SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Doha Declaration

The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health was adopted by the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001 in Doha on November 14, 2001. It reaffirmed flexibility of TRIPS member states in circumventing patent rights for better access to essential medicines. In Paragraphs 4 to 6 of the Doha Declaration, governments agreed that: "4; the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent Members from taking measures to protect public health. Accordingly, while reiterating our commitment to the TRIPS Agreement, we affirm that the Agreement can and should be interpreted and implemented in a manner supportive of WTO Members' right to protect public health and, in particular, to promote access to medicines for all. In this connection, we reaffirm the right of WTO Members to use, to the full, the provisions in the TRIPS Agreement, which provide flexibility for this purpose.5. Accordingly and in the light of paragraph 4 above, while maintaining our commitments in the TRIPS Agreement, we recognize that these flexibilities include: In applying the customary rules of interpretation of public international law, each provision of the TRIPS Agreement shall be read in the light of the object and purpose of the Agreement as expressed, in particular, in its objectives and principles.

Each Member has the right to grant compulsory licenses and the freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licenses are granted. Each Member has the right to determine what constitutes a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, it being understood that public health crises, including those relating to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other epidemics, can represent a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency; the effect of the provisions in the TRIPS Agreement that are relevant to the exhaustion of intellectual property rights is to leave each Member free to establish its own regime for such exhaustion without challenge, subject to the MFN and national treatment provisions of Articles 3 and 4.6. We recognize that WTO Members with insufficient or no manufacturing capacities in the pharmaceutical sector could face difficulties in making effective use of compulsory licensing under the TRIPS Agreement. We instruct the Council for TRIPS to find an expeditious solution to this problem and to report to the General Council before the end of 2002."These provisions in the Declaration ensure that governments may issue compulsory licenses on patents for medicines, or take other steps to protect public health.

In 2005, WTO members reached agreement on an amendment to the TRIPS Agreement to make permanent the temporary waiver contained in the August 30 WTO Decision, which itself fulfilled the requirement of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health of November 14, 2001. This decision created a mechanism to allow WTO members to issue compulsory licences to export generic versions of patented medicines to countries with insufficient or no manufacturing capacity in the pharmaceutical sector. O The 2005 Ministerial Declaration stated: "We reaffirm the importance we attach to the General Council Decision of 30 August 2003 on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, to an amendment to the TRIPS Agreement replacing its provisions. In this regard, we welcome the work that has taken place in the Council for TRIPS and the Decision of the General Council of 6 December 2005 on an Amendment of the TRIPS Agreement." The amendment, the first to the TRIPS Agreement, was circulated to WTO members for formal adoption.

A deadline of December 1, 2007 was set for members to accept the permanent amendment. For the amendment to be put into effect, at least two-thirds of members must formally adopt it. On November 30, 2007, Peter Mandelson, the European Union's Trade Commissioner, announced that the European Union formally accepted the World Trade Organization -approved protocol of December 2005, amending the TRIPS Agreement. However, in order for the decision to have legal effect, two-thirds of the WTO's 153 Members are required to ratify the agreement; the current total of Members accepting the amendment is 45. In 2008 a decision was made to extend the deadline for accepting the TRIPS agreement amendment; the deadline was extended until 31 December 2009 or "such date as may be decided by the Ministerial Conference." The General Council further extended the deadline in 2011 to 31 December 2013. The Doha Declaration received positive reception, with many public health officials considering it an important step in prioritizing public health over intellectual property rights "in certain situations."

However, other issues and hindrances to medication access still exist, such as a lack of resources and infrastructure. Pascal Lamy, the European Commissioner for Trade at the time of the declaration, stated that the agreement "solved about 10 percent of the problem of access to medicines by developing countries." Doha Development Round of trade negotiations TRIPS TRIPS and public health - WTO Website Text of the Doha Declaration WTO explanation of the declaration

Alliance of Valiant Arms

Alliance of Valiant Arms is a free-to-play online first-person shooter video game, developed by now-defunct Red Duck, Inc. using Unreal Engine 3. In North America and Europe, the game was published by En Masse Entertainment, Aeria Games, ijji, it is hosted in the People's Republic of China by Tencent Games, in Taiwan by Garena. In Japan and Korea the game is hosted by NEOWIZ. On June 15, 2011, A. V. A became available for download through Steam; the North American and European version of the game was shut down on June 29, 2018. Red Duck, Inc. attempted to self-publish a modified version of the game for these regions called Alliance of Valiant Arms: DOG TAG, launching an unsuccessful open beta on May 2nd, 2019. AVA: Dog Tag was shut down on May 29th, 2019; the Asian versions of AVA continue to operate. Players join either the EU forces or NRF forces and attempt to complete their mission objective or eliminate the opposing team. There are 3 classes available in A. V. A: point man and sniper. A point man enjoys faster movement speed and is suited for close range combat, while riflemen are suited for medium ranges, snipers are well suited for longer ranges with sniper rifles that feature more damage and penetration power.

Each class has unique disadvantages against other classes. Players are able to choose between classes and acquire Class Skills to further enhance unique characteristics of each class. Alliance of Valiant Arms awards players military ranks based on total experience. Incentives to rank up include the ability to unlock and purchase various armor and guns; the main in-game currency is the Euro, which can be used for purchases in the shop, repairing weapons, to enter Capsule Shop drawings, which are lotteries for rare equipment. Euros are earned from finishing a match, a possible Quick Match reward, a bonus received from buying items with real money. Players can purchase equipment from the shop using En Masse Points, which can be bought by the player using real-world money; some items in the game can only be purchased using EMP. Most items in the shop can be bought for an permanent duration. Players had a number of options to customize their characters, ranging from selecting different character avatars and changing their weapon characteristics through various weapon modifications.

The Team Fortress 2 weapon "The Black Rose" and an AVA melee weapon "Holy Mackerel" was awarded to players who registered on Steam and completed the Alliance of Valiant Arms achievement 1st One Down by playing their first game. An in-game clan system existed for players to participate in. In lieu of voice chat, players could issue commands and responses to teammates through keyboard shortcuts. There are 10 game modes in the En Masse version of A. V. A: Annihilation - Similar to team deathmatch, players on two opposing teams attempted to reach the score within the allowed time limit. Demolition - EU forces must plant and detonate the bomb, or eliminate the enemy team to win a round; the NRF forces must eliminate the EU team, defuse the bomb, or survive the time limit while preventing a bomb plant in order to win a round. The demolition mode was the only mode played at eSports events. Escort - The EU forces must escort a tank past enemy lines and repair it if struck down, while the NRF forces will be tasked with damaging the tank with RPGs.

Domination - Both teams compete for domination over a target. The team with higher domination gauge or the one in control of the target when both sides have the same gauge will win. Free For All - Players are pit against each other; the match ends when one player reaches the pre-set score or time runs out in which case the player with the highest score wins. Cross Steal - Both teams are tasked with retrieving the enemy's launch key and returning it to their own base, while defending their own launch key. Infection - Each match will begin with a countdown. During the countdown, players must set up a defensive position or plan a strategy to combat against the zombies; when the countdown is up, one or more players are transformed into zombies randomly. Human players must survive. AI Mission - A group of 4 or 6 players are automatically assigned to the EU to survive and/or complete mission objectives while fighting against AI-Controlled NRF. Escape - EU troops try to escape to a waiting boat or car while NRF troops try to stop them.

The round ends when one soldier makes it to the boat. On January 5th, 2012, ijji, A. V. A.'s publisher in the West, was sold to Aeria Games who continued to operate A. V. A. until 2016. Amid a declining player base, the contract between Red Duck and Aeria Games was not renewed in 2016 in part due to Aeria's refusal to pay for a team to attend AIC 2016, A. V. A.'s major eSports tournament. As a result, A. V. A. Migrated to En Masse Entertainment in 2016, who continued to provide service for the game in Western regions until June 29, 2018. In 2018, Red Duck Inc. underwent court-ordered restructuring as a result of insolvency. Official English Site

RMRP

RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease known as RMRP, is a human gene. Mitochondrial RNA-processing endoribonuclease cleaves mitochondrial RNA complementary to the light chain of the displacement loop at a unique site; the enzyme is a ribonucleoprotein. The RNA component is the first RNA encoded by a single-copy gene in the nucleus and imported into mitochondria; the RMRP gene is untranslated, i.e. it encodes an RNA not a protein. It is associated with cartilage–hair hypoplasia. RMRP,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia - Anauxetic Dysplasia Spectrum Disorders