Jerome, West Virginia
Jerome is an uninhabited community along the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad main line in Morgan County in the U. S. state of West Virginia. It is located within the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park on the Potomac River. Jerome is the site of a stretch of the Western Maryland Railway right-of-way from milepost 126 to milepost 160 listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Located in the "Paw Paw Bends", Jerome was considered to be one of the most inaccessible places reached by the Western Maryland Rwy. At Jerome, the train order office was in use until it was closed on September 1, 1959; when it was abandoned by the Chessie System in May 1975, the office was not torn down and is one of the few buildings that remain today in Jerome. There was an operating connection with the B&O "low line" at milepost 137 but it was removed when the B&O abandoned the low line in 1961; the community and its station on the railroad are rumored to have been named for Jérôme Bonaparte
Great Cacapon, West Virginia
Great Cacapon is a census-designated place in Morgan County in the U. S. state of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. As of the 2010 census, its population was 386. Great Cacapon takes its name from the Cacapon River which empties into the Potomac River to the town's east, it was known as Cacapon Depot on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad mainline when a post office was established here in 1848. In 1876, its name was changed to Great Cacapon to differentiate it from Little Cacapon, on the B&O mainline, it lies four miles down Cacapon Mountain from the Panorama Overlook along Cacapon Road west of Berkeley Springs. Great Cacapon on the Washington Heritage Trail
Magnolia, West Virginia
Magnolia is an unincorporated community northeast of Paw Paw in Morgan County in the U. S. state of West Virginia on the Potomac River. Magnolia is located along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad mainline and east of where the Western Maryland Railway crosses the Potomac, bypassing a series of bends in the river; as a depot and water station on the B&O, Magnolia has been known by a number of names including Magnolia Dale, Magnolia Vale, sometimes as Water Station Number 12 on the railroad. The name Magnolia, as passed down from oral tradition, was a combination of Timothy Norton's two daughters Maggie and Nora; the addition of the names was modified to Magnolia. Timothy Norton worked for the railroad, it is believed that the hamlet came into being because of the Ohio Railroad. The railroad opened a line from Washington, D. C. to Cumberland, Maryland following the Potomac River in 1842. There were many servicing facilities along the right-of-way for steam engines. One of these facilities was Water Station Number 12 which became Magnolia.
During 1910 to 1914 Magnolia was one of two staging points for construction of the Magnolia Cutoff. The cutoff provided a surplus of jobs in the area; the town of Magnolia lent its name to this new shorter route through the mountains. As may be seen in the pictures, the railroad scaled above the town of Magnolia cutting it off from the railroad; the low line route of the B&O was still used for passenger traffic and did so many years after the construction. Construction of the Magnolia Cutoff was based at Magnolia. Magnolia boasted a large power plant with two 6,100 horsepower boilers and two direct current generators that were capable of producing 200 kilowatts; this power was used for the two sawmills, a forging blacksmith shop. A construction camp was assembled in town; the new railroad bridge towers over Magnolia at a 50 ft elevation. The bridge has six 100 ft, three 80 ft, two 75 ft deck plate girder spans. At a length of about 1,000 feet long with 10 reinforced concrete piers, this is the smaller of the two bridges built for the Magnolia Cutoff.
After the construction was complete, jobs in the area were scarce. The Flood of 1936 would devastate the area and the demise of passenger service brought the demise of Magnolia as a town. Buildings were left vacant and the railroad would desert its Water Station Number 12. In these photos, we can see a period. Today there are little traces; the low line along the Potomac is only a path. Only a few private homes remain in this small village, the clearings under the bridge used as campsites are owned. Trespassing within them is not advised; the community had its own school, Magnolia School, until it was closed in 1952, in favor of sending students from the Magnolia area to attend the schools in Paw Paw. Magnolia had its own post office in operation from 1867 to 1868 as Magnolia Vale, again in 1871 to 1943 as Magnolia, when it too was closed and the residents of Magnolia were assigned Paw Paw addresses. Amelita Ward, was born in Magnolia. Magnolia can be accessed by way of Magnolia Road. On the B&O, it is located between Paw Paw to the southwest and Jerome to the northwest
Paw Paw, West Virginia
Paw Paw is a town in Morgan County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 508 at the 2010 census; the town is known for the nearby Paw Paw Tunnel. Paw Paw was incorporated by the Circuit Court of Morgan County on April 8, 1891 and named for the pawpaw, a wild fruit which grows in abundance throughout this region. Paw Paw is the westernmost incorporated community in the Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Paw Paw is located at 39°31′52″N 78°27′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.53 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 508 people, 223 households, 131 families residing in the town; the population density was 958.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 262 housing units at an average density of 494.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.9% White, 2.4% African American, 2.0% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population.
There were 223 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.3% were non-families. 37.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the town was 38.6 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 524 people, 224 households, 144 families residing in the town; the population density was 999.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 249 housing units at an average density of 474.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.50% White, 7.63% African American, 2.29% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.44% of the population.
There were 224 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.3% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,625, the median income for a family was $30,250. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $23,125 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,377. About 14.9% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over.
On George Washington's many trips west, he took the Winchester-Cumberland Road which parallels today's CR 29/51 through Paw Paw. The Potomac River, which embraces the old town in one of its bends, was navigated as early as 1750. Travelers heading west crossed the gap in the mountains here, some settling to farm land along the river; the town is the namesake of an important part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The tunnel and the nearby canal is now part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. Paul "Oz" Bach and bass player for the popular musical group Spanky and Our Gang, was born in Paw Paw on June 24, 1939; the Texas swing band Asleep at the Wheel got its start according to founder Ray Benson. Paw Paw on the Washington Heritage Trail Official Site
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park
The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is located in the District of Columbia and the states of Maryland and West Virginia. The park was established in 1961 as a National Monument by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to preserve the neglected remains of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and many of its original structures; the canal and towpath trail extends along the Potomac River from Georgetown, Washington, D. C. to Cumberland, Maryland, a distance of 184.5 miles. In 2013, the path was designated as the first section of U. S. Bicycle Route 50. Construction on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal began in 1828 and ended in 1850 when the canal reached Cumberland, far short of its intended destination of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. There was talk of extending the 184.5-mile canal: for example, an 1874 proposal to dig an 8.4-mile tunnel through the Allegheny Mountains, there was a tunnel built to connect with the Pennsylvania canal. Though the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad beat the canal to Cumberland by eight years, the canal was not obsolete.
Only in the mid-1870s did larger locomotives and the adoption of air brakes allow the railroad to set rates lower than the canal, sealing its fate. The C&O Canal operated from 1831 to 1924 and served to transport coal from the Allegheny Mountains to Washington D. C; the canal was closed in 1924, in part due to several severe floods that devastated the canal's financial condition. In 1938, the abandoned canal was obtained from the B&O Railroad by the United States in exchange for a loan from the federal Reconstruction Finance Corporation; the government planned to restore it as a recreation area. Additionally, it was viewed as a project for employment for the jobless during the Great Depression. By 1940, the first 22 miles of the canal were repaired and rewatered, from Georgetown to Violettes lock and returned to operating condition by African-American enrollees with the Civilian Conservation Corps; the first Canal Clipper boat, giving mule driven rides, began in 1941. It was replaced by the John Quincy Adams in the 1960s.
The project was halted when the United States entered World War II and resources were needed elsewhere. In 1941, Harry Athey suggested to President Franklin Roosevelt that the canal could be converted into an underground highway or a bomb shelter with its roof for landing airplanes; the whole idea was deemed impractical due to the river's periodic flooding. In 1942, freshets destroyed the rewatered sections of the canal. National Park Service official Arthur E. Demaray pressed that the canal from Dam #1 be restored, to supply water to the Dalecarlia Reservoir in case sabotage or bombing destroyed the normal conduits of water. Since this transformed the canal into a concern of national security, in 1942, the War Production Board approved the work. By 1943, Congress had funded the work, repairs were done, the Park Service resumed boat trips in October 1943; the Congress expressed interest in developing the towpath as a parkway. Because of the flooding from the 1920s to the 1940s, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building 14 dams, that would have permanently inundated 74 miles of towpath, as well as the Monocacy and Antietam aqueducts.
Around 1945, the Corps wanted to remove Dam #8, which would destroy any hope of rewatering the canal above Dam #5, as well as put a levee around in the Cumberland area. Much of this was done, with the NPS cooperating with the Corps, since maintaining an operating canal all the way to Cumberland was too expensive, as well as wanting to preserve the western parts of the canal; the idea of turning the canal over to automobiles was opposed by some, including United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas. In March 1954, Douglas led an eight-day hike of the towpath from Cumberland to D. C. Although 58 people participated in one part of the hike or another, only nine men, including Douglas, hiked the full 184.5 miles. Following this hike, Justice Douglas formed a committee to be known as the C&O Canal Association in 1957, which would draft plans to preserve and protect the Canal. Serving as the chairman of this group, his commitment to the park proved successful. In 1958, a bicycle trail was built on the 12 miles of the towpath, from Georgetown's Mule Bridge at 34th Street in Washington, DC to Widewater, MD.
The trail was built by laying crushed blue stone over the muddy towpath. It opened on November 22, 1958. In 1961, President Dwight Eisenhower made the canal a National Monument under the Antiquities Act, but that hardened the opposition to making the canal a national park. There was some support for making the Potomac River a national river instead. Within ten years, the political climate had changed, realizing that the national river plan was unsupportable, the idea of turning the canal into a historic park had little opposition; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Act established the canal as a National Historical Park and President Richard Nixon signed it into law on January 8, 1971. The winter and summer of 1996 saw two separate floods. Following a blizzard in January, heavy rains washed away the snow and caused extreme flooding and run-off; this major winter flood swept across 80 to 90 percent of the canal and towpath, causing high waters, along with the adjacent Potomac River.
Erosion due to the floods lead to heavy damages to the towpath and much of the infrastructure of the canal and park. Following the winter flood, there was an overwhelming need for volunteers in response to the damages caused. In September, Hurricane Fran caused more damage to the canal in multiple parts, requiring workers and volunteers to restore and reconstruct the towpath and re-water the canal, sever
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier railroad and the oldest railroad in the United States, with its first section opening in 1830. It came into being because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which would have connected Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. At first this railroad was located in the state of Maryland, with an original line built from the port of Baltimore west to Sandy Hook. At this point to continue westward, it had to cross into Virginia over the Potomac River, adjacent to the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. From there it passed through Virginia from Harpers Ferry to a point just west of the junction of Patterson Creek and the North Branch Potomac River, where it crossed back into Maryland to reach Cumberland. From there it was extended to the Ohio River at Wheeling and a few years also to Parkersburg, West Virginia, it continued to construct lines into Ohio, including a junction at Portsmouth.
In years, B&O advertising carried the motto: "Linking 13 Great States with the Nation." As part of a series of mergers, the B&O is now part of the CSX Transportation network. The B&O included the Leiper Railroad, the first permanent horse-drawn railroad in the U. S. At the end of 1970, the B&O operated 5,552 miles of road and 10,449 miles of track, not including the Staten Island Rapid Transit or the Reading and its subsidiaries, it includes the oldest operational railroad bridge in the United States. When CSX established the B&O Railroad Museum as a separate entity from the corporation, it donated some of the former B&O Mount Clare Shops in Baltimore, including the Mt. Clare roundhouse, to the museum, while selling the rest of the property; the B&O Warehouse at the Camden Yards rail junction in Baltimore now dominates the view over the right-field wall at the Baltimore Orioles' current home, Oriole Park at Camden Yards. Part of the B&O Railroad's immortality has come from being one of the four featured railroads on the U.
S. version of the board game Monopoly. It is the only railroad on the board that did not directly serve New Jersey; the fast-growing port city of Baltimore, Maryland faced economic stagnation unless it opened routes to the western states, as New York had done with the Erie Canal in 1820. On February 27, 1827, twenty-five merchants and bankers studied the best means of restoring "that portion of the Western trade, diverted from it by the introduction of steam navigation." Their answer was to build a railroad—one of the first commercial lines in the world. Their plans worked well, despite many political problems from canal backers and those associated with other railroads; the railroad grew from a capital base of $3 million in 1827 to a large enterprise generating $2.7 million of annual profit on its 380 miles of track in 1854, with 19 million passenger miles. The railroad fed tens of millions of dollars of shipments to and from Baltimore and its growing hinterland to the west, thus making the city the commercial and financial capital of the region south of Philadelphia.
Two men — Philip E. Thomas and George Brown — were the pioneers of the railroad, they spent the year 1826 investigating railway enterprises in England, which were at that time being tested in a comprehensive fashion as commercial ventures. Their investigation completed, they held an organizational meeting on February 12, 1827, including about twenty-five citizens, most of whom were Baltimore merchants or bankers. Chapter 123 of the 1826 Session Laws of Maryland, passed February 28, 1827, the Commonwealth of Virginia on March 8, 1827, chartered the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, with the task of building a railroad from the port of Baltimore west to a suitable point on the Ohio River; the railroad, formally incorporated April 24, was intended to provide a faster route for Midwestern goods to reach the East Coast than the hugely successful but slow Erie Canal across upstate New York. Thomas was elected as Brown the treasurer; the capital of the proposed company was fixed at five million dollars, but the B&O was capitalized in 1827 with a three million dollar issue of stock.
Every citizen of Baltimore owned a share, as the offering was oversubscribed. Construction began on July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll of Carrollton performed the groundbreaking by laying the cornerstone; the initial tracks were built with granite stringers topped by strap iron rails. The first section, from Baltimore west to Ellicott's Mills, opened on May 24, 1830. A horse pulled the first cars 26 miles and back, since the B&O did not decide to use steam power for several years. Railroad men in South Carolina had earlier commissioned a steam locomotive from a New York foundry, while the B&O was still experimenting with horse power and sails; the B&O's first locomotive, the "Tom Thumb", was made in America and would pull passenger and freight cars at 18 miles per hour. Developers decided to follow the Patapsco River to a point near Parr's Ridge, where the railroad would cross a height of land and descend into the valley of the Monocacy and Potomac rivers. Further extensions opened to Frederick on December 1, 1831.
The connection to the Winchester and Potomac Railroad at Harpers Ferry opened in 1837 the line to Martinsburg in May 1842.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th