Dodworth is a village in the metropolitan borough of Barnsley in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it has a population of 5,742, increasing to 5,900 at the 2011 Census. Dodworth was a township in the ancient parish of Silkstone in the West Riding of Yorkshire, it became a separate civil parish in 1866, an urban district in 1894. The urban district and civil parish were abolished in 1974, when Dodworth was transferred to the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley in the new county of South Yorkshire. Dodworth is now an unparished area. Dodworth is a former coal mining village with 5,800 people; the land occupying the former pit is now the Dodworth Business Park. The "muck" stack from the pit is visible throughout the village. During the early 1980s a mass planting of silver birch trees began to halt erosion and create a wildlife habitat. Over the past twenty years and wildlife have flourished. Now the whole of the east and west side are covered with trees; the north side is occupied by farmland and the former'muck stack' is invisible apart from the rise.
The crossroads between High Street, Station Road and Barnsley Road lead to Manchester. The crossroads acted as a trading point for salt brought from Cheshire during medieval times proving to be one of the oldest trading routes in the area. Along High Street are a number of old weavers' cottages; these three-storey buildings supplied fine linen cloth to markets everywhere.. Opposite the library is one of the village's oldest buildings, it dates back with evidence of this above its High Street front door. During the village's'hey-day', ten public houses over a half-mile stretch of High Street reflected the large mining population at the time There are established private housing estates at Baslow Crescent and Strafford Walk. Extensive newer housing is at the eastern side of Dodworth around Water Royd Drive and Rose Hill Drive; the Water Royd Drive area is referred to as the'In and Out' estate by locals as many commuters from outside the village see this area as having easy access to the motorway links with house prices being reflective of their desirability.
Further development is to the west with new housing at Champany Fields and Green Road, luxury flats on Barnsley Road. These new homes are popular for commuters working in Barnsley, Manchester and many other centres. There is employment locally at Fall Bank Industrial Estate. In the past few years house prices have risen reflecting the popularity of living in the village; the soon to be relocated railway station has direct lines to Barnsley. A new hotel and Toby Carvery has been built on Capitol Park close to the M1 motorway junction; the Dodworth Bypass, near junction 37 on the M1, was completed in early 2007. The bypass allows commuters to travel from central Barnsley, or the motorway, to Silkstone and surrounding areas without travelling through Dodworth. A new business park called Capitol Park, part funded through the European Objective One scheme, is under construction along the bypass. Pharmaceutical company Galpharm International operate from a purpose-built distribution and office complex in the village.
A memorial dedicated to the families of the 1,500 miners killed in the area has now been erected in a prominent position on the High Street. A charity music festival was held at the Dodworth Miners' Welfare on 3 June 2012 to raise money for the memorial fund. Proximity to the M1 Junction 37 means that Dodworth has a high proportion of commuters to Sheffield and Leeds, it has easy access to Manchester along the A628 through Woodhead. Many people work in Barnsley town centre, 3 miles away. Dodworth railway station, on the Huddersfield to Sheffield line, provides access to Barnsley centre, Sheffield and other nearby towns and cities. There are two leading bus companies operating through Dodworth: Tates. There have been changes to service routes in the village, diverting buses from the main road to less populated areas; the new road system linking the motorway junction to the A628 towards Silkstone and Manchester, has bypassed what was once a busy thoroughfare, producing a much quieter and sought-after retreat for villagers.
Dodworth has three hotels. Brooklands Hotel, Ramada Encore and the Fairway Inn. Brooklands has been re-built by the Brook Group, it contains a restaurant, which stands on the site of the former restaurants that invented the Barnsley Chop, lounge bar, club and an on-site Bannatyne's health club. Village pubs include the Travellers' Inn on the Thornely Arms on High Street. There is Dodworth Central Social Club and Gilroyd Social Club. Recent pubs to be built are the Dodworth Valley. In July 2007 the Station Inn closed for refurbishment, re-opened as an out-of-town wine bar; the Pheasant Inn is due to become residential housing. The Miners' Inn was converted to a children's nursery; the former Horse and Jockey has become an Indian restaurant. Dodworth has a Chinese take-away and two award-winning fish and chip shops. There is a Central England Co-operative supermarket on High Street, a post office which includes a pharmacy, doctor's surgery and a beauty salon. Further shops specialise in music, shoes and hobbies and jewellery.
There is a sandwich outlet, café and a hairdresser's. The Miners' Welfare has two football pitches, a cricket field and a rugby pitch, it is the home of the award-winning Dodworth Colliery M. W. Brass Band. Dodworth ARLFC compete in the Pennine Division One and
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, standardised as 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959. With qualifiers, "mile" is used to describe or translate a wide range of units derived from or equivalent to the Roman mile, such as the nautical mile, the Italian mile, the Chinese mile; the Romans divided their mile into 5,000 roman feet but the greater importance of furlongs in pre-modern England meant that the statute mile was made equivalent to 8 furlongs or 5,280 feet in 1593. This form of the mile spread to the British-colonized nations some of which continue to employ the mile; the US Geological Survey now employs the metre for official purposes but legacy data from its 1927 geodetic datum has meant that a separate US survey mile continues to see some use. While most countries replaced the mile with the kilometre when switching to the International System of Units, the international mile continues to be used in some countries, such as Liberia, the United Kingdom, the United States, a number of countries with fewer than one million inhabitants, most of which are UK or US territories, or have close historical ties with the UK or US.
The mile was abbreviated m. in the past but is now sometimes written as mi to avoid confusion with the SI metre. However, derived units, such as miles per hour or miles per gallon, continue to be universally abbreviated as mph and mpg, respectively; the modern English word mile derives from Middle English myl and Old English mīl, cognate with all other Germanic terms for "miles". These derived from apocopated forms of the Latin mīlia or mīllia, the plural of mīle or mīlle "thousand" but used as a clipped form of mīlle passus or passuum, the Roman mile of one thousand paces; the present international mile is what is understood by the unqualified term "mile". When this distance needs to be distinguished from the nautical mile, the international mile may be described as a "land mile" or "statute mile". In British English, the "statute mile" may refer to the present international miles or to any other form of English mile since the 1593 Act of Parliament, which set it as a distance of 1,760 yards.
Under American law, the "statute mile" refers to the US survey mile. Foreign and historical units translated into English as miles employ a qualifier to describe the kind of mile being used but this may be omitted if it is obvious from the context, such as a discussion of the 2nd-century Antonine Itinerary describing its distances in terms of "miles" rather than "Roman miles"; the mile has been variously abbreviated—with and without a trailing period—as m, M, ml, mi. The American National Institute of Standards and Technology now uses and recommends mi in order to avoid confusion with the SI metre and millilitre. However, derived units such as miles per hour or miles per gallon continue to be abbreviated as mph and mpg rather than mi/h and mi/gal. In the United Kingdom road signs use m as the abbreviation for mile though height and width restrictions use m as the abbreviation for the metre, which may be displayed alongside feet and inches; the BBC style holds that "There is no acceptable abbreviation for'miles'" and so it should be spelt out when used in describing areas.
The Roman mile consisted of a thousand paces as measured by every other step—as in the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. The ancient Romans, marching their armies through uncharted territory, would push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 paces. Well-fed and harshly driven Roman legionaries in good weather thus created longer miles; the distance was indirectly standardised by Agrippa's establishment of a standard Roman foot in 29 BC, the definition of a pace as 5 feet. An Imperial Roman mile thus denoted 5,000 Roman feet. Surveyors and specialized equipment such as the decempeda and dioptra spread its use. In modern times, Agrippa's Imperial Roman mile was empirically estimated to have been about 1,617 yards in length. In Hellenic areas of the Empire, the Roman mile was used beside the native Greek units as equivalent to 8 stadia of 600 Greek feet; the mílion continued to be used as a Byzantine unit and was used as the name of the zero mile marker for the Byzantine Empire, the Milion, located at the head of the Mese near Hagia Sophia.
The Roman mile spread throughout Europe, with its local variations giving rise to the different units below. Arising from the Roman mile is the "milestone". All roads radiated out from the Roman Forum throughout the Empire – 50,000 miles of stone-paved roads. At every mile was placed a shaped stone, on, carved a Roman numeral, indicating the number of miles from the center of Rome – the Forum. Hence, one always knew; the Italian mile was traditionally considered a direct continuation of the Roman mile, equal to 1000 paces, although its actual value over time or between regions could vary greatly. It was used in international contexts from the Middle Ages into the 17th century and is thus known as the "geographical mile", although the geographical mile is now a separate standard unit; the Arabic mile was not the common Arabic unit of length. The Arabic mile was, used by medieval geographers and scientists and constituted a kind of precursor to the nautical or geographical mile, it extended the Roman mile to fit an astronomical approximatio
Barnsley Interchange lies in the centre of the town of Barnsley, in South Yorkshire, England. The station is 16 miles north of Sheffield, it is on the Hallam and Penistone Lines, both operated by Northern. The Sheffield, Barnsley, Huddersfield & Goole Railway was formed in 1846 with the aim of providing access to the South Yorkshire coalfield, it was to link the Manchester and Leeds Railway near Horbury, with the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway near Brightside, by way of Barnsley. Whilst the railway was still at the planning stage, it was split in two at Barnsley, the northern portion being leased to the M&LR and the southern to the South Yorkshire, Doncaster & Goole Railway; the northern section opened first, Barnsley station was opened with the line on 1 January 1850. The route of the southern section was changed, instead, is connected to the SYD&G line near Mexborough; this section opened on 1 July 1851, Barnsley became a through station, although the two sections of line were operated by different railways.
On 1 July 1854, the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway opened a line from Penistone to Barnsley. Each of these railway companies went through various takeovers and amalgamations, until the early 20th century, when the station at Barnsley was co-owned by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, the Great Central Railway. At the 1923 grouping, the GCR became part of the London and North Eastern Railway, whilst the LYR formed part of the new London and Scottish Railway, as did the Midland Railway; the LYR and MR each contributed one station in Barnsley to the LMS, since the ex-MR station was distinguished as Barnsley Court House, the LMS renamed the former LYR station to Barnsley Low Town on 2 June 1924. Just two months on 1 August 1924, it was again renamed, this time to Barnsley Exchange. Barnsley Court House station closed on 19 April 1960, following the commissioning of a new chord line south of the town near Quarry Junction that linked the former SYR route down the Blackburn Valley with the ex-Midland Railway line from Sheffield Midland, allowing services on the latter route to serve the station.
Subsequently, on 13 June 1960, Barnsley Exchange was renamed Barnsley. The station is staffed throughout the day, with the booking office open from 06:00 to 19:30 Mondays to Saturdays and from 08:45 to 19:00 on Sundays. A single self-service ticket machine is provided for use outside these times and for collecting advance purchase tickets, located on the platform 2 side of the foot-bridge. In the main building on platform 1, there is toilets. A separate waiting room is located on platform 2, with a accessible footbridge linking them. Train running information is provided by automated announcements, digital display screens and timetable posters. There are a number of shops a short walk over the footbridge to the bus station, these include a newsagents, Lloyds Pharmacy, Coopland Bakery and a Subway restaurant. In 2013 it was used as a filming location in Channel 4's cult drama series Utopia. Rail services operate through Barnsley Interchange station. On the Hallam line during the day on Monday to Saturday, there are three trains per hour northbound bound for Leeds.
Two are express services, calling only at Wakefield Kirkgate en route to Leeds whilst the third is an all-stations local that runs via Castleford. There is a two-hourly stopping service on Sundays. On the Penistone line, there is an hourly service northbound to Huddersfield from Monday to Saturday and a two-hourly service on Sundays. Barnsley marks the last continuous dual running track for trains heading towards Huddersfield, or the first continuous dual running track for trains heading towards Sheffield from Huddersfield. Southbound there are four trains per hour. Two of these services terminate at Sheffield whilst one fast train carries on to Nottingham and the other fast service runs through to Lincoln Central; the service drops to three per hour on Sundays. Two Sunday trains from Nottingham go to Carlisle via the Settle-Carlisle Line. From winter 2019, Barnsley Interchange will begin to be served by an hourly service to Lincoln Central via Sheffield and Retford, under a new Northern Connect brand, using brand new trains with WiFi.
From here on, services to Nottingham will cease current operations, transferring to operate via Wakefield Westgate and a reduced stop on the Erewash Valley Line. Northern have stated the Leeds to Sheffield fast service will be of the same frequency with the new Lincoln Central service which will call at Wakefield Kirkgate and Meadowhall Interchange as the current services do. Normal interchange with Nottingham bound services will continue to be available at Sheffield. In May 1999, Midland Mainline commenced a daily weekday service to London St Pancras; the service was withdrawn by East Midlands Trains on 5 September 2008. The new Barnsley Interchange was opened on 20 May 2007 by Secretary of State for Transport Douglas Alexander; the new building forms the entire new complex of Barnsley Interchange. Rail and bus users exit the interchange via the new car park or, for the town centre, the new entrance and exit is o
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Doncaster and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, its largest settlement is Sheffield. Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, borders Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east and Nottinghamshire to the south-east; the Sheffield Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the UK, dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire lies within the Sheffield City Region with Barnsley being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.
South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now unitary authorities, although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a High Sheriff. South Yorkshire was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, with small areas from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. In the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, South Yorkshire voted 62% leave and 38% remain, making it one of the most Leave areas in the country. Although the modern county of South Yorkshire was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements and parts goes back centuries. Prehistoric remains include a Mesolithic "house" dating to around 8000 BC, found at Deepcar, in the northern part of Sheffield. Evidence of earlier inhabitation in the wider region exists about 3 miles over the county boundary at Creswell Crags in Derbyshire, where artefacts and rock art found in caves have been dated by archaeologists to the late Upper Palaeolithic period, at least 12,800 years ago.
The region was on the frontier of the Roman Empire during the Roman period. The main settlements of South Yorkshire grew up around the industries of mining and steel manufacturing; the main mining industry was coal, concentrated to the north and east of the county. There were iron deposits which were mined in the area; the rivers running off the Pennines to the west of the county supported the steel industry, concentrated in the city of Sheffield. The proximity of the iron and coal made this an ideal place for steel manufacture. Although Christian nonconformism was never as strong in South Yorkshire as in the mill towns of West Yorkshire, there are still many Methodist and Baptist churches in the area. South Yorkshire has a high number of followers of spiritualism, it is the only county. The Local Government Commission for England presented draft recommendations, in December 1965, proposing a new county—York and North Midlands—roughly centred on the southern part of the West Riding of Yorkshire and northern parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.
The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before it was able to issue a final report. The Royal Commission's 1969 report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, proposed the removal of much of the existing system of local government; the commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately as outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, open countryside was used by town dwellers for recreation. Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour government in February 1970. Although the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the Conservative government after the 1970 general election, there was a commitment to local government reform, the need for a metropolitan county of South Yorkshire; the Local Government Act 1972 reformed local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established South Yorkshire on 1 April 1974, although South Yorkshire County Council had been running since elections in 1973.
The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively". South Yorkshire had a two tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and four districts providing most services. In 1974, as part of the South Yorkshire Structure Plan of the environment and land use, South Yorkshire County Council commissioned a public attitudes survey covering job opportunities, educational facilities, leisure opportunities and medical services, shopping centres and transport in the county. In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished; the functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. The joint boards continue to include the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive; the South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner oversees South Yorkshire Police.
Although the county council was abolished, Sou
On a rail transport system, signalling control is the process by which control is exercised over train movements by way of railway signals and block systems to ensure that trains operate safely, over the correct route and to the proper timetable. Signalling control was exercised via a decentralised network of control points that were known by a variety of names including signal box, interlocking tower and signal cabin; these decentralised systems are being consolidated into wide scale signalling centres or dispatch offices. Whatever the form, signalling control provides an interface between the human signal operator and the lineside signalling equipment; the technical apparatus used to control switches and block systems is called interlocking. All signalling was done by mechanical means. Points and signals were operated locally from individual levers or handles, requiring the signalman to walk between the various pieces of equipment to set them in the required position for each train that passed.
Before long, it was realised that control should be concentrated into one building, which came to be known as a signal box. The signal box provided a dry, climate controlled space for the complex interlocking mechanics and the signalman; the raised design of most signal boxes provided the signalman with a good view of the railway under his control. The first use of a signal box was by the London and Croydon Railway in 1843 to control the junction to Bricklayers Arms in London. With the practical development of electric power, the complexity of a signal box was no longer limited by the distance a mechanical lever could work a set of points or a semaphore signal via a direct physical connection. Power operated switch points and signalling decides expanded the territory that a single control point could operate from several hundred yards to several miles; as the technology of electric relay logic was developed, it no longer became necessary for signalmen to operate control devices with any sort of mechanical logic at all.
With the jump to all electronic logic, physical presence was no longer needed and the individual control points could be consolidated to increase system efficiency. Another advancement made possible by the replacement of mechanical control by all electric systems was that the signalman's user interface could be enhanced to further improve productivity; the smaller size of electric toggles and push buttons put more functionality within reach of an individual signalman. Route-setting technology automated the setting of individual points and routes through busy junctions. Computerised video displays removed the physical interface altogether, replacing it with a point-and-click or touchscreen interface; the use of Automatic Route Setting removed the need for any human input at all as common train movements could be automated according to a schedule or other scripted logic. Signal boxes served as important communications hubs, connecting the disparate parts of a rail line and linking them together to allow the safe passage of trains.
The first signalling systems were made possible by technology like the telegraph and block instrument that allowed adjacent signal boxes to communicate the status of a section of track. The telephone put centralised dispatchers in contact with distant signal boxes and radio allowed direct communication with the trains themselves; the ultimate ability for data to be transmitted over long distances has proven the demise of most local control signal boxes. Signalmen next to the track are no longer needed to serve as the eyes and ears of the signalling system. Track circuits transmit train locations to distant control centres and data links allow direct manipulation of the points and signals. While some railway systems have more signal boxes than others, most future signalling projects will result in increasing amounts of centralised control relegating the lineside signal box to niche or heritage applications. In any node-based control system, proper identification is critical to ensuring that messages are properly received by their intended recipients.
As such, signalling control points are provided with names or identifiers that minimise the likelihood of confusion during communications. Popular naming techniques include using nearby geographic references, line milepost numbers, sequence numbers and identification codes. Geographic names can refer to a municipality or neighbourhood, a nearby road or geographic feature, local landmarks and industry which may provide the railway with traffic or railway features like yards, sidings or junctions. On systems where Morse code was in use it was common to assign control locations short identification codes to aid in efficient communication, although wherever signalling control locations are more numerous than mileposts, sequence numbers and codes are more to be employed. Entire rail systems or political areas may adopt a common naming convention. In Central Europe, for example, signalling control points were all issued regionally unique location codes based on the point's location and function, while the American state of Texas sequentially numbered all interlockings for regulatory purposes.
As signalling control centres are consolidated it can become necessary to differentiate between older style boxes and newer train control centres, where signalmen may have different duties and responsibilities. Moreover, the name of the signalling centre itself may not be employed operationally in preference to the name of individual signalling workstations; this is true when signalling centres control large amounts of territory spanning ma
Huddersfield railway station
Huddersfield railway station serves the town of Huddersfield in West Yorkshire, England. The station is managed by TransPennine Express, which provides trains between Manchester and Liverpool in the North West and Newcastle and Middlesbrough in the North East and to York and Hull via Leeds, it is served by local Northern trains on the Huddersfield and Caldervale lines, which between them provide service to Leeds, Wakefield Westgate, Manchester Victoria, Brighouse and Bradford Interchange. Huddersfield station is the second busiest station in West Yorkshire with Leeds being the first. Designed by the architect James Pigott Pritchett and built by the firm of Joseph Kaye in 1846–50 using the neo-classical style, the station is well known in architectural circles for its classical-style facade, with a portico of the Corinthian order, consisting of six columns in width and two in depth, which dominates St George's Square, it faces out towards Lion Buildings. It is a grade; the station frontage was described by John Betjeman as the most splendid in England and by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner as'one of the best early railway stations in England'.
Simon Jenkins reported it to be one of the best 100 stations in Britain. Two pubs are within the station frontage, to each side of the main entrance: The Head Of Steam and The King's Head. Both facilities are accessible from Platform 1. At the building's entrance, the booking office is to the left and to the right are the train timetables and a newsagent. Platforms 4 to 8 are located via a lift or subway, accessed from Platform 1; the public conveniences are located through this subway at the top of the steps to Platforms 4–8. The platforms are all covered by a large canopy. To the rear of the station are some carriage sidings; the station is staffed 24 hours a day, with booking office open from 05:45 to 20:00 Mondays to Saturdays and 07:45 to 20:00 on Sundays. There are 4 self-service ticket machines available in the ticket hall for use when the booking office is closed or for collecting pre-paid tickets. Automated train announcements, customer help points and digital display screens provide train running information on all platforms.
In addition to the aforementioned pubs, the station has a waiting room and buffet on platform 4 and a coffee kiosk on platform 1. The station is situated on St George's Square, refurbished in 2009; the square has been made a pedestrian zone. No car parking is available in front of the station entrance; the station is situated a short distance from Huddersfield bus station, so interchange facilities are possible but limited. The Huddersfield FreeCityBus connects the railway station with the bus station, as well as the University of Huddersfield and other areas of the town centre. There are six platforms: Platform 1 — Express services to Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Airport and Liverpool. Platform 2 — Terminus platform for Penistone Line services to/from Sheffield. Platform 4 — Stopping services to Leeds and Manchester Piccadilly. Platforms 5 and 6 — Terminus platforms for local services to/from Leeds and Wakefield Kirkgate. Platform 8 — Express services to Leeds, York, Scarborough and Newcastle.
In 2010, Network Rail and First TransPennine Express completed a series of improvements to the station in order to provide better access for passengers. This consisted of two new lifts, a new staircase to the subway on Platform 1; the new staircase replaced the existing staircase inside the booking hall. As well as this each platform received new information screens. In early 2011, further improvement works were carried out to waiting area; this phase of improvements was funded by the Railway Heritage Trust, Kirklees council and the National Station's Improvement Programme. The main purpose of this was to reduce bottlenecks at peak times as well as general crowding; the redundant stable block on Platform 1 was turned into a staff training centre and toilets. In May 2013, automatic ticket barriers were installed at the station. Work is underway on Network Rail's Northern Hub project which will see electrification of the Huddersfield Line by 2022, allowing many of the services through the station to switch to newer, faster electric rolling stock.
As part of this project the panel signal box on platform 4 is to be decommissioned, with its control area passing to the York Rail Operating Centre. The first portion of this work took place in early August 2017, with two further weekend closures planned for late October and January 2018. During Monday to Friday daytimes, TransPennine Express now operate services to Newcastle, Hull and Middlesbrough, all of which call at Leeds. A sixth service terminates at Leeds, which creates a service frequency of every 10 minutes. Four of these are expresses, one calls at Dewsbury and Batley and the other serves most local stops to Leeds. Westbound there are two trains per hour to Manchester Piccadilly. Liverpool services all now travel via the Chat Moss line - services via Warrington Central ceased from 20 May 2018. Northern operates hourly stopping services to Sheffield, Wakefield Kirkgate, Leeds via Bradford Interchange and a
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate