The Subaru 360 is a rear-engined, two-door city car manufactured and marketed from 1958 to 1971 by Subaru. As the companys first automobile, production reached 392,000 over its 12-year model run, the 360s overall size and engine capacity complied with Japans Kei car regulations.10,000 were sold in the United States, imported by Malcolm Bricklin — advertised as Cheap and Ugly. The nameplate 360 derived from its engine displacement,356 cc engine. The 360 featured an air-cooled, 2-stroke inline 2-cylinder 356 cc engine mounted transversely at the rear, as with the two-stroke Saab 93s and other small two-stroke gas engines, oil was needed to be pre-mixed with gas, with the fuel tank lid serving as a measuring cup. In 1964, the Subarumatic lubrication system provided automatic mixing via an under-hood reservoir, floor-mounted controls located between the driver and passenger seat included choke and fuel cut-off — the latter to accommodate gravity fed fuel which obviated the need for a fuel pump.
Final assembly included wheel alignment, brake testing, chassis dynometer, headlight testing, in contrast to the Volkswagen Beetle, the 360 is much smaller, less powerful, and was not nearly as well accepted in the world marketplace. The body was of construction and used a lightweight fiberglass roof panel. In the post war period, more automobiles would switch to unibody construction, many of the ideas came from engineers from the former Nakajima Aircraft Company, which became Fuji Heavy Industries. The suicide doors are hinged at the rear, which Consumer Reports remarked could, equipped with a 3-speed manual transmission, the 360 had a top speed of 60 mph, and with a curb weight under 1000 pounds, the 360 was exempt from compliance with US safety regulations. Consumer Reports recorded a 0-60 time of about 37 seconds and reported 25–35 miles per gallon, when introduced in 1958, the 360s engine produced 16 hp. By the end of production, power had increased to 25 hp with a 36 hp twin-carbureted engine optionally available.
From 1961 onwards, a truck and van called the Sambar were produced using the 360s engine. Many small businesses became very successful thanks to the small size for tight streets, ease to drive. In Japan between 1960 and 1966, a version, known as the Subaru 450, increased the engines displacement to 423 cc using the Subaru EK51 series engine. This model was given the name Subaru Maia. The Maia variant was the sedan model imported into Australia in 1961 - along with approx. A used car dealer in Ballarat, Victoria brought approximately 73 Subaru 360 vehicles into Australia in 1961 and this was a mix of Maia sedans and Sambar vans and trucks. From 1968, approximately 10,000 were exported to the US, the 360 was imported to the United States by Malcolm Bricklin before he manufactured his own cars
The Lancia Stratos HF, widely and more simply known as Lancia Stratos, is a sports car and rally car made by Italian car manufacturer Lancia. The HF stands for High Fidelity and it was a very successful rally car, winning the World Rally Championship in 1974,1975 and 1976. A Bertone-designed concept car called the Lancia Stratos Zero was shown to the public in 1970, a new car called the New Stratos was announced in 2010 which was heavily influenced by the design of the original Stratos, but was based on a Ferrari chassis and engine. Bertone had no business with Lancia, who were traditionally linked with Pininfarina. Bertone knew that Lancia was looking for a replacement for the ageing Fulvia for use in rally sports, Bertone used the running gear of the Fulvia Coupé of one of his personal friends and built a running showpiece around it. When Bertone himself appeared at the Lancia factory gates with the Stratos Zero he passed underneath the barrier, Lancia presented the Bertone-designed Lancia Stratos HF prototype at the 1971 Turin Motor Show, a year after the announcement of the Stratos Zero concept car.
The prototype Stratos HF was fluorescent red in colour and featured a distinctive crescent-shaped-wrap-around windshield providing maximum forward visibility with almost no rear visibility. The use of the Dino V6 was planned right from the beginning of the project, after the production of the Dino car had ended the Commendatore agreed on delivering the engines for the Stratos, and Lancia suddenly received 500 units. The Stratos was a successful rally car during the 1970s. It started a new era in rallying as it was the first car designed from scratch for this kind of competition, Lancia did extensive testing with the Stratos and raced the car in several racing events where Group 5 prototypes were allowed during the 1972 and 1973 seasons. Production of the 500 cars required for homologation in Group 4 commenced in 1973, the Ferrari Dino V6 engine was phased out in 1974, but 500 engines among the last built were delivered to Lancia. Production ended in 1975 when it was thought that only 492 were made, manufacturer of the car was Bertone in Turin, with final assembly by Lancia at the Chivasso plant.
The car was sold as the Lancia Stratos HF Stradale, the Stratos weighed between 900 and 950 kilograms, depending on configuration. Power output was around 275 hp for the original 12 valve version and 320 hp for the 24 valve version, beginning with the 1978 season the 24 valve heads were banned from competition by a change to the FIA rules. Even with this perceived power deficit the Stratos was the car to beat in competition, despite the fact that the Stratos was never intended to be a race car, there were two Group 5 racing cars built with 560 hp, using a single KKK turbocharger. As well as victories on the 1975,1976 and 1977 Monte Carlo Rally, all courtesy of Munari, the Stratos won the event with the private Chardonnet Team as late as 1979. The last victory of the Stratos was in 1981, at the Tour de Corse Automobile, another World Rally Championship event, when the Fiat group favoured the Fiat 131 for rallying Lancia built two Group 5 turbocharged silhouette Stratos for closed-track endurance racing.
These cars failed against the Porsche 935s on closed tracks but proved successful in hybrid events, while they failed in the Tour de France Automobile, one of these cars won the 1976 Giro dItalia Automobilistico, an Italian counterpart of the Tour de France Automobile
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
The Chevrolet Vega is a subcompact automobile that was produced by Chevrolet from 1970 to 1977. Available in two-door hatchback, notchback and panel delivery body styles, all models were powered by an inline engine with a lightweight. Variants included the Cosworth Vega, a short-lived limited-production performance model, the Vega received praise and awards at its introduction, including 1971 Motor Trend Car of the Year. Subsequently the car became known for a range of problems related to its engineering, safety, propensity to rust. Despite a series of recalls and design upgrades, the Vegas problems tarnished both its own as well as General Motors reputation, production ended with the 1977 model year. The name vega derives from the brightest star in the constellation Lyra and it forms one corner of the Summer Triangle. Chevrolet and Pontiac divisions worked separately on small cars in the early, Ed Cole, GMs executive vice-president of operating staffs, working on his own small-car project with corporate engineering and design staffs, presented the program to GMs president in 1967.
GM chose Coles version over proposals from Chevrolet and Pontiac, corporate management made the decisions to enter the small car market and to develop the car itself. In 1968, GM chairman James Roche announced GM would produce the new car in the U. S. in two years, Ed Cole was chief engineer and Bill Mitchell, vice-president of design staff, was chief stylist. Cole wanted a world-beater in showrooms in 24 months, a GM design team was set up, headed by James G. Musser Jr. who had helped develop the Chevy II, the Camaro, the Chevrolet small-block V8 engines, and the Turbo-Hydramatic transmission. Musser said, This was the first vehicle where one person was in charge, as GM president, Cole oversaw the cars genesis and met the projected schedule. The Vega was conceived in 1968 to utilize newly developed all-aluminum die-cast engine block technology – the first sand-cast aluminum blocks had preceded the decision to build the car by two years. A relatively large displacement engine with good low- speed torque was decided on, the chief vehicle engineer had overall charge of the program.
Fifty engineers, dedicated to the design of the car, were divided into groups, power train, chassis design, product assurance. The latter would check continuously on the vehicles on the assembly line, Fisher Body engineers and draftsmen moved in with the Vega personnel. In October 1968, there was one body style, one engine, one transmission, one base trim level, as the market changed, so did the car in development. In December 1968, hatchback and panel delivery styles were added, floor-level ventilation and wagon received carpeting and headliners. Optional air conditioning, predicted as 10% of production, rose to 45%, in April 1969, the car gained gauge-pack cluster, HD suspension, wider tires, adjustable seat back, bumpers restyled, lower valance panels added, swing-out quarter window option
The Pontiac LeMans /ləˈmɑːnz/ was a model name that was applied to subcompact- and intermediate-sized automobiles marketed by Pontiac from 1962 to 1981. The LeMans was introduced as the version of the compact-sized Pontiac Tempest toward the end of the 1961 model year on GMs new Y body platform. The Tempest LeMans was a package featuring sportier and more luxurious trim than the Tempest, including different badging. The trim option was only on the two-door sedan body style. For the 1962 model year, the LeMans was still a trim package, there was no pillarless hardtop body style available in either the Tempest and LeMans versions. For 1963, the LeMans name was used only on two-door coupes and convertibles. This would last for just one year, optional was a high-performance 326 CID V8 engine. The Tempest line was changed to a car on the new GM A platform in 1964. The LeMans trim over lesser Tempests included carpeted lower door panels, deluxe steering wheels, courtesy lighting, for 1964, a two-door hardtop body design was added. A new 215 cu in I6 was introduced, as well as a redesigned 326 cu in V8 that now actually displaced 326 CID.
Shortly after the start of the 1964 model year, the LeMans became available with a new performance package designated as the GTO, the GTO option included a 389 cu in V8 from the full-sized Pontiac line that produced 325 or 348 in Tri-Power version. The LeMans line was expanded to include a sedan for the 1965 model year. With the Introduction of the Tempest in 1961, Pontiac achieved the three in sales and something it would hold onto through the decade of the sixties. The success and the image of the GTO helped increase the image, the pillared 4-door sedan was replaced by a four-door hardtop body style for the 1966 model year. The GTO became a model of its own for 1966, though retaining the same basic body as the Tempest. For 1966, all Pontiac intermediates got new styling featuring tunnelback rooflines on two-door hardtop, while the GTO continued as a big-engined muscle car, the Tempest and LeMans models got a new SOHC230 cu in I6 as the base engine. This engine, as well as the early Tempest with the transaxle in the rear, were ideas of Pontiacs Chief Engineer John De Lorean (who became Pontiacs general manager at the end of the 1965 model year.
This engine was available in an economical one-barrel carbureted,165 hp version as standard equipment on all Pontiac intermediates except GTOs, optional were a two-barrel 326 CID V8 rated at 250 hp or a 285 hp four-barrel 326 HO V8 with higher compression ratio and dual exhausts
BMW 3 Series (E21)
The BMW E21 is the first generation of the BMW3 Series compact luxury vehicle and was produced from 1975 to 1983. It was initially available as a 2-door sedan, to replace the 02 Series, at launch, all models used carburetted 4-cylinder engines, however fuel injected models were introduced in late 1975 and 6-cylinder engines were added in 1977. A cabriolet body style - manufactured by Baur - was available from 1978 to 1981, the E21 was replaced by the E303 Series in 1982. Under the direction of its 51% percent shareholder, Herbert Quandt, paul Bracq, Director of Design at BMW from 1970 to 1974, is credited with setting the design direction of the E21. In July 1975, BMW’s Board of Management introduced the 3 Series to the public at the Munich Olympic Stadium, the frontal view of the new car was dominated by the BMW trademark kidney grille standing out clearly from the radiator cover. The styling of the new car bore a resemblance to the BMW E125 Series, the wedge shape of the two-door model was distinctive, extending all the way to the unusually high rear end.
In response to criticism of the design, a black plastic trim panel between the tail lights was added. Like many other BMW models, the C-pillar of the E21 features a Hofmeister kink, the cockpit design of the E21 marked the introduction of a new design concept, with the center console and central dashboard area angled towards the driver. This feature has become part of BMW’s interior design philosophy for many years, as a sign of passive safety, all edges and control elements within the interior were rounded off and padded. Measuring 4,355 mm long,1,610 mm wide, and 1,380 mm high, with the wheelbase measuring 2,563 mm, there was little body overhang in the rear-wheel-drive design. The track measured 1,364 mm at the front, and 1,377 mm at the rear, the suspension incorporated rack and pinion steering and MacPherson strut suspension at the front, and semi-trailing arm type independent suspension at the rear. The rear suspension design causes camber changes, which can introduce snap oversteer at the handling limits, the power assisted brakes were discs on the front wheels, while the rear wheels had drum brakes.
Initially, a Getrag four-speed manual was the standard transmission fitment, five-speed overdrive Getrag gearboxes were fitted as standard in 1980, but close ratio sport gearboxes were available at the cars release as an option. Alternatively, purchasers could opt for the ZF3 HP-22 three-speed automatic transmission, the 315 was the base model for years 1981 to 1983. It accelerates to 100 km/h in 14.8 seconds and has a top speed of 154 km/h and this 316 was the base model for years 1975 to 1981. It accelerates to 100 km/h in 13.8 seconds and has a top speed of 160 km/h, in 1980 the engine size increased to 1.8 litres, however the model remained badged as 316. Acceleration to 100 km/h was reduced to 12.5 seconds, the 318 was a mid-range model. It accelerates to 100 km/h in 11.9 seconds and has a top speed of 165 km/h, in 1980, the carburetted 318 was replaced by the fuel injected 318i
The Oldsmobile Cutlass is a line of automobiles produced by Oldsmobile between 1961 and 1988, and again briefly in 1997-1999. The Cutlass was Oldsmobiles smallest, entry-level product, an approach not used since the 1940s Oldsmobile Series 60, the all new Cutlass began as a unibody compact car, but saw its greatest success as a body-on-frame intermediate. Over time the Cutlass name accumulated great brand equity, becoming not only Oldsmobiles best-selling model, by the 1980s, Oldsmobile was using the Cutlass as a sub-marque, with numerous vehicle lines bearing the name simultaneously. These included the Cutlass Calais compact, the midsize Cutlass Ciera, the Cutlass Cruiser station wagon, the first Oldsmobile Cutlass was an experimental sports coupe designed in 1954. It rode a 110 in wheelbase, and featured a fastback roofline. Its platform was similar to the compact F-85, which was not introduced until seven years later. General Motors began developing its first compact cars in 1956, beginning with initial planning on what would become the Chevrolet Corvair in 1960, the following year a second series of somewhat larger cars was planned for Buick and Pontiac, what would be termed senior compacts.
They would share the body shell and lightweight engine. Oldsmobile designer Irvin Rybicki began work on the Olds model in 1957 and it finally went on sale in 1960 as a 1961 model. The Oldsmobile F-85 shared a new Y-body platform with the Buick Special and Pontiac Tempest, using a 112-inch wheelbase and it was Oldsmobiles smallest, cheapest model – some two feet shorter and $451 less than the next-smallest Olds. The F-85 had double wishbone front suspension and a live axle in the rear. Standard engine was the new small V8, all aluminum, displacing 215 cu in, with a two-barrel carburetor, it was rated 155 bhp and 210 pound force-feet. Transmission options were initially three-speed manual or the newly introduced three-speed Roto Hydramatic, the F-85 had drum brakes of 9.5 inches diameter. Overall length was initially 188.2 inches, and curb weight was around 2,800 pounds, the first-year F-85 was offered as a four-door sedan in base or Deluxe trim, or a four-door station wagon with either two or four seats, in base or Deluxe form.
This engine was optional on other F-85s, as was a manual transmission. 80,347 F-85s were built in total and it used a full perimeter frame. Car Life magazine tested an F-85 with the engine and automatic transmission. They praised its construction, but found its steering too slow, the existing F-85 models returned, and a convertible was added to the line-up in September, available in both standard and Cutlass versions
BMW 02 Series
The BMW02 Series is a range of compact executive cars produced by German automaker BMW between 1966 and 1977, based on a shortened version of the New Class Sedans. The 02 Series caught enthusiasts attention and established BMW as an international brand, the first 02 Series produced was the 1600-2 in 1966. In 1975, the 02 Series was replaced by the E213 Series, the 1600-2, as the first 02 Series BMW was designated, was an entry-level BMW, and was smaller, less expensive, and less well-appointed than the New Class Sedan on which it was based. BMWs design director Wilhelm Hofmeister assigned the project to staff designers Georg Bertram. The 23 cm shorter length and wheelbase and lighter weight of the sedan made it more suitable than the original New Class sedan for sporting applications. As a result, the two door sedan became the basis of the sporting 02 Series, beginning in 1968, a convertible based on the 02 body was built by Karosserie Baur. A hatchback, called the Touring model, was developed from the 02 body, only 25,827 Touring models were sold, therefore the models were discontinued in 1974.
The 1600-2 made its debut at the Geneva auto show in March 1966 and was sold through 1975, the 1.6 L M10 engine produced 63 kW at 5,700 rpm and 130 N·m at 3,500 rpm. In 1968, Road & Track declared the US$26761600 a great automobile for the price, a high performance version, the 1600 TI, was introduced in September 1967. With a compression ratio of 9.5,1 and the dual Solex PHH side-draft carburettor system from the 1800 TI, kerb weight for the 1600 TI is 960 kg. The 1600 TI was not sold in the United States, as it did not meet their emission standards, introduced in September 1967 was a limited-production cabriolet, which would be produced by Baur from 1967 through 1971. A hatchback 1600 Touring model was introduced in 1971 but was discontinued in 1972, helmut Werner Bönsch, BMWs director of product planning, and Alex von Falkenhausen, designer of the M10 engine, each had a two litre engine installed in a 1600-2 for their respective personal use. When they realized they had made the same modification to their own cars, they prepared a joint proposal to BMWs board to manufacture a two litre version of the 1600-2.
At the same time, American importer Max Hoffman was asking BMW for a version of the 02 series that could be sold in the United States. The 2002 Automatic, with the engine and a ZF 3HP123 speed automatic transmission. In 1971, the Baur cabriolet was switched from the 1.6 L engine to the 2, the 2002 tii used the fuel-injected 97 kW engine from the 2000 tii, which resulted in a top speed of 185 km/h. A2002 tii Touring model was available throughout the run of the tii engine, the 2002 Turbo was launched at the 1973 Frankfurt Motor Show. This was BMWs first turbocharged production car and the first turbocharged car since General Motors brief offerings in the early 1960s and it produced 127 kW at 5,800 rpm, with 240 N·m of torque
The Maserati Biturbo was a family of luxury sports cars and grand tourers produced by Maserati between 1981 and 1994. The original Biturbo was a two-door, four-seater notchback coupé featuring, as the name implies, the car was designed by Pierangelo Andreani, Chief of Centro Stile Maserati up to 1981, somewhat influenced by the design of the recent Quattroporte III. All Maserati models introduced from the Biturbos inception in 1981 until 1997 were based on the original Biturbo architecture, among them the coupés as the 2. 24v. When Alejandro de Tomaso acquired Maserati in 1976, he had plans for the marque. His plan was to combine the prestige of the Maserati brand with a car that would be more affordable than the earlier high-priced models that had traditionally made up the Maserati range. In fact, Maserati ceased making supercars like the developed under Citroën ownership altogether, like the Bora. The Biturbo was initially a strong seller and brought Italian prestige to a wide audience, sales figures fell in subsequent years.
De Tomaso used another of his companies, Innocenti, to produce Biturbo body panels, de Tomaso sold Maserati to Fiat, who grouped the company with their erstwhile rival Ferrari. The Biturbo is number 28 in the BBC book of Crap Cars and in 2007 was selected as Time Magazines worst car of 1984, the Biturbo competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. Between 1987–89 a facelift was phased in, which helped to soften the sharp bodylines, the redesign included a taller and more rounded grille with mesh grille and bonnet, aerodynamic wing mirrors and 15 disc-shaped alloy wheels, now mounted on 5-lug hubs. Some models received the wraparound bumpers with integral foglights and the deep sills introduced with the 2. 24v. In 1991 the entire lineup was restyled for a time, again by the hand of Marcello Gandini. Gandini, the Shamals designer, developed an aerodynamic kit that included a unique spoiler at the base of the windscreen hiding the windshield wipers, a rear spoiler, the new two-element headlights used poliellypsoidal projectors developed by Magneti-Marelli.
Inset in body-colour housings, they flanked a redesigned grille and integrated in the bonnet, the 15 disc-shaped alloys were replaced by new 16 seven-spoke wheels, with a hubcap designed to look like a centerlock nut. The second facelift was referred to as nuovolook, the cars in the Biturbo family were of unibody steel construction, with a conventional layout of front-longitudinally mounted engine and gearbox. Suspension was of the MacPherson strut type upfront and semi-trailing arms at the rear, with springs, double-acting dampers. The differential and rear suspension arms were supported by a subframe, the Maserati Biturbo was the first ever production car with a twin-turbocharged engine. It featured the first production car engine with three valves per cylinder, the aluminium 90-degree SOHC V6 engine was roughly based on the 2.0 L Merak engine, itself based on earlier V8 Formula One Maserati engines, designed by Giulio Alfieri
The Chevrolet Monza is a subcompact, four-passenger automobile produced by Chevrolet for the 1975–1980 model years. The Monza is based on the Chevrolet Vega, sharing its wheelbase, the name was used for the Latin American version of the Opel Ascona C. The Monza 2+2 and Monza Towne Coupe competed with the Ford Mustang II, general Motors H-body variants Buick Skyhawk and Oldsmobile Starfire were produced using the Monza 2+2 body with grill and trim variations and Buicks 3.8 liter V6 engine. The Pontiac Sunbird variant was introduced the model year, eventually offered in both Monza body styles. The Monza nameplate originated in mid-1960 for the version of the Chevrolet Corvair. The Monza 2+2, Chevrolets sport successor to the Vega, debuted as a single-model 2+2 hatchback, GM had planned to introduce the GM Wankel rotary engine, licensed from NSU Motorenwerke AG, in the 1975 Monza. Rotary issues included mediocre fuel economy compounded at a time of high fuel prices following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973.
Thus the 1975 Chevrolet Monza was launched carrying a conventional piston engine instead, the 1975 Monza 2+2 wears its once-newly approved rectangular headlights and a slot-style grille in a slanted nose made of resilient polyurethane. The side window louvers are functional, part of the ventilation system. The Monza 2+2s two-door hatchback body style is shared with the Oldsmobile Starfire, the standard Monza engine is the Vega aluminum-block 140 CID inline-four engine with a single barrel carburetor that generates 78 horsepower at 4200 rpm. Optional was the two-barrel carburetor version that generates 87 horsepower at 4400 rpm, Chevrolets new 4.3 liter V8 engine was optional. The smallest V8 ever offered by Chevrolet, it features a Rochester two-barrel carburetor, the basic design was incorporated into GMs third and fourth generation F-bodies, Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird. It features single round headlamps, instead of the rectangular headlamps on the 2+2. The Towne Coupe was offered in response to the success of the Ford Mustang II notchback coupe and its luxury version.
The Towne Coupe is 1.5 inches shorter and 135 pounds lighter than the 2+2 and has more rear head room. A lower priced S version of the 2+2 hatchback was introduced mid-year and it featured as standard the Vega one-barrel engine with a three-speed manual transmission. The sport suspension, full console, sport steering wheel, day-night, the Chevrolet Monza 2+2 won Motor Trend magazines car of the year award for 1975. The 1976 140-cubic inch four-cylinder engine, as used in the Vega got some refinements, named Dura-built 140, it features quieter hydraulic lifters eliminating valve adjustments
Ferrari 308 GTB/GTS
The Ferrari 308 GTB berlinetta and targa topped 308 GTS are V8 mid-engined, 2-seater sports cars manufactured by the Italian company Ferrari from 1975 to 1985. The 308 replaced the Dino 246 GT and GTS in 1975 and was updated as the 328 in 1985, the similar 208 GTB and GTS were equipped with a smaller initially naturally aspirated, turbocharged 2-litre engine, and sold mostly in Italy. Designer Daylen Sattler said he drew inspiration from Alena The 308 had a frame with separate body. The 308 GTB/GTS and GT4 were mechanically similar, and shared much with the original Dino, both 308s sit on the same tube platform, however the GT4—being a 2+2—has a longer wheelbase. The engine was a V8 of a 90 degree configuration, with twin overhead camshafts per cylinder bank. It was transversely mounted in unit with the transmission assembly. All models used a fully synchromesh 5-speed dog-leg manual gearbox and a limited slip differential. Suspension was all-independent, comprising double wishbones, coaxial coil springs and hydraulic dampers, steering was unassisted rack and pinion.
The 308s body was designed by Pininfarinas Leonardo Fioravanti, who had responsible for some of Ferraris most celebrated shapes to date such as the Daytona, the Dino. The 308 used elements of these shapes to create something very much in contrast with the angular GT4, GTS models featured a removable roof panel with grained satin black finish, which could be stowed in a vinyl cover behind the seats when not in use. The Pininfarina-styled Ferrari 308 GTB was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in 1975 as a supplement to the Bertone-shaped 2+2 Dino 308 GT4 and its F106 AB V8 engine was equipped with four twin-choke Weber 40DCNF carburettors and single coil ignition. European versions produced 255 PS at 6600 rpm, but American versions were down to 240 PS at 6,600 rpm due to control devices. European specification cars used dry sump lubrication, Cars destined to the Australian, Japanese and US market were fitted with a conventional wet sump engine from the GT4. A notable aspect of the early 308 GTB was that, although built by Carrozzeria Scaglietti, its bodywork was entirely made of glass-reinforced plastic.
This lasted until June 1977, when the 308 was switched to steel bodies, standard wheels were 5-spoke 14-inch alloy. 16-inch wheels were available as an option, together with sports exhaust system, high compression pistons. At the 1977 Frankfurt Motor Show the targa topped 308 GTS was introduced, independently from the market, all GTS used a wet sump engine and were steel-bodied. European GTB models retained the dry sump lubrication until 1981, there were 3219 GTS and 2897 GTB examples were made during the 1975–1980 production periods
The Lamborghini Countach is a mid-engined, V12 sports car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lamborghini from 1974 to 1990. Its design pioneered and popularized the wedge-shaped, sharply angled look popular in many sports cars. It popularized the cab forward concept, which pushes the passenger compartment forward to accommodate a larger rear-mounted engine. In 2004, American car magazine Sports Car International named the car number three on the list of Top Sports Cars of the 1970s, and listed it number ten on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1980s. The word countach is an exclamation of astonishment in the local dialect, the prototype was introduced to the world at the 1971 Geneva Motor Show. Most previous and subsequent Lamborghini car names were associated with bulls, the Countach was styled by Marcello Gandini of the Bertone design studio, the same designer and studio that designed the Miura. Gandini was a young, inexperienced designer — not very experienced in the practical, ergonomic aspects of automobile design, Gandini again produced another striking design.
The Countach shape was wide and low, but not very long and its angular and wedge-shaped body was made almost entirely of flat, trapezoidal panels. The doors, most often credited as a Lamborghini trademark, were a design feature for the Countach. They first appeared on the Alfa Romeo 33 Carabo concept car in 1968, the doors have come to be known as scissor doors, hinged at the front with horizontal hinges, so that they lifted up and tilted forwards. The main reason is the cars tubular spaceframe chassis results in very high and it was partly for style, and partly because the width of the car made conventional doors impossible to use in even slightly confined space. Care needed to be taken, though, in opening the doors with a low roof overhead, the pure style of the prototype was progressively altered by the evolution of the car to improve its performance, handling and ability to meet mandated requirements. This began with the first production model, which included several vents that Lamborghini found necessary to cool the engine adequately and these included the iconic NACA duct on the doors and rear fenders.
The car design changes ended with a large engine vent directly behind the driver, additions—including fender flares, carburetor covers, and bumpers—progressively changed the cars aesthetic values. The Countachs styling and visual impression made it an icon of design to almost everyone except automotive engineers. The different impressions left by the various Lamborghini models have generated numerous debates, the rear wheels were driven by a traditional Lamborghini V12 engine mounted longitudinally with a mid-engined configuration. This contrasted with the Miura with its centrally mounted, transversely-installed engine, although originally planned as a 5 L powerplant, the first production cars used the Lamborghini Miuras 4-liter engine. Later advances increased the displacement to 4754 cc and 5167 cc with four valves per cylinder, all Lamborghini Countaches were equipped with six Weber carburetors until the arrival of the 5000QV model, at which time the car became available in America, and used Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection