A professional handler, sometimes called a professional dog handler is a person who trains and shows dogs in conformation shows for a fee. Handlers are hired by dog owners or breeders to finish their championship, or if finished, to show in the Best of Breed class as a "special". Becoming a professional handler does not require any formal schooling, but an apprenticeship under an established handler and an adherence to a code of ethics is sometimes required in order to join into one of the professional organizations. PHA, Professional Handler's Association Dog Handlers' Guild AKC's Registered Handlers Program Canadian Professional Handlers Association
A leash is a rope or similar material used to control an animal by attaching to it or to a separate object on it. Leashes take many forms. Short tab leashes. Allows close, tight control of a dog in certain competition or training situations. Short, braided leather leash with a loop handle and a clip to attach to the collar about 4 feet in length used during obedience training; the softness enables the trainer to fold the leash into a shorter length and the braiding allows a firmer grip. Nylon webbing leash known as a tracking/training leash in the UK 4 to 6 feet, with a loop handle and clip, most used for walking dogs casually. Extended-length webbing leashes, 12 to 30 feet or more known as a tracking/training leash in the UK with a loop handle and a clip for training at a distance or during tracking sessions. Slip-leash with a loop handle and an adjustable, slipping loop at the other end that goes around the dog's neck. Used in work or competitions—such as dog agility—where the leash must be removed and replaced.
Retractable, a hook on a thin rope that retracts automatically into a large plastic handle, allowing the dog to wander 15 or 25 feet away while keeping the leash taut but still allowing the handler to reel in the dog for closer control. There are bicycle dog leashes designed for people who enjoy taking their pet in a ride with the bike; the leash is an aluminum tube with a plastic coated cable. It extends out of the tube end a couple of feet to allow for ease of movement for the dog. One end connects to the other to the dog's collar; this keeps them safely away the bike. Cat leashes and harnesses are available on the market and are convenient for people who are not comfortable letting their pet free. Many cities have passed legislation. Purposes of a leash include: preventing animals from frightening or biting people or other animals and urinating in inappropriate places, endangering traffic, digging up lawns, causing other damage, getting lost, getting away from owners. Leashes provide a clear method of communication and ensure control during training of dogs.
In the United States, leash laws are different within each state. While some states do not have statewide leash laws and give localities power to make leash law, there are some other states in which leash laws apply statewide. States that do not have statewide leash laws are Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Hawaii, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Virginia and Wyoming. In Connecticut, dogs are not permitted to run at large except in the situation of hunting. Still, if the dog has vicious propensities and the owner still allows it to run at large and a person is bitten, the owner can be fined for up to $1,000 and is liable for 6 months of prison unless the victim has abused the dog and provoked the harmful behavior. In Delaware, dogs are not allowed to run at large unless in situations when the owner is present and has control over the pet. An exception is for farm dogs. During the night dogs must be kept in an enclosure from which they cannot escape secured with a collar or chain or other device, so they cannot stray from the premises, or are under the reasonable control of the owner or custodian.
If an owner does not respect these laws and if the dog bites someone, the owner is subject to civil liability and for fines of up to $1,500. Dogs in the District of Columbia must be kept on a leash as well, they are not permitted on school grounds when school is in session or on any public recreation area without a leash. Indiana is one of the states that has a restraint statute, which means that dogs must be restrained at all times. Otherwise, if the dog bites a person when not restrained the owner is subject to civil liability and criminal penalties. Dogs are allowed to run at large during the night in Kentucky only if they are accompanied by and under control of their owner. According to the leash laws of Louisiana, dogs are prohibited to run at large at all times of the day; the same law applies in Maine. Missouri legislation requires that dogs are kept in leashes that are no longer than 10 feet when they are in state parks or on historic sites. Dogs that have rabies are not permitted to run at large.
In Nebraska, dogs may run at large only in counties where the population does not reach 80,000. New Hampshire legislation does not allow dogs to run at large unless they are accompanied by their owner or custodian or when dogs are used for training or are trained for hunting, herding or exhibitions. Illinois legislation prohibits owners from walking their dogs. Dogs in New York must be confined at all times of the day. However, certain NYC parks allow dogs off leash at certain hours. According to the North Carolina law, dogs
The domestic dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, is the most abundant terrestrial carnivore. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa as modern wolves are not related to the wolves that were first domesticated, which implies that the direct ancestor of the dog is extinct; the dog was the first species to be domesticated and has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely attuned to human behavior and they are able to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canid species. Dogs vary in shape and colors, they perform many roles for humans, such as hunting, pulling loads, assisting police and military, companionship and, more aiding disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of "man's best friend"; the term dog is applied both to the species as a whole, any adult male member of the same.
An adult female is a bitch. An adult male capable of reproduction is a stud. An adult female capable of reproduction is brood mother. Immature males or females are puppies. A group of pups from the same gestation period is called a litter; the father of a litter is a sire. It is possible for one litter to have multiple sires; the mother of a litter is a dam. A group of any three or more adults is a pack. In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from multiple grey wolf populations, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog "breeds" having developed at a time when human populations were more isolated from each other. In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies, proposed two additional subspecies: "familiaris Linneaus, 1758 " and "dingo Meyer, 1793 ". Wozencraft included hallstromi – the New Guinea singing dog – as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo.
Wozencraft referred to the mDNA study as one of the guides in forming his decision. The inclusion of familiaris and dingo under a "domestic dog" clade has been noted by other mammalogists; this classification by Wozencraft is debated among zoologists. The origin of the domestic dog includes the dog's evolutionary divergence from the wolf, its domestication, its development into dog types and dog breeds; the dog is a member of the genus Canis, which forms part of the wolf-like canids, was the first species and the only large carnivore to have been domesticated. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not related to the population of wolves, first domesticated; the genetic divergence between dogs and wolves occurred between 40,000–20,000 years ago, just before or during the Last Glacial Maximum. This timespan represents the upper time-limit for the commencement of domestication because it is the time of divergence and not the time of domestication, which occurred later.
The domestication of animals commenced over 15,000 years ago, beginning with the grey wolf by nomadic hunter-gatherers. The archaeological record and genetic analysis show the remains of the Bonn–Oberkassel dog buried beside humans 14,200 years ago to be the first undisputed dog, with disputed remains occurring 36,000 years ago, it was not until 11,000 years ago that people living in the Near East entered into relationships with wild populations of aurochs, boar and goats. Where the domestication of the dog took place remains debated, with the most plausible proposals spanning Western Europe, Central Asia and East Asia; this has been made more complicated by the recent proposal that an initial wolf population split into East and West Eurasian groups. These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago; the Western Eurasian dog population was and replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.
This proposal is debated. Domestic dogs have been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, physical attributes. Modern dog breeds show more variation in size and behavior than any other domestic animal. Dogs are predators and scavengers, like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wrist bones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, teeth for catching and tearing. Dogs are variable in height and weight; the smallest known adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that stood only 6.3 cm at the shoulder, 9.5 cm in length along the head-and-body, weighed only 113 grams. The largest known dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 155.6 kg and was 250 cm from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane; the dog's senses include vision, sense of smell, sense of taste and sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field. Another study suggested; the coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: "double" being common with dogs originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or "single", with the topcoat only.
Breeds may have stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or underside. Regarding coat appearance or h