 112,486, according to 2011 census, it lies at an elevation of 500 metres above sea level, on the western shore of lake Pamvotis. Ioannina is located 410 km northwest of Athens, 260 kilometres southwest of Thessaloniki and 80 km east of the port of Igoumenitsa in the Ionian Sea; the city's foundation has traditionally been ascribed to the Byzantine Emperor Justinian in the 6th century AD, but modern archaeological research has uncovered evidence of Hellenistic settlements. Ioannina flourished in the late Byzantine period, it became part of the Despotate of Epirus following the Fourth Crusade and many wealthy Byzantine families fled there following the sack of Constantinople, with the city experiencing great prosperity and considerable autonomy, despite the political turmoils. Ioannina surrendered to the Ottomans in 1430 and until 1868 it was the administrative center of the Pashalik of Yanina.
In the period between the 18th and 19th centuries, the city was a major center of the modern Greek Enlightenment. Ioannina was ceded to Greece in 1913 following the Balkan Wars; the city has two hospitals, the General Hospital of Ioannina "G. Hatzikosta", the University Hospital of Ioannina, it is the seat of the University of Ioannina and of several departments of the Τechnological Educational Institute of Epirus, the headquarters of which are located in Arta. The city's emblem consists of the portrait of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian crowned by a stylized depiction of the nearby ancient theater of Dodona; the city's formal name, Ioannina, is a corruption of Agioannina or Agioanneia, "place of St. John", is said to be linked to the establishment of a monastery dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, around which the settlement grew. According to another theory, the city was named after Ioannina, the daughter of Belisarius, general of the emperor Justinian. There are two name forms in Greek, Ioannina being the formal and historical name, while the colloquial and more used Υannena or Υannina represents the vernacular tradition of Demotic Greek.
The demotic form corresponds to those in the neighbouring languages. The first indications of human presence in Ioannina basin are dated back to the Paleolithic period as testified by findings in the cavern of Kastritsa. During classical antiquity the basin was inhabited by the Molossians and four of their settlements have been identified there. Despite the extensive destruction suffered in Molossia during the Roman conquest of 167 BC, settlement continued in the basin albeit no longer in an urban pattern; the exact time of Ioannina's foundation is unknown, but it is identified with an unnamed new, "well-fortified" city, recorded by the historian Procopius as having been built by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I for the inhabitants of ancient Euroia. This view is not supported, however, by any concrete archaeological evidence. Early 21st-century excavations have brought to light fortifications dating to the Hellenistic period, the course of, followed by reconstruction of the fortress in the Byzantine and Ottoman periods.
The identification of the site with one of the ancient cities of Epirus has not yet been possible. It is not until 879 that the name Ioannina appears for the first time, in the acts of the Fourth Council of Constantinople, which refer to one Zacharias, Bishop of Ioannine, a suffragan of Naupaktos. After the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria, in 1020 Emperor Basil II subordinated the local bishopric to the Archbishopric of Ohrid; the Greek archaeologist K. Tsoures dated the Byzantine city walls and the northeastern citadel of the Ioannina Castle to the 10th century, with additions in the late 11th century, including the south-eastern citadel, traditionally ascribed to the short-lived occupation of the city by the Normans under the leadership of Bohemond of Taranto in 1082. In a chrysobull to the Venetians in 1198, the city is listed as part of its own province. In the treaty of partition of the Byzantine lands after the Fourth Crusade, Ioannina was promised to the Venetians, but in the event, it became part of the new state of Epirus, founded by Michael I Komnenos Doukas.
Under Michael I, the city was fortified anew. The Metropolitan of Naupaktos, John Apokaukos, reports how the city was but a "small town", until Michael gathered refugees who had led Constantinople and other parts of the Empire that fell to the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, settled them there, transforming the city into a fortress and "ark of salvation". Despite frictions with local inhabitants who tried in 1232 to expel the refugees, the latter were successfully settled and Ioannina gained in both population and economic and political importance. In the aftermath of the Battle of Pelagonia in 1259, much of Epirus was occupied by the Empire of Nicaea, Ioannina was placed under siege. Soon, the Epirote ruler Michael II Komnenos Doukas, aided by his younger son John I Doukas, managed to recover their capital of Arta and relieve Ioannina, evicting the Nicaeans from Epirus. In c. 1275 or c. 1285, John I Doukas, now ruler of Thessaly, launched a raid against the city and its environs, a few years an army from the restored Byzantine Empire unsuccessfully laid siege to the city.
Following the assassination in 1318 of the last n
Naousa The Heroic City of Naousa is a city in the Imathia regional unit of Macedonia, Greece with a population of 21,139. An industrial center since the 19th century, for most of the 20th century the history of Naousa was intertwined with that of the Lanaras family, local industrialists who, at the height of their influence, employed half of Naousa's population in their textile factories; the Lanaras family built hospitals, social centers etc. while streets of Naousa were named after family members. In the 1990s and 2000s however, most of the local factories closed, leaving Naousa with a serious unemployment problem; the municipality Naousa was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Anthemia Eirinoupoli NaousaThe municipality has an area of 425.491 km2, the municipal unit 300.891 km2. The province of Naousa was one of the provinces of Imathia, it had the same territory as the present municipality. It was abolished in 2006.
The city is situated in ancient Emathia west of the ancient Macedonian town of Mieza and the site of ancient School of Aristotle. The area, according to Herodotus, was. In the current position of the city, the Romans established the colony of Nova Augusta; the name changed through the centuries to Niagusta and Niaousa, until it became today's Naousa. It was known as "Ağustos" during Ottoman rule. In 1705, an armatolos named. In 1822, during the Greek War of Independence, the fighting in Central Macedonia against the Turks came to a dramatic finale in Naousa. Abdul Abud, the Pasha of Thessaloniki, arrived on 14 March at the head of a 16,000 strong force and 12 cannons; the Greeks defended Naousa with a force of 4,000 under Anastasios Karatasos, Dimitrios Karatasos, Aggelis Gatsos and Philippos, the son of Zafeirakis Theodosiou, under the overall command of Zafeirakis Theodosiou and Anastasios Karatasos. The Turks attempted to take the town of Naousa on 16 March, again on 18 and 19 March, without success.
On 24 March the Turks began a bombardment of the city walls. After requests for the town's surrender were dismissed by the Greeks, the Turks charged the Gate of St George on Good Friday, 31 March; the Turkish attack failed but on 6 April, after receiving fresh reinforcements of some 3,000 men, the Turkish army overcame the Greek resistance and entered the city. In an infamous incident, as the rebels were abandoning the town, some of the women left behind committed suicide by falling down a cliff over the small river Arapitsa. Zafeirakis Theodosiou was killed; the other Greek leaders retreated southwards. Abdul Abud laid; the fall and massacre of Naousa marked the end of the Greek Revolution in Central Macedonia. Naousa has a large population of Aromanians known as Vlachs, a small Romani population. Naousa is located in Northwestern Imathia, 22 kilometers north of Veroia and 90 kilometers east of Thessaloniki, the biggest city in Northern Greece; the city lies on the eastern foothills of Vermio Mountains, one of the biggest mountain ranges in Greece, west to the plain of Kambania.
Naousa is today the largest forest-owning municipality in the country being surrounded by orchards, producing peaches, apples and other fruits, while the jam brand name Naousa is well-known all over Greece. Naousa is known for its parks and for its ski resorts. Due to its location, altitude can raise by as much as 150m between the lowest and highest parts of the city, it reaches nearly 550m in the Park of Saint Nicholas. Naousa is home of one of the three female named Greek rivers, together with Neda in Peloponnesus and Erkyna in Livadia. Naousa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification but due to its inland location and elevation, is more continental than that found in most Greek cities, it is influenced by the mountains which rise up to the west, by the plain of Kambania to the east. On one hand, the mountains shelter the area from cold winds blowing from the north and west down the Balkan Peninsula and from hot southwest winds, creating a non-extreme microclimate.
On the other they create föhn winds, which draw in damp air from the Aegean coast. The annual precipitation of Naousa is lower than in western Greece, but it is one of the highest in the Macedonia region, measuring around 710 mm per year. Winters can be cold and Vermio mountains are home to two of the most famous skiing resorts in Greece, Seli and 3-5 Pigadia. In the city, snowfall is not uncommon and measurable amounts of snow can remain on the ground for several days. Downtown Naousa experiences milder winter temperatures than the suburbs where temperatures can drop many degrees below zero. Recent years have been a lot warmer and the 2007 European heat wave saw Naousa reaching 40°C for the first time in recent memory, with an absolute maximum of 41.3°C in July 25th. In January 8th, 2017, temperature dropped to -10.5°C, a 10-year low. Naoussa is served by Naousa railway station on the Thessaloniki-Florina line. Inaugurated in 1894, it connects the rest of Northern Greece. Since 2009, it is served by the suburban services to Edessa.
Skiing club EOS Naousas is the oldest of the city's sporting clubs, havi
Domokos, the ancient Thaumacus or Thaumace, is a town and a municipality in Phthiotis, Greece. The town Domokos is the seat of the municipality of Domokos and of the former Domokos Province; the town is built on a mountain slope overlooking the plain of Thessaly, 38km from the city of Lamia. The area of Domokos became part of Greece in 1881 when the Ottoman Empire ceded Thessaly and a few adjacent areas to Greece; until 1899, it was part of the Larissa Prefecture. In 1897, during the Greco-Turkish War, about 2,000 Italian volunteers under the command of Giuseppe Garibaldi's son, Ricciotti Garibaldi, helped the Greeks in the Battle of Domokos. Among them there was a member of the Italian Parliament, Antonio Fratti, who died in the fighting; the Turkish Army was victorious over the Greek Army. The town is served by Domokos railway station on the Piraeus–Platy Mainline, located 5 km from the city and serves the surrounding area; the municipality Domokos was formed during the 2011 local government reforms by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Domokos Thessaliotida XyniadaThe municipality has an area of 707.953 km2, the municipal unit 346.129 km2.
The province of Domokos was one of the provinces of Phthiotis. It had the same territory as the present municipality, it was abolished in 2006. Municipality of Domokos