Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, used as a recreational drug and less as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms, it is prescribed over concerns involving human neurotoxicity and potential for recreational use as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant, among other concerns, as well as the availability of safer substitute drugs with comparable treatment efficacy. Dextromethamphetamine is a much stronger CNS stimulant than levomethamphetamine. Both methamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are illicitly trafficked and sold owing to their potential for recreational use; the highest prevalence of illegal methamphetamine use occurs in parts of Asia, in the United States, where racemic methamphetamine, levomethamphetamine, dextromethamphetamine are classified as schedule II controlled substances.
Levomethamphetamine is available as an over-the-counter drug for use as an inhaled nasal decongestant in the United States. Internationally, the production, distribution and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or banned in many countries, due to its placement in schedule II of the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances treaty. While dextromethamphetamine is a more potent drug, racemic methamphetamine is sometimes illicitly produced due to the relative ease of synthesis and limited availability of chemical precursors. In low to moderate doses, methamphetamine can elevate mood, increase alertness and energy in fatigued individuals, reduce appetite, promote weight loss. At high doses, it can induce psychosis, breakdown of skeletal muscle and bleeding in the brain. Chronic high-dose use can precipitate unpredictable and rapid mood swings, stimulant psychosis and violent behavior. Recreationally, methamphetamine's ability to increase energy has been reported to lift mood and increase sexual desire to such an extent that users are able to engage in sexual activity continuously for several days.
Methamphetamine is known to possess a high addiction liability and high dependence liability. Heavy recreational use of methamphetamine may lead to a post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, which can persist for months beyond the typical withdrawal period. Unlike amphetamine, methamphetamine is neurotoxic to human midbrain dopaminergic neurons, it has been shown to damage serotonin neurons in the CNS. This damage includes adverse changes in brain structure and function, such as reductions in grey matter volume in several brain regions and adverse changes in markers of metabolic integrity. Methamphetamine belongs to the substituted phenethylamine and substituted amphetamine chemical classes, it is related to the other dimethylphenethylamines as a positional isomer of these compounds, which share the common chemical formula: C10H15N1. In the United States, dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride, under the trade name Desoxyn, has been approved by the FDA for treating ADHD and obesity in both adults and children.
Methamphetamine is sometimes prescribed off label for narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. In the United States, methamphetamine's levorotary form is available in some over-the-counter nasal decongestant products; as methamphetamine is associated with a high potential for misuse, the drug is regulated under the Controlled Substances Act and is listed under Schedule II in the United States. Methamphetamine hydrochloride dispensed in the United States is required to include a boxed warning regarding its potential for recreational misuse and addiction liability. Methamphetamine is used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, an entire subculture known as party and play is based around sexual activity and methamphetamine use. Participants in this subculture, which consists entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will meet up through internet dating sites and have sex.
Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days on end. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is often severe, with marked hypersomnia; the party and play subculture is prevalent in major US cities such as San Francisco and New York City. Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals experiencing arteriosclerosis, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension; the FDA states that individuals who have experienced hypersensitivity reactions to other stimulants in the past or are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors should not take methamphetamine. The FDA advises individuals with bipolar disorder, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette s
Taitō is a special ward located in Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. In English, it is known as Taitō City; as of May 1, 2015, the ward has an estimated population of 186,276, a population density of 18,420 persons per km2. The total area is 10.11 square kilometres. This makes Taito ward the smallest of Tokyo's wards in area, third-smallest in population; the ward was founded on March 15, 1947 with the merger of the old Asakusa and Shitaya wards when Tokyo City was transformed into Tokyo Metropolis. During the Edo period, the Yoshiwara licensed quarter was in what is now Taitō. Taitō shares the same Chinese characters, "台東" with Taitung, a city in Taiwan. Situated in the northeastern portion of the wards area of Tokyo, Taitō is surrounded by five other special wards: Chiyoda, Bunkyō, Sumida and Chūō. Asakusa area Asakusabashi Yanagibashi Asakusa Nishi-Asakusa Higashi-Asakusa Motoasakusa Hanakawado Kuramae Misuji Komagata Kotobuki Kaminarimon Matsugaya Kojima Imado Kiyokawa Hashiba Nihonzutsumi Torigoe Shitaya area Taito Higashi-Ueno Ueno Ueno-koen Ikenohata Kita-Ueno Shitaya Negishi Minowa Akihabara Uenosakuragi Yanaka Iriya Ryusen Senzoku Taitō is famous for its typical Shitamachi districts.
Sensō-ji and Kaminarimon Asakusa Shrine Akiba Shrine Kan'ei-ji Kishibojin Ueno Tōshō-gū Zenshō-an Asakusa Park Kyu-Iwasaki-tei Garden Sumida Park Ueno Park Yanaka Park Amuse Museum Asakura Sculpture Hall Daimyo Clock Museum National Museum of Western Art National Museum of Nature and Science Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum Tokyo National Museum Ueno no Mori Museum Ueno Zoo Yokoyama Taikan Memorial Hall Suzumoto Engeijo Asakusa Vaudeville Hall Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music Ueno Gakuen University Taito operates public elementary and junior high schools. Public high schools are operated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education. Hakuo High School Kuramae Technical High School Shinobugaoka High School Taito Commercial High School Taito Chuyakan High School Ueno High School Ueno Shinobugaoka High SchoolThe school district of the metropolis operates one metropolitan junior high school: Hakuo Junior High School Taito operates several public libraries, including the Central Library, the Central Library Asakusabashi Branch, the Negishi Library, the Ishihama Library.
The Central Library is located in the second floors of the Lifelong Learning Center. The city operates the Lifelong Learning Center, a complex including a multi-media room, a studio, other facilities; the Central Library is on the second floors of the Lifelong Learning Center. Eiken Chemical, a clinical diagnostics and equipment manufacturer, has its headquarters in Taito. Tokyo Ricoh Office Solution and Ricoh Technosystems, divisions of Ricoh, are headquartered in Taitō as of 2008. Chikumashobo, a publisher, has its headquarters in the Kuramae area of the ward. Matsuzakaya department store in Ueno Matsuya department store in Asakusa Taiyo Yuden and materials company in Ueno Sumidagawa Fireworks Festival Asakusa Samba Carnival Torigoe Shrine Matsuri Sanja Matsuri, one of the three great festivals of Tokyo JR East Tōhoku Shinkansen, Jōetsu Shinkansen, Akita Shinkansen, Yamagata Shinkansen: Ueno Station Tōhoku Main Line Yamanote Line, Keihin-Tōhoku Line: Okachimachi, Uguisudani Stations. Nippori Station Utsunomiya Line, Takasaki Line: Ueno Station Jōban Line: Officially, the line begins at Nippori Station, although most trains start/terminate at Ueno Station Tokyo Metro Ginza Line: Ueno-Hirokoji, Inarichō, Asakusa Stations Hibiya Line: Okachimachi, Iriya, Minowa Stations Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Asakusa Line: Asakusa-bashi, Asakusa Stations Toei Ōedo Line: Ueno-Okachimachi, Shin-Okachimachi, Kuramae Stations Keisei Electric Railway Keisei Main Line: Keisei Ueno Station Tobu Railway Skytree Line: Asakusa Station Tsukuba Express: Shin-Okachimachi, Asakusa Stations Shuto Expressway No. 1 Ueno Route National highways Route 4 Route 6 The City of Taito operates the Taito Riverside Sports Center.
The center includes a gymnasium, tennis courts, two baseball fields for adults, one baseball field for children, one large swimming pool, one children's pool, an athletic field. The gymnasium includes two courts, two budo halls, a Japanese-style archery range, a sumo ring, a training room, a table tennis room, an air-rifle shooting range, a meeting room. Taitō City Official Website
Los Zetas is a Mexican criminal syndicate, regarded as the most dangerous of the country's drug cartels. While concerned with drug trafficking, the organization runs profitable sex trafficking and gun running rackets; the origins of Los Zetas date back to the late 1990s, when commandos of the Mexican Army deserted their ranks and began working as the enforcement arm of the Gulf Cartel. In February 2010, Los Zetas broke away and formed their own criminal organization, rivalling the Gulf Cartel. Los Zetas engages in violent tactics such as beheadings and indiscriminate murder, they were at one point Mexico's largest drug cartel in terms of geographical presence, overtaking their rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel. Los Zetas operate through protection rackets, extortion and other activities; the organization is based in Nuevo Laredo, directly across the border from Laredo, Texas. In recent times, Los Zetas has seen its influence diminish; as of December 2016, Los Zetas Grupo Bravo and Zetas Vieja Escuela formed an alliance with the Gulf Cartel against Cartel Del Noreste.
Los Zetas was named after its first commander, Arturo Guzmán Decena, whose Federal Judicial Police radio code was "Z1", a code given to high-ranking officers. The radio code for commanding Federal Judicial Police officers in Mexico was "Y" and those officers are nicknamed "Yankees", while Federal Judicial Police in charge of a city was codenamed "Z". After Osiel Cárdenas Guillén took control of the Gulf Cartel in 1999, he found himself in a violent turf war. In order to keep his organization and leadership from rival drug cartels and from the Mexican Army, Cárdenas sought out Decena, a retired army lieutenant. Decena lured more than thirty deserters from the elite Grupo Aeromóvil de Fuerzas Especiales to become his personal bodyguards, as his mercenary wing; these deserters were enticed with salaries much higher than. Some of these former GAFE members received training in commando and urban warfare from the Israeli and U. S. Special Forces. Once Guillen consolidated his power, he expanded the responsibilities of Los Zetas, which began to organize kidnappings, protection rackets, securing cocaine supply and trafficking routes known as plazas and executing its foes with barbaric savagery.
However, in November 2002, Decena was killed in a military action at a restaurant in Matamoros, allowing Heriberto Lazcano to take control of the group. In response to the rising power of the Gulf Cartel, the rival Sinaloa Cartel established Los Negros, an enforcer group similar to Los Zetas but not as complex or successful. Upon the arrest of Guillen in March 2003 and his extradition in 2007, the Zetas took a more active leadership role within the Gulf Cartel and their influence grew within the organization; the Zetas' membership ranges from corrupt federal and local police officers, former U. S. Army personnel, to ex-Kaibiles, the special forces of the Guatemalan military. Over time, many of the Zetas' original thirty-one members have been arrested. Following the capture and extradition of Cárdenas, Los Zetas became so powerful that they outnumbered and outclassed the Gulf Cartel in revenue and influence by 2010; as a result of this imbalance, the Cartel tried to curtail their own enforcers' influence and ended up instigating a civil war.
In addition, the Cartel, through its narco-banners in Matamoros and Reynosa, accused Los Zetas of expanding their operations to murder, extortion, kidnapping - actions that the Cartel disagreed with. Los Zetas countered by posting their own banners throughout Tamaulipas, noting that they had carried out executions and kidnappings under orders of the Cartel and they were created for that sole purpose. In addition, Los Zetas charged that the Cartel was scapegoating them for the murders of innocent civilians. Reports vary as to why; some sources claim that Guillén, brother of Cárdenas and one of the successors of the Gulf Cartel, was addicted to gambling and drugs, leading Los Zetas to perceive his leadership as a threat to the organization. Other reports mention, that the divide occurred due to a disagreement on who would take on the leadership of the cartel after the extradition of Cárdenas; the candidates from the Cartel were Guillén and Jorge Eduardo Costilla Sánchez, while Los Zetas wanted to hand the leadership to their own head, Lazcano.
The Cartel reportedly began looking to form a truce with the rival Sinaloa Cartel, which Los Zetas did not want to recognize preferring an alliance with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel. Samuel Flores Borrego, a lieutenant of the Cartel, killed Zetas lieutenant Sergio Peña Mendoza, alias "El Concorde 3", due to a disagreement over the drug corridor of Reynosa, whom both protected. Los Zetas demanded that the Cartel hand over the killer; when the hostilities began, the Cartel joined forces with its former rivals, the Sinaloa Cartel and La Familia Michoacana, aiming to take out Los Zetas. Los Zetas allied with the Beltrán-Leyva Cartel, the Juárez Cartel, the Tijuana Cartel. In early 2010, Miguel Treviño Morales, the former second-in-command of Los Zetas, had taken the leadership of the Zetas and displaced Lazcano. Lazcano was content to have Morales in his ranks, but gave Morales to
The Sinaloa Cartel known as the Guzmán-Loera Organization, the Pacific Cartel, the Federation and the Blood Alliance, is an international drug trafficking, money laundering, organized crime syndicate established during the late 1980s. The cartel is based in the city of Culiacán, with operations in the Mexican states of Baja California, Durango and Chihuahua. The'Federation' was splintered when the Beltrán-Leyva brothers broke apart from the Sinaloa Cartel; the United States Intelligence Community considers the Sinaloa Cartel "the most powerful drug trafficking organization in the world" and in 2011, the Los Angeles Times called it "Mexico's most powerful organized crime group." The Sinaloa Cartel operates in the "Golden Triangle", the states of Sinaloa and Chihuahua. The region is a major producer of Mexican marijuana. According to the U. S. Attorney General, the Sinaloa Cartel was responsible for importing into the United States and distributing nearly 200 tons of cocaine and large amounts of heroin between 1990 and 2008.
According to the National Drug Intelligence Center, within the U. S. the Sinaloa Cartel is involved in the distribution of cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and MDMA. It is the majority supplier of illicit fentanyl to North America; as of 2017, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most active drug cartel involved in smuggling illicit drugs into the United States and trafficking them throughout the United States. After the arrest of Joaquín'El Chapo' Guzmán, the cartel is now headed by Ismael Zambada Garcia and Guzman's sons, Alfredo Guzman Salazar and Ivan Archivaldo Salazar. Pedro Avilés Pérez was a pioneer drug lord in the Mexican state of Sinaloa in the late 1960s, he is considered to be the first generation of major Mexican drug smugglers of marijuana who marked the birth of large-scale Mexican drug trafficking. He pioneered the use of aircraft to smuggle drugs to the United States. Second generation Sinaloan traffickers such as Rafael Caro Quintero, Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo, Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo and Avilés Pérez' nephew Joaquín'El Chapo' Guzmán would claim they learned all they knew about'narcotraficantes' while serving in the Avilés organization.
Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, who founded the Guadalajara Cartel, was arrested in 1989 and, while incarcerated, he remained one of Mexico's major traffickers, maintaining contact with his organization via mobile phone until he was transferred to a new maximum security prison in the 1990s. At that point his nephews, the Arellano Félix brothers and created their own organization which came to be known as the Tijuana Cartel, while the Sinaloa Cartel continued to be run by former lieutenants Héctor Luis Palma Salazar, Adrián Gómez González and Joaquín Guzmán Loera; the Sinaloa Cartel used to be known as La Alianza de Sangre. When Héctor Luis Palma Salazar was arrested on 23 June 1995 by the Mexican Army, his partner Joaquín Guzmán Loera took leadership of the cartel. Guzmán was captured in Guatemala on 9 June 1993, extradited to Mexico, where he was jailed in a maximum security prison, but on 19 January 2001, Guzmán escaped and resumed his command of the Sinaloa Cartel. Guzmán has Ismael Zambada García and Ignacio Coronel Villareal.
Guzman and Zambada became Mexico's top drug kingpins in 2003, after the arrest of their rival Osiel Cardenas of the Gulf Cartel. Another close associate, Javier Torres Félix, was arrested and extradited to the U. S. in December 2006. On 29 July 2010, Ignacio Coronel was killed in a shootout with the Mexican military in Zapopan, Jalisco. Guzman was captured on 22 February 2014 overnight by Mexican authorities. On 11 July 2015, he escaped from the Federal Social Readaption Center No. 1, a maximum-security prison in the State of Mexico, through a tunnel in his prison cell. Guzman resumed his command of the Sinaloa Cartel, but on 8 January 2016, Guzman was captured again during a raid on a home in the city of Los Mochis, in Guzman's home state of Sinaloa. With the arrest of Joaquín Guzmán Loera, Ismael Zambada will most assume leadership of the Sinaloa Cartel; the Sinaloa Cartel has a presence in 17 of the 31 Mexican states, with important centers in Mexico City, Toluca, Zacatecas and most of the state of Sinaloa.
The cartel is involved in the smuggling and distribution of Colombian cocaine, Mexican marijuana and Mexican and Southeast Asian heroin into the United States. It is believed that a group known as the Herrera Organization would transport multi-ton quantities of cocaine from South America to Guatemala on behalf of the Sinaloa Cartel. From there it is smuggled north to Mexico and into the U. S. Other shipments of cocaine are believed to originate in Colombia from Cali and Medellín drug-trafficking groups from which the Sinaloa Cartel handle transportation across the U. S. border to distribution cells in Arizona, Illinois, New York, Washington state. Before his arrest, Vicente Zambada Niebla, son of Ismael Zambada García, played a key role in the Sinaloa Cartel. Vicente Zambada was responsible for coordinating multi-ton cocaine shipments from Central and South American countries, through Mexico, into the United States for the Sinaloa Cartel. To accomplish this task he used every means available: Boeing 747 cargo aircraft, narco submarines, container ships, go-fast boats, fishing vessels, rail cars, tractor trailers and automobiles.
He was arrested by the Mexican Army on 18 March 2009 and extradited on 18 February 2010 to Chicago to face federal charges. He filed a guilty plea agreement and agreed to cooperate with government on 8 No
Kumamoto is the capital city of Kumamoto Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, Japan. As of April 1, 2017, the city has an estimated population of 737,812 and a population density of 1,900 persons per km2; the total area is 389.53 km2. Greater Kumamoto had a population of 1,461,000, as of the 2000 census; as of 2010, Kumamoto Metropolitan Employment Area has a GDP of US$39.8 billion. It is not considered part of the Fukuoka–Kitakyushu metropolitan area, despite their shared border; the city was designated on April 2012 by government ordinance. Katō Kiyomasa, a contemporary of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was made daimyō of half of the administrative region of Higo in 1588. After that, Kiyomasa built Kumamoto Castle. Due to its many innovative defensive designs, Kumamoto Castle was considered impregnable, Kiyomasa enjoyed a reputation as one of the finest castle-builders in Japanese history. After Kiyomasa died in 1611, his son, succeeded him. Tadahiro was removed by Tokugawa Iemitsu in 1632; the current administrative body of the City of Kumamoto was founded on April 1, 1889.
Near the end of World War II, on July 1, 1945, Kumamoto was bombed in an Allied air raid, which destroyed a square mile, 20% of the city's area. After the war, the Japanese Buddhist monk Nichidatsu Fujii decided to construct a Peace Pagoda atop Mount Hanaoka in the city to commemorate all those lost in war and to promote peace. Inaugurated in 1954, it was the first of over 80 built by Fujii and his followers all over the world. On February 1, 1991, the towns of Akita, Kawachi and Hokubu were merged into Kumamoto. On October 6, 2008, the town of Tomiai was merged into Kumamoto. On March 23, 2010, the town of Jōnan and the town of Ueki were merged into Kumamoto. A series of earthquakes struck the area beginning April 14, 2016, including a tremor with moment magnitude 7.1 early in the morning of April 16, 2016, local time. Kumamoto has a humid subtropical climate with cold winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is much heavier around the summer the months of June and July.
The city's most famous landmark is Kumamoto Castle, a large and, in its day well fortified Japanese castle. The donjon is a concrete reconstruction built in the 1970s, but several ancillary wooden buildings remain of the original castle, assaulted during the Satsuma Rebellion and sacked and burned after a 53-day siege, it was during this time. Basashi remains popular in Kumamoto and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in Japan, though these days it is considered a delicacy. Within the outer walls of Kumamoto Castle is the Hosokawa Gyobu-tei, the former residence of the Higo daimyō; this traditional wooden mansion has a fine Japanese garden located on its grounds. Miyamoto Musashi lived the last part of his life in Kumamoto, his tomb and the cave where he resided during his final years is situated close by. He penned the famous Go Rin no Sho. Kumamoto is home to Suizen-ji Jōju-en, a formal garden neighboring Suizenji Temple 3 kilometers southeast of Kumamoto Castle. A notable shrines are Takahashi Inari Shrine, Fujisaki Hachimangū.
Suizenji Park is home to the Suizenji Municipal Stadium, where the city's football team, Roasso Kumamoto used to play but nowadays they use the larger KKWing Stadium in Higashi Ward. The downtown area has a commercial district centred on two shopping arcades, the Shimotori and Kamitori, which extend for several city blocks; the main department stores are located here along with a vast number of smaller retailers and bars. Many local festivals are held near the arcades. Cultural venues include the Kumamoto Prefectural Museum of Kumamoto Prefectural Theater. Kumamoto has a prefectural mascot, "Kumamon". Kumamon is a black bear with red cheeks; the first of many peace pagodas around the world was erected by Japanese Buddhist monk Nichidatsu Fujii atop Mount Hanaoka beginning 1947. Inaugurated in 1954, it was the first of over 80 built by Fujii and his followers all over the world. Kazufumi Ōnishi has been the city's mayor since December 2014. Since April 1, 2012, Kumamoto has five wards: Kita-ku Nishi-ku Chūō-ku Higashi-ku Minami-ku In November 2017, Kumamoto politician Yuka Ogata was forced to leave the Kumamoto municipal assembly because she had brought her baby.
The incident was reported by international media as an example of the challenges facing women in Japan. Local public transport is provided by the Kumamoto City Transportation Bureau. Trams run to a few suburbs near the downtown area. A large bus terminus, called the Kotsu Centre, provides access to both local and intercity destinations. JR Kumamoto station provides rail links to Japan's extensive rail network. On March 12, 2011, work on the shinkansen network was completed, establishing a direct high-speed rail link to Tokyo via Fukuoka's Hakata station. Several local taxi companies serve the Kumamoto metropolitan area and are the only 24-hour public transport in the city. Kumamoto Airport is located in nearby Mashiki. There is a local football club Roasso Kumamoto in J. League. Kumamoto Volters of the basketball B. League are based in Kumamoto; the Kumamoto Castle Marathon is a yearly event in Kumamoto City. It was established in commemoration of Kumamoto becoming a designated city in 2012; the 1997 World Men's Handball Championship was played in
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate. European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. Gambetta's classic work on the Sicilian Mafia generates an economic study of the mafia, which exerts great influence on studies of the Russian Mafia, the Chinese Mafia, Hong Kong Triads and the Japanese Yakuza. Other organizations—including states, militaries, police forces, corporations—may sometimes use organized-crime methods to conduct their activities, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions.
There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as white-collar crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes, treason. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter. For example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organized crime and war sometimes complement each other; the term "Oligarchy" has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families and business oligarchs. In the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as "he unlawful activities of a organized, disciplined association ". Criminal activity as a structured process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups. Due to the escalating violence of Mexico's drug war, a report issued by the United States Department of Justice characterizes the Mexican drug cartels as the "greatest organized crime threat to the United States".
Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition; these networks are composed of: Hierarchies based on'naturally' forming family and cultural traditions. Bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures, they focus more on how the operations works, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are typified by: A complex authority structure. However, this model of operation has some flaws: The'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to. While bureaucratic operations emphasize business processes and authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010.
A distinctive gang culture underpins many, but not organized groups. The term “street gang” is used interchangeably with “youth gang,” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Miller defines a street gang as “a self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise." Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, increase their self-esteem. A sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs. "Zones of transition" are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations. In such areas, co