Province of North Carolina
The Province of North-Carolina was a British colony that existed in North America from 1712 to 1776, created as a proprietary colony. The power of the British government was vested in a Governor of North-Carolina, but the colony declared independence from Great Britain in 1776; the Province of North-Carolina had four capitals: Bath, Edenton and New Bern. The colony became the states of North Carolina and Tennessee, parts of the colony combined with other territory to form the states of Georgia and Mississippi. For history prior to 1712, see Province of Carolina. King Charles II of England granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for land south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida, he granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. The northern half of the colony differed from the southern half, transportation and communication were difficult between the two regions, so a separate deputy governor was named to administer the northern half of the colony starting in 1691.
The division of the colony into north and south was completed at a meeting of the Lords Proprietors held at Craven House in London on December 7, 1710, although the same proprietors continued to control both colonies. The first Governor of the separate North-Carolina province was Edward Hyde. Unrest against the proprietors in South Carolina in 1719 led King George I to appoint a royal governor in that colony, whereas the Lords Proprietor continued to appoint the governor of North-Carolina. Both Carolinas became royal colonies in 1729, after the British government had tried for nearly 10 years locate and buy out seven of the eight Lords Proprietors; the remaining one-eighth share of the Province was retained by members of the Carteret family until 1776, part of North-Carolina known as the Granville District. Expansion westward began early in the 18th century from the province's seats of power on the coast after the conclusion of the Tuscarora and Yamasee wars, in which the largest barrier was removed to colonial settlement farther inland.
Settlement in large numbers became more feasible over the Appalachian Mountains after the French and Indian War and the accompanying Anglo-Cherokee War, in which the Cherokee and Catawba tribes were neutralized. King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763 in order to stifle potential conflict with Indians in that region, including the Cherokee; this barred any settlement near the headwaters of any rivers or streams that flowed westward towards the Mississippi River. It included several North-Carolina rivers, such as the French Broad Watauga River; this proclamation was not obeyed and was detested in North Carolina, but it delayed migration to Tennessee until after the American Revolutionary War. Settlers continued to flow westwards in smaller numbers, despite the prohibition, several trans-Appalachian settlements were formed. Most prominent was the Watauga Association, formed in 1772 as an independent territory within the bounds of North-Carolina which adopted its own written constitution.
Notable frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone traveled back and forth across the invisible proclamation line as market hunters, seeking valuable pelts to sell in eastern settlements, many served as leaders and guides for groups who settled in Tennessee and Kentucky. Two important maps of the province were reproduced: one by Edward Moseley in 1733, another by John Collet in 1770. Other maps exist dating to the early period of the Age of Discovery that depict portions of the province, or, more the coastline of the province along with that of South Carolina; the Court Act of 1746 established a supreme court known as the General Court, which sat twice a year at New Bern, consisting of a Chief Justice and three Associate Justices. Chief Justices of the Supreme Court History of North Carolina Cheshire, Jr. Joseph Blount; the Church in the Province of North Carolina. Joint Centennial Convention of the Dioceses of North and East Carolina. Tarboro, N. C. – via Internet Archive. Collet, John. A Compleat map of North-Carolina from an actual Survey.
London: S. Hooper – via University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Colonial Period at NCpedia North Carolina Colony Facts at Softschools.com
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there to colonize the area. Settlers are from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are built on land claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by large countries, they sometimes leave in search of religious freedom. One can witness how settlers often occupied land residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous. In some cases, as colonialist mentalities and laws change, the legal ownership of some lands is contested by indigenous people, who either claim or seek restoration of traditional usage, land rights, native title and related forms of legal ownership or partial control; the word "settler" was not usually used in relation to a variety of peoples who became a part of settler societies, such as enslaved Africans, indentured labourers, or convicts. In the figurative usage, a "person who goes first or does something first" applies to the American English use of "pioneer" to refer to a settler—a person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there to colonize the area.
In United States history it refers to those people. In Canada, the Indian Act, passed in 1876, created a fundamental division between First Nations peoples and all others, who are termed Settlers; as the Indian Act is still in force, this distinction continues to present day with an existing Indigenous-Settler division, set in a settler-colonial context where it reproduces an inequitable racial structure. In this usage, pioneers are among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and join others in the process of human settlement; this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands; these settlers were called "colonists". See, e.g. articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. Although they are thought of as traveling by sea—the dominant form of travel in the early modern era—significant waves of settlement could use long overland routes, such as the Great Trek by the Boer-Afrikaners in South Africa, or the Oregon Trail in the United States.
Anthropologists record tribal displacement of native settlers who drive another tribe from the lands it held, such as the settlement of lands in the area now called Carmel-by-the-Sea, California where Ohlone peoples settled in areas inhabited by the Esselen tribe. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter and specific policies referred as "settler". Among those: Iraq – the Arabization program of the Ba'ath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers. In recent years Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government. Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria.
Women and children experience violence in these dangerous areas because of the conflict. Many natives face displacement. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes and not allowed to return. Oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land. Settlements can make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the olive trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees and their livelihood is compromised. Many are met with violence. Settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Woman's University, more there called the "Pioneer." The reasons for the emigration of settlers vary, but they include the following factors and incentives: the desire to start a new and better life in a foreign land, personal financial hardship, cultural, ethnic, or religious persecution, political oppression, government incentive policies aimed at encouraging foreign settlement.
The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a settler's home country, emigration is sometimes approved by an imperial government
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
The Northern Neck is the northernmost of three peninsulas on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This peninsula is bounded by the Potomac River on the Rappahannock River on the south, it encompasses the following Virginia counties: Lancaster, Northumberland and Westmoreland. The inclusion of King George County in the Northern Neck varies among commentators; the grant for the Northern Neck included all land between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers, including far upstream of King George County — some 5 million acres. The boundaries of King George and Westmoreland counties have changed radically since their establishment, with significant exchanges of territory. Significant portions of the early King George County lay in. In the winter of 1607–08, Captain John Smith traveled up the Rappahannock River as a prisoner of the Powhatans, he was the first European known to have visited the Northern Neck. The original Northern Neck land grant in 1661 was a land grant first contrived by the exiled English King Charles II in 1649.
It encompassed all the lands bounded by the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers and by a straight line connecting their sources. This grant is larger than the area known as the Northern Neck; the original grant was given to a proprietor. Semi-autonomy relative to the colonial government was provided by the proprietorial government until the American Revolution. Most of the early development occurred on the eastern end of the peninsula where the Potomac and Rappahannock provided navigable waters; the autonomy and the excellent natural resources led the richest planters to establish tobacco plantations in the Northern Neck. During the Colonial period, the Northern Neck was referred to as the "Athens of the New World" because of its collection of rich landowners dedicated to learning, gentlemanly society, civic duty; this elite society was economically based on the exploitation of slave labor by Africans and African Americans. Because of this influx of well-to-do planters, an aristocratic society grew earlier than in areas to the south.
From this society, arose many leaders of the Revolution and the future young republic. These differences created strong antipathies between the regions; as the remainder of the mid-Atlantic states became developed, the importance of the Northern Neck would decline. It was isolated from main trade routes and cities; this isolation may be a product of the earlier antipathies related to the differences in society in the Neck and in the regions farther south. In 1687 a widespread slave conspiracy was crushed in the Northern Neck. During a mass funeral, slaves in the area planned to escape; the plot was discovered and its leaders executed. When authorities learned that they had plotted the uprising at gatherings for slave funerals, they prohibited such events; the next year, the Northern Neck was the site of another attempted uprising, this one led by "Sam, a Negro Servt to Richard Metcalfe." A repeat offender, he had "several times endeavored to promote a Negro Insurreccon in this Colony." "To deter him & others from the like evil practice for time to come," the court ordered the sheriff of James City County to whip him and return him to the Westmoreland County sheriff to be whipped again.
Sam was sentenced to forever wear "a strong Iron collar affixed about his neck with four sprigs." Should he leave his master's plantation or remove the collar, he would be hanged. Many important historical figures were born on the Northern Neck, including U. S. presidents George Washington, James Madison, James Monroe, as well as signers of the Declaration of Independence, Francis Lightfoot Lee and Richard Henry Lee, the Confederate Civil War general Robert E. Lee. Richard Henry Lee was elected as the sixth president under the Articles of Confederation. Residing in Westmoreland was Colonel Nicholas Spencer, member of the House of Burgesses and president of the Governor's Council, on the departure of his cousin Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acting governor. Robert Carter I, agent for Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, was born at Corotoman Plantation and became President of the Governor's Council of the Virginia Colony, he was acting Governor of Virginia in 1726-1727 after the death in office of Governor Hugh Drysdale.
His sons John Carter married Elizabeth Hill of Shirley Plantation and Landon Carter married Maria Byrd, daughter of Col. William Byrd II and resided at Sabine Hall, his grandson Robert Carter III inherited Nonomy Hall - purchased from the aforementioned Nicholas Spencer; the Tayloe Family established their family seat Mount Airy, on the southern shore of the neck, across from Tappahannock on a high perch overlooking the Rappahannock River. John Tayloe I, John Tayloe II who built Mount Airy and after Menokin for his son-in-law Francis Lightfoot Lee, John Tayloe III who built the Octagon House and his sons John Tayloe IV, Benjamin Ogle Tayloe, William Henry Tayloe and George Plater Tayloe were all born here. Mixed vegetable and grain farming were adopted by the colonial period; the area developed a strong seafood industry. Reedville was once the wealthiest town in the United States, due to its menhaden fishing industry. Before the era of modern highways, many passenger and freight steamer routes linked the Chesapeake Bay region and connected with the railroads developed after 1830.
During the American Civil War, Northern Neck and King George County were on the frontier be
Gwyn A. Williams
Gwyn Alfred "Alf" Williams was a Welsh historian known for his work on Antonio Gramsci and Francisco Goya as well as on Welsh history. Williams was born in the iron town of Dowlais situated above the industrial metropolis of Merthyr Tydfil, he attended the Cyfarthfa Grammar School and read History at University College Wales, Aberystwyth. During World War II, he fought at Normandy. Williams received his doctorate for a dissertation published as Medieval London: from commune to capital. Gwyn was a committed Marxist however he became disillusioned with the Russian system following the atrocities committed by Stalin. In 1954, Williams was appointed Lecturer in Welsh History at Aberystwyth University where he worked with another historian of Wales David Williams, he left Aberystwyth for the University of York where he was Chair of History from 1965 to 1974. He moved back to Wales in 1974, becoming Professor of History at the University of Wales, where he stayed until his retirement in 1983. Throughout his career, Williams was known as an exciting lecturer, capable of drawing large crowds from across the university.
After his retirement, he continued to write, but he focused more and more on television and film, with Wynford Vaughan-Thomas, a 13-part series in 1985 by HTV and Channel 4 on Welsh history entitled The Dragon Has Two Tongues. Williams was a supporter of Republicanism. In 1983 Williams took early retirement from his Chair at Cardiff and began making films with Teliesyn, an independent Welsh broadcasting company based in Cardiff, he moved from Cardiff to the village of Dre-fach Felindre, in Carmarthenshire. Medieval London, 1963 Artisans and Sans-Culottes, 1968 Proletarian Order, 1975 Goya and the Impossible Revolution, 1976 Merthyr Rising, 1978 Madoc: The Making of a Myth, 1979 The Search for Beulah Land: the Welsh and the Atlantic Revolution, 1980 The Welsh in Their History, 1982 When Was Wales?, 1985 Excalibur: the Search for Arthur, 1994 Smith, Dai. "Gwyn A. Williams, 1925–1995". History Workshop Journal. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 41: 306–312. Stephens, Meic. "Obituary: Gwyn A. Williams".
The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 December 2009
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Today, thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples; the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of the peoples. Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn and squash; the Ojibwe cultivated wild rice. The Algonquians of New England practiced a seasonal economy; the basic social unit was the village: a few hundred people related by a clan kinship structure. Villages were mobile; the people moved to locations of greatest natural food supply breaking into smaller units or gathering as the circumstances required. This custom resulted in a certain degree of cross-tribal mobility in troubled times. In warm weather, they constructed portable wigwams, a type of hut with buckskin doors.
In the winter, they erected the more substantial longhouses, in which more than one clan could reside. They cached food supplies in more semi-subterranean structures. In the spring, when the fish were spawning, they left the winter camps to build villages at coastal locations and waterfalls. In March, they caught moving about in birch bark canoes. In April, they netted alewife and salmon. In May, they caught cod with line in the ocean. Putting out to sea, the men hunted whales, porpoises and seals.dubious The women and children gathered scallops, mussels and crabs, all the basis of menus in New England today. From April through October, natives hunted migratory birds and their eggs: Canada geese, mourning doves and others. In July and August they gathered strawberries, raspberries and nuts. In September, they moved up the streams to the forest. There, the men hunted beaver, caribou and white-tailed deer. In December, when the snows began, the people created larger winter camps in sheltered locations, where they built or reconstructed longhouses.
February and March were lean times. The tribes in southern New England and other northern latitudes had to rely on cached food. Northerners developed a practice of going hungry for several days at a time. Historians hypothesize that this practice kept the population down, according to Liebig's law of the minimum. Northerners were food gatherers only; the southern Algonquians of New England burn agriculture. They cleared fields by burning for one or two years of cultivation, after which the village moved to another location; this is the reason the English found the region cleared and ready for planting. By using various kinds of native corn and squash, southern New England natives were able to improve their diet to such a degree that their population increased and they reached a density of 287 people per 100 square miles as opposed to 41 in the north. With mobile crop rotation, southern villages were less mobile than northern ones; the natives continued their seasonal occupation but tended to move into fixed villages near their lands.
They adjusted to the change by developing a gender-oriented division of labor. The women cultivated crops, the men fished and hunted. Scholars estimate that, by the year 1600, the indigenous population of New England had reached 70,000–100,000. At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains, they were concentrated in the New England region. The homeland of the Algonquian peoples is not known. At the time of the European arrival, the hegemonic Iroquois Confederacy, based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, was at war with Algonquian neighbours. There are three "tribes" with plant uses that can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/6/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/7/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/8/. The latter, "Tete-de-Boule," is an early European name for the Atikamekw; the French and English encountered the Maliseet of present-day Maine and New Brunswick.
Further north are the Betsiamite, Atikamekw and Innu/Naskapi. The Beothuk of Newfoundland might have been Algonquians, but as their last known speaker died in the early 19th century, little record of their language or culture remains. Colonists in the Massachusetts Bay area first encountered the Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Penobscot and Quinnipiac; the Mohegan, Pocumtuc and Narragansett were based in southern New England. The Abenaki were located in northern New England: present-day Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont in what became the United States and eastern Quebec in what became Canada, they had established trading relationships with French colonists who settled along the Atlantic coast and what was called the Saint Lawrence River. The Mahican was located in western New England and in the upper Hudson River Valley (around what was developed by Europeans as Albany