Dogri, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and chiefly in the Jammu region of union territory of Jammu and Kashmir and the state of Himachal Pradesh, but in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, elsewhere. Dogri speakers are called Dogras, the Dogri-speaking region is called Duggar. Although treated as a Punjabi dialect, Dogri is now considered to be a member of the Western Pahari group of languages. Unusually for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal, a trait it shares with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi. Dogri has several varieties, all with greater than 80% lexical similarity. Dogri was written using the Dogri script, it is now more written in Devanagari in India, in the Nastaʿliq form of Perso-Arabic in Pakistan and Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Gemination occurs in all consonants except the consonants /ɾ ʃ ɽ ɳ/. Retroflex consonants /ɽ ɳ/ occur in word initial position. /f z/ only occur from Perso-Arabic loan words, /f/ is heard as an allophone of an aspirated /pʰ/.
/ɾ/ can marginally be heard as trilled in some speech. In some words, /s/ can become more weakly pronounced, or eliminated and replaced by a glottal fricative sound. A palatal nasal sound occurs when a dental nasal precedes a post-alveolar affricate consonant occurring in words word-initially or medially. A velar nasal sound occurs when a dental nasal precedes a velar plosive consonant, occurs word-initially or medially. There are nasalized variations of the following vowels. Vowel sounds are nasalized when occurring before a word-medial or word-final /n/, except when /n/ occurs before a word-final vowel. / ʊ / can have a marginal upgliding allophone. A word-final /ɑ/ can be realized as drifting toward a centralized sound. Western Pahari languages and Punjabi dialects are tonal, unusual for Indo-European languages; this tonality makes it difficult for speakers of other Indo-Aryan languages to gain facility in Dogri, though native Punjabi speakers may find it easier to make the transition. Some common examples are shown below.
The Greek astrologer Pulomi, accompanying Alexander in his 323 B. C. campaign into the Indian subcontinent, referred to some inhabitants of Duggar as "a brave Dogra family living in the mountain ranges of Shivalik." In the year 1317, Amir Khusro, the famous Urdu and Persian poet, referred to Duger while describing the languages and dialects of India as follows: "Sindhi-o-Lahori-o-Kashmiri-o-Duger." Intellectuals in the court of Maharaja Ranbir Singh s/o Gulab Singh of Jammu and Kashmir, described'Duggar' as a distorted form of the word'Dwigart,' which means "two troughs," a possible reference to the Mansar and Sruinsar Lakes. The linguist George Grierson connected the term'Duggar' with the Rajasthani word'Doonger,' which means'hill,' and'Dogra' with'Dongar.' This opinion has lacked support because of the inconsistency of the ostensible changes from Rajasthani to Dogri, been contradicted by some scholars. Yet another proposal stems from the presence of the word'Durger' in the Bhuri Singh Museum.
The word Durger means'invincible' in several Northern Indian languages, could be an allusion to the ruggedness of the Duggar terrain and the militarized and autonomous Dogra societies. In Himachal, Dogri is majorly spoken in Hamirpur, Una, Chintpurni and Bilaspur regions. In 1976, the experts attending the Language Session of the'All India Oriental Conference' held in Dharwad, could not reach consensus on the'Dwigart' and'Durger' hypotheses, but did manage agreement on a Doonger-Duggar connection. In a subsequent'All India Oriental Conference' held at Jaipur in 1982, the linguists agreed that the culture and history of Rajasthan and Duggar share some similarities, it was suggested that the words'Duggar' and'Dogra' are common in some parts of Rajasthan. It was asserted that areas with many forts are called Duggar, their inhabitants are accordingly known as Dogras; the land of Duggar has many forts, which may support the opinion above. An article by Dharam Chand Prashant in the literary magazine Shiraza Dogri suggested that "the opinion that the word'Duggar' is a form of the word'Duggarh' sounds appropriate."The Turkish Döğer is the name of a Turkmen Oğuz tribe originating in Central Asia and found amongst the Kurds.
In Turkey one of the towns named after them can be written as Duger, Döker and Düğer. In modern times, a notable Dogri translation of the Sanskrit classic mathematical opus Lilavati, by the noted mathematician Bhaskaracharya, was published by the Vidya Vilas Press, Jammu in 1873; as Sanskrit literacy remained confined to a few, the late Maharaja Ranbir Singh had the Lilavati translated into Dogri by Jyotshi Bisheshwar principal of Jammu Pathshala. Dogri has an established tradition of poetry and dramatic works. Recent poets range from the 18th-century Dogri poet Kavi Dattu in Raja Ranjit Dev’s court to Professor Ram Nath Shastri and Mrs. Padma Sachdev. Kavi Dattu is regarded for his Barah Massa, Kamal Netra, Bhup Bijog and Bir Bilas. Shiraza Dogri is a Dogri literary periodical issued by the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art and Languages, a notable publisher of modern Dogri literary work, another
Haya Freedman was a Polish-born Israeli mathematician known for her research on the Tamari lattice and on ring theory, as "an exceptionally gifted teacher" of mathematics at the London School of Economics. Haya Freedman was born in Lvov, which at that time was part of Poland, at the age of ten moved to Mandatory Palestine, she earned a master's degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, studying abstract algebra there under the supervision of Jacob Levitzki. She began doctoral studies under Dov Tamari in the early 1950s, doing research on the Tamari lattice that she would much publish with Tamari. However, at that time her husband wanted to shift his own research from mathematics to computer science, as part of that shift decided to move to England. Freedman moved with him in 1956. Instead, she completed a Ph. D. at Queen Mary College in 1960, under the supervision of Kurt Hirsch. In 1965, Freedman became a faculty member in mathematics in Birkbeck College. In 1966, Cyril Offord founded the sub-department of mathematics at the London School of Economics, she became one of the founding faculty members there.
In her honour, the London School of Economics offers an annual prize, the Haya Freedman Prize, for the best dissertation in applied mathematics
The 2014 Russian hacker password theft is an alleged hacking incident resulting in the possible theft of over 1.2 billion internet credentials, including usernames and passwords, with hundreds of millions of corresponding e-mail addresses. The data breach was first reported by the New York Times after being discovered and reported by Milwaukee-based information security company, Hold Security.420,000 websites are reported to be affected. According to a New York Times source, some big companies know that their user's credentials are among the stolen. Hold Security did not disclose which sites were compromised, instead, offered two separate services, one for website owners and one for consumers to check if they're affected; the service for website owners costs $10 a month. The check for consumers is free. Hold Security described the group responsible for the hack as a small group of “fewer than a dozen men in their 20s... based in a small city in south central Russia, the region flanked by Kazakhstan and Mongolia,” and dubbed the group CyberVor.
Hold claimed. According to a Forbes article, Hold Security says that not all the 1.2 billion credentials were stolen this way, there are ones that CyberVor bought from people that used other means, Hold Security doesn't know what the split is. Forbes columnist, Kashmir Hill, noted "The Internet predictably panicked as the story of yet another massive password breach went viral." and "his is a pretty direct link between a panic and a pay-out for a security firm." Hold Security's website has a service offering people to check if their username and password pair has been stolen. It requires people to send Hold Security encrypted versions of their passwords. No named independent sources have come forward to confirm the breach, Forbes columnist, Joseph Steinberg expressed outright skepticism about many of the "facts" claimed about the breach, raising questions about the trustworthiness of the reports of the breach altogether
The facet joints, are a set of synovial, plane joints between the articular processes of two adjacent vertebrae. There are two facet joints in each spinal motion segment and each facet joint is innervated by the recurrent meningeal nerves; the biomechanical function of each pair of facet joints is to guide and limit movement of the spinal motion segment. In the lumbar spine, for example, the facet joints function to protect the motion segment from anterior shear forces, excessive rotation and flexion. Facet joints appear to have little influence on the range of side bending; these functions can be disrupted by degeneration, fracture, instability from trauma and surgery. In the thoracic spine the facet joints function to restrain the amount of flexion and anterior translation of the corresponding vertebral segment and function to facilitate rotation. Cavitation of the synovial fluid within the facet joints is responsible for the popping sound associated with manual spinal manipulation referred to as "cracking the back."
The facet joints, both superior and inferior, are aligned in a way to allow flexion and extension, to limit rotation. This is true in the lumbar spine. In large part due to the mechanical nature of their function, all joints undergo degenerative changes with the wear and tear of age; this is true for joints in the spine, the facet joint in particular. This is known as facet joint arthritis or facet arthropathy; as with any arthritis, the joint can become enlarged due to the degenerative process. Small changes to the facet joint can narrow the intervertebral foramen impinging on the spinal nerve roots within. Facet joint arthritis manifests as a dull ache across the back; however like many deep organs of the body it can be experienced by the patient in a variety of referral pain patterns. The location of facet joints, deep in the back and covered with large tracts of paraspinal muscles, further complicate the diagnostic approach. Facet joint arthritis is diagnosed with specialized physical examination by specialist physicians.
Advanced imaging such as MRI or CT may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and to rule out other conditions. Conservative treatment of facet joint arthritis involves physical therapy or osteopathic medicine, with muscle strengthening, correction of posture, biomechanics being the key. More advanced cases can involve severe inflammatory responses in the Z-joint, not unlike a swollen arthritic knee. Corticosteroid injections may provide temporary pain relief anywhere from days to several months. With repeated injections, sometimes the patient may experience a more permanent improvement in their symptoms. Steroid injections are performed under image guidance to ensure accuracy given the complex shape and deep location of the facet. Radiofrequency ablation or lesioning known as rhizolysis, can be used to give longer lasting relief by destroying the nerves that supply the facet joint. Surgery in the form of a facetectomy can be performed in certain cases when the nerve root is affected. Ancient Greek: zygon + apo + phyein Articular processes Artificial facet replacement Facet joint injection Facet syndrome Diagram at spineuniverse.com Emedicine article on Lumbosacral Facet Syndrome
James C. Fields Jr. is an American civil servant and minister in the United Methodist Church who served in the Alabama House of Representatives from 2008 until 2010. A native of Colony, Fields was the first African American to be a candidate for elective office in Cullman County, predominantly white. James Fields grew up on his family's small farm in Colony. After graduating from Hanceville High School, he attended Jacksonville State University, where he obtained a bachelor's degree in law enforcement. Subsequently, he served in the U. S. Marines, attending officer training at the Marine Corps Academy in Quantico and leaving with an honorable discharge. James Fields was elected as a Democratic member of the Alabama House of Representatives in a special election on January 29, 2008, he was defeated for reelection in 2010 by minister Mac Buttram. James Fields and his wife Yvette have 13 grandchildren. James Fields has worked for the Alabama Department of Industrial Relations for nearly three decades and is a minister at St. James United Methodist Church in Irondale, Alabama.
In November 2013, James Fields announced that he would be a candidate for Lieutenant Governor of Alabama in the 2014 elections. He ran in the Democratic primary uncontested and was defeated by incumbent Republican Lieutenant Governor Kay Ivey in the general election. Fields for Lieutenant Governor
Viva! Love is a 2008 South Korean romance film directed by Oh Joum-kyun, it won Best Film at the 45th Baeksang Arts Awards, as well as several Best New Director prizes for Oh. Bong-soon is a middle-aged housewife, she lives with her good-for-nothing husband who's having an affair, her selfish, unemployed daughter Jeong-yoon whose boyfriend Gu-sang is a tenant who owns the neighborhood laundromat. When Jeong-yoon lands a job, she moves out and abruptly breaks up with Gu-sang. Bong-soon sees the heartbroken Gu-sang drinking away his sorrows, taking pity on him, she takes him home and attempts to comfort him. One thing leads to another, the two sleep together. To her great surprise, Bong-soon ends up pregnant with Gu-sang's baby. Despite the age gap and the neighbors' disapproval, the two fall in love and Gu-sang makes Bong-soon feel like a giddy teenage girl again. Kim Hae-sook as Bong-soon Gi Ju-bong as Mr. Ha, Bong-soon's husband Kim Young-min as Gu-sang Kim Hye-na as Jeong-yoon Bang Eun-hee as Hairdresser Min Kyeong-jin as Mr. Choi Jeong Jae-jin as Mr. Lee Shin Cheol-jin as Mr. Yoon Hong Seok-yeon as Mr. Kim Jo Han-hee as Mr. Choi's wife Oh Joo-hee as Mr. Lee's wife Kim Yong-seon as Mr. Yoon's wife Lee Yong-nyeo as Mr. Kim's wife Yang Ik-june as Student boarder 1 Im Yong-jae as Student Boarder 2 Lee Jun-sik as Redevelopment site employee Han Gyu-nam as Young man Shim Hye-gyu as Single bodhisattva Geum Dong-hyeon as Pharmacist Lee Eung-jae as Male customer at noraebang Jang Gyeong-jin as Female customer at noraebang Viva!