Dogma is an official system of principles or doctrines of a religion, such as Roman Catholicism, or the positions of a philosopher or of a philosophical school such as Stoicism. In the pejorative sense, dogma refers to enforced decisions, such as those of aggressive political interests or authorities. More it is applied to some strong belief whose adherents are not willing to discuss rationally; this attitude is named as dogmatism. The word "dogma" was translated in the 17th century from Latin dogma meaning "philosophical tenet" or principle, derived from the Greek dogma meaning "that which one thinks is true" and the verb dokein, "to seem good"; the plural, based on the Greek, is "dogmata", though "dogmas" may be more used in English and other languages. Formally, the term dogma has been used by some theistic religious groups to describe the body of positions forming the group's most central, foundational, or essential beliefs, though the term may be used to refer to the entire set of formal beliefs identified by a theistic or non-theistic religious group.

In some cases dogma is distinguished from religious opinion and those things in doctrine considered less significant or uncertain. Formal church dogma is clarified and elaborated upon in its communication. View or position is a central idea in Buddhism. In Buddhist thought, a view is not a simple, abstract collection of propositions, but a charged interpretation of experience which intensely shapes and affects thought and action. Having the proper mental attitude toward views is therefore considered an integral part of the Buddhist path, as sometimes correct views need to be put into practice and incorrect views abandoned, while othertimes all views are seen as obstacles to enlightenment. Christianity is defined by a set of core beliefs shared by all Christians, though how those core beliefs are implemented and secondary questions vary within Christianity; when formally communicated by the organization, these beliefs are sometimes referred to as'dogmata'. The organization's formal religious positions may be taught to new members or communicated to those who choose to become members.

It is rare for agreement with an organization's formal positions to be a requirement for attendance, though membership may be required for some church activities. Protestants to differing degrees are less formal about doctrine, rely on denomination-specific beliefs, but refer to these beliefs as dogmata; the first unofficial institution of dogma in the Christian church was by Saint Irenaeus in his Demonstration of Apostolic Teaching, which provides a'manual of essentials' constituting the'body of truth'. For Catholicism and Eastern Christianity, the dogmata are contained in the Nicene Creed and the canon laws of two, seven, or twenty ecumenical councils; these tenets are summarized by John of Damascus in his Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, the third book of his main work, titled The Fount of Knowledge. In this book he takes a dual approach in explaining each article of the faith: one, directed at Christians, where he uses quotes from the Bible and from works of other Church Fathers, the second, directed both at members of non-Christian religions and at atheists, for whom he employs Aristotelian logic and dialectics.

The decisions of fourteen councils that Catholics hold as dogmatic and a small number of decrees promulgated by popes exercising papal infallibility are considered as being a part of the Church's sacred body of doctrine. In Islam the Quran and aqidah correspond, albeit differently across cultural and theological lines, to the Latin terms dogma/dogmata. In Stoicism "dogma" is a principle established by experience. Stoicism has many dogmas, such as the well-known Stoic dogma "the only good is moral good, the only evil is moral evil". In Pyrrhonist philosophy "dogma" refers to assent to a proposition about a non-evident matter; the main principle of Pyrrhonism is expressed by the word acatalepsia, which connotes the ability to withhold assent from doctrines regarding the truth of things in their own nature. Pyrrhonists withhold assent with regard to non-evident propositions, i.e. dogmas. Pyrrhonists argue that dogmatists, such as the Stoics and Peripatetics, have failed to demonstrate that their doctrines regarding non-evident matters are true.

View Central dogma of molecular biology – Explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system Doctrine#Religious usage – Codification of beliefs Dogmatic theology – The official theology recognized by an organized Church body Dogma – Strong's N. T. Greek Lexicon Il Domani – terribile o radioso? – del Dogma, a book by Enrico Maria Radaelli with a Preface by Roger Scruton and comments by Brunero Gherardini, Alessandro Gnocchi-Mario Palmaro, Mario Oliveri Irenaeus. Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching. Pp. 70–75. Available at: Christian Classics ethereal library

The Diplomats

The Diplomats is an American hip hop group formed in 1997 by childhood friends Cam'ron and Jim Jones in Harlem, New York. The group was composed of Cam'ron, Jim Jones and Freekey Zekey, all of whom grew up together in Harlem. In 1999, fellow Harlem-based rapper Juelz Santana joined the group. In 2001, following Cam'ron's signing, the group secured a recording contract with Diplomat Records, Cam'ron's label, they subsequently began recording their debut album, Diplomatic Immunity, released it under the aforementioned labels in March 2003. Following tensions and controversy between Cam'ron and Jay-Z, the group subsequently severed ties with Roc-A-Fella and signed to indie record label Koch Records; the group released their second album Diplomatic Immunity 2, in November 2004 under Koch. After a hiatus because of artistic differences, in 2010 the original members began recording music together again and announced a reunion album. In February 2011, it was announced. However, in May 2013, Freekey Zekey revealed.

The group is signed to E1 Music. The first commercial appearance of the group was on Cam'ron's 2000 album S. D. E. Released on Epic Records. Cam'ron demanded a release from Epic, signed with Roc-A-Fella Records owned by his childhood friend Damon Dash. Cam'ron released his third album, Come Home with Me through Roc-A-Fella; the album featured numerous guest appearances from Jim Jones. The lead singles were platinum hits "Oh Boy" and "Hey Ma"; the album served as both an introduction to The Diplomats and a stepping stone for the rest of the group to be signed to Roc-A-Fella. The Diplomats followed Cam'ron's solo album shortly after with their debut album Diplomatic Immunity released in 2003, which featured a remix of "Hey Ma", as well as the lead single, "Dipset Anthem", produced by Heatmakerz which peaked at #64 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart; the double-disc album was a success and became certified gold by RIAA less than two months after its release. By the time of the release of their 2004 followup, Diplomatic Immunity 2, additional members Hell Rell, 40 Cal. and J. R. Writer had joined the group.

They added Jay Bezel, comedian Katt Williams, female first lady, Jha Jha. In 2006, Jim Jones created his own person skating team, called Dipskate. In mid-2007, rumors began to circulate that the Diplomats had many rifts and disagreements with each other between Cam'ron and Jim Jones; when Jones and Juelz Santana appeared on stage at a concert with 50 Cent — with whom Cam'ron was engaged in a feud at the time — it seemed as if the group had split. However, in a interview, 40 Cal. hinted that while the dynamic of the group is beyond repair, there may be further collaboration. Juelz Santana spoke on a future collaboration, but stated that at the time, Cam'ron seemed to be the only obstacle, while stating that though his contract was sold to Def Jam, he had no hard feelings towards his former boss. In a September 2008 interview, Hell Rell stated that he no longer has a contractual obligation to Cam'ron or Jim Jones. Within the interview, Juelz stated that he is still on speaking terms with the members of the group, didn't feel that they were holding him back, but he did feel the "mainstream" wasn't crediting him as notably as he had hoped.

In a interview, he stated that he felt the other members of the group were not as focused as him, while stating there was selfishness within the group. He stated he wanted to focus more on his solo career. Following this all former members of The Diplomats formed their own groups. In 2007, 40 Cal. started "Skeme Team", while Freekey Zekey formed the "730 Dips", started a record label of the same name, "730 Dips Records", while joining fellow Diplomats' member Jim Jones' new group, "ByrdGang". In 2008, Jim Jones cut ties with ByrdGang rapper and former Dipset affiliate Max B over a sequence of financial and ethical disputes. Jones and Max B became involved in a bitter feud, exchanging numerous diss tracks and bad-mouthing each other on interviews. In 2007, Jim Jones's Byrdgang member Stack Bundles was killed on June 11 of that year. In 2008, Juelz Santana started the "Skull Gang" which, when his contract was sold to Def Jam secured a deal that included the solo members. In 2009, Cam'ron started a new group called the U.

N and Dipset West. In 2008, Hell Rell started Top Gunnas and J. R started Thundabyrdz. In 2009, Cam'ron created the U. N. featuring himself and Vado. The group released one album, 2011's, Gunz n' Butta'. In April 2010, Cam'ron and Jim Jones announced the end of their feud. In June 2010, the Dipset reunion began with a teaser titled "Under Construction" and a street single, "Salute", produced by AraabMuzik being released; the song features Cam ` ron and Juelz Santana. The remix features. In October 2010, after an interview at The Source Magazine Headquarters where Freekey Zekey insinuated that a Dipset deal with Interscope Records was possible by pointing to a magazine cover with Dr. Dre’s picture, Freekey confirmed that the group would be signing a deal with the label: “The papers are not signed right now, but you could say it’s going down,” said Freekey in an interview with, when asked about the possibility of a deal with Interscope. In February 2011, it was reported, they revealed plans for a reunion album to be released under the label.

In January 2013, Juelz San

Point of View (West)

Point of View is a 2006 landmark public sculpture in bronze by James A. West; the piece depicts George Washington and the Seneca leader Guyasuta, with their weapons down, in a face-to-face meeting in October 1770, when the two men met while Washington was in the area examining land for future settlement along the Ohio River. The work weighs 750 lbs. and cost $130,000 for materials with charitable donations of land and artist time. Point of View sits on the edge of Mt. Washington on the westernmost end of Grand View Scenic Byway Park and the Grand View Scenic Byway, a designated Pennsylvania scenic byway; the sculpture was dedicated on October 2006 by mayor Luke Ravenstahl. Point of View sculpture website Diana Nelson Jones. Point of View sculpture installation: story from the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 12, 2007