Heart of Wales line
The Heart of Wales line is a railway line running from Craven Arms in Shropshire to Llanelli in southwest Wales. It runs, it serves a number of rural centres en route, including several once-fashionable spa towns, including Llandrindod Wells. At Builth Road, two miles from the town of Builth Wells, the line crosses the former route of the earlier Mid Wales Railway, which closed in the 1960s; the line was known as the Central Wales line and included routes through Gowerton, where the railway crossed the West Wales lines and ran through Dunvant and Killay down through the Clyne Valley to Blackpill, along the sea wall to Swansea Bay station, before reaching Swansea Victoria railway station. This section built by the Llanelly Railway and Dock Company to compete with the Great Western Railway and break the monopoly they held on Swansea Dock, closed in 1964. Nationalisation of the railways had removed the need for competing routes, the running down and closure of Swansea North Dock ended the need for freight services on this section.
Trains now use the original LR main line to reach the West Wales lines at Llandeilo Junction and thence Llanelli and Swansea. North of Llandovery, the route was opened in stages between 1861 and 1868 by a number of different companies – the Knighton Railway, the Central Wales Railway and Central Wales Extension Railway; the 1963 Beeching Report proposed the remainder of the Heart of Wales line for closure. As a rural branch line, it survived the Beeching Axe since it carried freight traffic, serving the steelworks at Bynea and industrial areas such as Ammanford and Pontarddulais, linking them with the docks at Llanelli, it passed through six marginal constituencies. During engineering work, the line is still used as a diversionary freight route; the basic service over the line since the seventies has remained more or less constant, with four or five trains per day in each direction on weekdays and two or three on Sundays. The line is single track throughout and has been operated under a Light Railway Order since 1972.
There are five passing loops, at Llandeilo, Llanwrtyd and Knighton. Unless "Out of Course" working occurs the Llanwrtyd passing loop is used on two of the Monday – Saturday services and the Llandrindod passing loop is in use on the other two and on the Sunday services; the signalling was modernised in 1986, when a system known as No Signalman Token Remote working was introduced. This is overseen by the signaller at Pantyffynnon, with the token instruments at the aforementioned five passing loops being operated by the train crew by British Rail. For more than two years only two of the loops were operational as Network Rail were unable to source spare parts for the points mechanisms used at all five: the design used is now obsolete. Parts had to be taken from the three decommissioned loops to keep the other two operational. In 2009 NR stated their intention to install new conventional electric point machines at all five loops and restore the three out-of-service ones to full working order but were unable to give a timescale for this to be carried out as design work on the new equipment was still ongoing.
NR began the replacement works for the points after first installing the system on the line to Pembroke Dock, at the Tenby loop, on 7 December 2009 and making minor alterations in Feb 2010. Llandeilo was the first on the line to be modernised, the rest followed; the £5 million project was completed in October 2010. In 2014 Network Rail added exit indicators at the trailing end of each loop to aid in the reversing of services: a decision taken so that all moves have an active indication of the status of the motor points. In 1987 tragedy struck the line near Llandeilo when the Glanrhyd Bridge collapsed following heavy flooding, an early morning northbound train plunged into the swollen River Towy, killing four people. For a while the future of the line was in doubt but political forces of all sides rallied to ensure the line's survival. After leaving the West Wales Line at Llandeilo Junction, the route is shared with the Swansea District line as far as Morlais Junction before passing beneath the M4 Motorway & turning northwards towards Pontarddulais and Pantyfynnon.
The short tunnel before the former station is the oldest surviving example still in use in Wales, whilst the freight-only branch along the Amman valley to Gwaun-Cae-Gurwen diverges at the latter. North of Ammanford, it follows the valley of the River Tywi north to Llandeilo and Llandovery, crossing the river at Glanrhyd by a replacement single-span bridge built & commissioned in 1988. North of Llandovery the character of the route changes, as it ascends into the Carmarthenshire hills towards the first of the line's two major summits at Sugar Loaf on gradients as steep as 1 in 60. En route, it passes over the 283-yard long Cynghordy viaduct acro
In public transport, a request stop, flag stop, or whistle stop is a stop or station or airport at which trains, buses or airline flights stop only on request. In this way, stops with low passenger counts can be incorporated into a route without introducing unnecessary delay. Vehicles may save fuel by continuing through a station when there is no need to stop. There may not always be a significant savings on time if there is no one to pick up because vehicles going past a request stop may need to slow down enough to be able to stop if there are passengers waiting. Request stops may introduce extra travel time variability and increase the need for schedule padding; the methods by which transit vehicles are notified that there are passengers waiting to be picked up at a request stop vary by transit system and by route. Most local, inner-city bus operations operate all of their stops as request stops if there is always a passenger boarding or alighting. To distinguish stops that are served on every trip, these are called stations and they are most at the terminus of a route.
Such stops are also used as timing points. In bus transport the term "request stop" may be used to refer to a stop on a hail and ride section of a route. In hail and ride operations, there are few or no marked stops and passengers can request the bus be stopped at any point where the driver can safely and reasonably do so. For example, in London, Transport for London operates request stops at a number of locations such as Blackheath park Micheldever road. Buses do not stop at these stops, unless a passenger waiting at the bus shelter signals the bus to stop or if a passenger wishes to disembark and rings the bell. In some cities, flag stops may refer to any stop that has regular service, but is not signed by the authorities serving it; this is common in some cities, such as Tulsa, where bus stops are infrequently signed. In long distance transport, transit vehicles, such as passenger trains or buses operating on motorways operate at higher speeds than local transport; this means that stopping is more troublesome and that it may be difficult to see a passenger in time to stop for them.
This difference results in more complicated ways of signalling a stop to the vehicle. Some services, like Amtrak, require that a ticket be purchased in advance, specifying a specific origin and destination. Since the train's crew know what tickets were sold, they know where people are coming from and going to, they stop only at those stations required by the tickets. Services that lack advanced ticketing, or which sell tickets for a range of destinations or travel times, require ways of knowing whether or not someone is waiting at a station or platform; these may range from a passenger speaking to a dispatcher on a phone located at a station to pressing a button to activate a signal such as a flashing light somewhere before the station that the driver can see in time to slow down safely. Along some ferry routes in the fjords in Norway, some stops are equipped with a light that embarking passengers must switch on in order for the ferry to include the stop and pick them up; the system is known under the name'signalanløp'.
Similar to Norway, in Sweden commuter ferries are requested to stop by a semaphore signal. The many islands of the Stockholm archipelago are an example of this; the appearance of request stops varies wildly. Many are signed, but many others rely on local knowledge. Halt Hail and ride
The A470 referred to as the Cardiff to Glan Conwy Trunk Road, is a 186 miles long road in Wales that connects Cardiff on the south coast to Llandudno on the north coast. It has undergone considerable road improvement in the last two decades. While one had to navigate the narrow roads of Llanidloes and Dolgellau, both these market towns are now bypassed due to extensive road modernisation; the 26 miles from Cardiff Bay to Merthyr Tydfil are direct and good quality dual carriageway, but most of the route from north of Merthyr to Llandudno is single carriageway which has seen considerable improvement in the last 20–30 years. The road travels through two of Wales's national parks; the southernmost point of the route is outside the Wales Millennium Centre. It runs up Lloyd George Avenue, continues along St. Mary Street in central Cardiff; the road becomes North Road, after a tidal flow system running to Maindy and goes over the flyover at the Gabalfa interchange of the A48 and the A469. It becomes an urban dual-carriageway along Manor Way, with a 40 mph speed limit and with many traffic-signalled crossings.
It passes without interruption under the M4 at the giant Coryton roundabout. For the next 15 miles it is a modern high-speed dual carriageway by-passing Tongwynlais and Castell Coch, Taff's Well, to Pontypridd. Heading north to Abercynon, the road now follows the route of the Taff Vale Railways Llancaiach Branch to Quakers Yard roundabout, where it is joined by the A4059 from Abercynon and Hirwaun. From Quakers Yard roundabout, 5.5 miles of dual carriageway takes the road to the Pentrebach roundabout where the A4060 links, to the Merthyr Tydfil roundabout where the road meets the A465 and the dual carriageway ends. A twisting section alongside the Taf Fawr reservoirs of Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons takes the road to its highest point at Storey Arms on the pass over the Brecon Beacons before a long descent to Brecon; the remainder of the route north of Brecon consists of older routes now renamed "A470". This artificiality is apparent as a driver following the entire route north to south must diverge from the main line of respective stretches of road no fewer than five times.
A short three lane stretch heads north east before a sharp left turn is required to stay on the road. From this point on the road becomes narrow and twisting and overtaking is problematic except at a few straight sections. Another sharp left turn at a stop sign in Llyswen takes the road alongside the River Wye into Builth Wells; the road continues to follow the Wye to the busy crossroads where it meets the A44 in the centre of Rhayader. On reaching Llangurig, a right turn outside the village takes the road past Llanidloes and through Llandinam, the birthplace of David Davies and now the headquarters of Girl Guides Wales. Another anomalous left turn at a level crossing sets the path for Caersws and Llanbrynmair. Just beyond the village of Talerddig the road descends and crosses under the Shrewsbury–Aberystwyth railway line; the long descent towards Commins Coch is a new stretch of road that replaced a set of road-works that had traffic light controlled single lane working for over 10 years because of unstable ground conditions.
The river bridge at Commins Coch is so narrow and set at such an angle that only one vehicle at a time can pass. At Cemmaes Road the road joins the A487 at a roundabout. A right turn at the roundabout takes the road on to Mallwyd where the A458 joins at yet another roundabout; the country becomes more forested and the road climbs up through Dinas Mawddwy and steeply up the eastern foot-hills of Cadair Idris before dropping down to the Dolgellau by-pass. More sharp twists and turns in the forestry and through the village of Ganllwyd brings the road up onto the high plateau of the Cambrian dome where the road follows the ancient track of Sarn Helen Roman road passing the redundant nuclear power station at Trawsfynydd. A right turn beyond the power station takes the road on to Ffestiniog and Blaenau Ffestiniog before heading over the Crimea Pass to Dolwyddelan. A sharp left turn interrupts the A470 as it becomes the A5 for a short distance towards Betws-y-Coed before turning right again back onto the A470 just before Waterloo Bridge.
Passing down the valley of the River Conwy the road passes through Llanrwst, Tal-y-Cafn and Glan Conwy, at which point there is a dual roundabout that intersects with the A55 North Wales Expressway before descending into Llandudno. The northernmost point of the route is in Llandudno itself at the sea front, where it meets the North Shore Parade, the A547; the route from Cardiff to Brecon was the original A470. It ran into Brecon town centre and joined the A40 road; the old A470 between the by-pass and the town, along Newgate Street, is now the B4601. A4062 was the number for the section from the junction of the A40 and the B4601 – the Brecon bypass to B4602 section; the B4601 was the A40 which ran through the town of Brecon. The B4602 was the westernmost part of the A438; the A438 was the original number for the road from the junction with B4602 to the sharp left turn where A470 turns north in the vicinity of Llanfilo. The A438 continues on from there to Tewkesbury. From north of Llanfilo to Llyswen was the A4073.
A479 linked the A40 west of Crickhowell to the A44 road at Rhayader. The A479 now runs only from Crickhowell to Llyswe
National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
Transport for Wales Rail Services
Keolis Amey Operations, trading as Transport for Wales Rail Services, or TfW Rail, is a Welsh train operating company operated by Keolis Amey Wales Cymru Limited, which commenced operating the Wales & Borders franchise on 14 October 2018. Alongside CrossCountry, East Midlands Trains and Chiltern Railways, TfW is one of the few franchised train operating companies not to operate any electric powered trains. In October 2016 Abellio, the incumbent operator Arriva, a Keolis/Amey joint venture and MTR Corporation were shortlisted to bid for the next Wales & Borders franchise. In October 2017, Arriva withdrew from the bidding process, followed in February 2018 by Abellio, after the collapse of its partner Carillion. In May 2018, the franchise was awarded to Keolis Amey Wales Cymru, it runs for 15 years. Unlike the previous franchise, awarded by the Department for Transport, the new franchise was awarded by Transport for Wales, on behalf of the Welsh Government. Typical TfW weekday off-peak service is as follows: There are plans to improve services between 2018 and 2033 as part of the new franchise:North Wales and North West England Introduction of a new hourly Liverpool Lime Street to Chester service from May 2019, with limited services extended to Wrexham General Introduce Class 230 D-Trains on services on the Borderlands, Conwy Valley and Crewe-Chester lines during 2019 Twelve refurbished Mark 4 carriages for the Holyhead to Cardiff Central Premier Service by the end of 2019, to replace the Mark 3 carriages Increase Wrexham Central to Bidston services to 2tph by December 2021, as part of the North Wales Metro Introduction of a new hourly Liverpool to Llandudno and Shrewsbury service, a new two-hourly Liverpool to Cardiff Central service from December 2022 Introduction of a direct Manchester Airport to Bangor service from December 2022 Introduce the new fleet of Civity diesel multiple units to the North Wales Coast line and other North Wales routes during 2022 Invest in Shotton and Wrexham General stations from April 2024, in Chester station by 2028 Invest to co-fund new station buildings at Blaenau Ffestiniog Introduce new Community Rail Partnerships on the North Wales Coast Line and the Crewe to Hereford lineSouth West and Mid Wales and the Borders Open a new station at Bow Street in March 2020 An additional service every day on the Heart of Wales line from December 2022 A consistent 1 tph on the Cambrian line from Shrewsbury to Aberystwyth from December 2022 New Civity DMUs on the Cambrian line during 2022, to replace the Class 158 Express Sprinters Refurbished Class 170 Turbostar two-car DMUs on services to West Wales, Ebbw Vale and Maesteg from 2019, the Heart of Wales line from 2022, to replace Class 153 Super Sprinters Introduce new two and three-car new diesel multiple units for the Milford Haven to Manchester Piccadilly service by 2023, to replace the Class 175 Coradias Additional summer Sunday services from May 2023 between Tywyn and Pwllheli – including a new 1 tph express service between major centres by 2025 Invest in Carmarthen and Machynlleth stations in 2021, Llanelli station in 2025 A first-class service between Swansea and Manchester from December 2024 Introduce a new Community Rail Partnership for the West Wales lineSouth East Wales Provide ticket machines at all South Wales Metro stations by April 2019 Introduce Class 769 Flex bi-mode multiple units to the Valley Lines during 2019 Replace all Class 142 and 143 Pacers by the end of 2019 4tph between Cardiff Central and Bridgend from December 2019 Introduce pay-as-you-go for users of smartcards by April 2020 Increasing capacity of trains on early morning services to Cardiff Central from 2-car services to 4-car services A new 1 train per hour Ebbw Vale Town to Newport service from May 2021 4tph between Treherbert, Merthyr Tydfil and Cardiff from December 2022, operated by Citylink tram-trains 6tph between Cardiff Queen Street and Cardiff Bay from December 2022 Hourly Cheltenham Spa to Cardiff Central services from December 2022 Introduce new FLIRT diesel-electric multiple units on the Ebbw Vale and Maesteg lines during 2022 Introduce new FLIRT tri-mode multiple units between Penarth and Bridgend to Rhymney and Coryton during 2023 2tph between Cardiff and Bridgend via the Vale of Glamorgan Line from December 2023 4tph throughout on the Rhymney line from December 2023 Introduce Citylink tram-trains to the City Line during 2023 Eliminate diesel use on the Central Metro lines by 2024 Open new stations at Cardiff Parkway in February 2020, Crwys Road, Loudoun Square and Cardiff Bay by December 2023, Treforest Estate by December 2025, Gabalfa by 2028 Invest in Merthyr Tydfil from April 2020, Abergavenny from April 2023, Cardiff Central and Chepstow from April 2025 Develop a fleet maintenance depot at Taffs Well and a dedicated Infrastructure Management depot in the Valleys Build a Major Events Stabling Line and a new station in Llanwern TfW Rail inherited a fleet of Class 142, 143, 150, 153, 158 and 175 diesel multiple units and Mark 3 carriages from Arriva Trains Wales.
In April 2019 it added 5 153s acquired from Great Western Railway to the 8 it had. As of April 2019, all of TfW Rail's Class 142 & 143 Pacer railbus DMUs, which will be withdrawn and replaced by 2020, have had advertising vinyls applied, with the messages "The Start of a New Journey", "The Journey is Almost Over for Old Trains", "These Trains will Terminate Soon", stating rolling stock and service improvements; the Mark 3 carriages for the locomotive-hauled trains have had Transport for Wales logos applied to the ex-Arriva Trains Wales livery, as t
The A479 also known as the Glanusk Park —Llyswen Trunk Road, is a trunk road in Wales, starting from Glanusk Park near Crickhowell running in a northerly direction to Llyswen, where it joins the A470 road. It runs within the county of Powys and is a single carriageway throughout its length. Trunk roads in Wales Media related to A479 road at Wikimedia Commons
The A44 is a major road in the United Kingdom that runs from Oxford in southern England to Aberystwyth in west Wales. The original route of the A44 was Chipping Norton to Aberystwyth. No changes were made to the route of the A44 in the early years. After the Second World War, the section between Rhayader and Llangurig was renumbered A470, as part of the creation of a through route between South and North Wales; the A44 was extended to Oxford in the 1990s, replacing part of the A34 when the M40 motorway was completed. The road begins at a roundabout junction with the A40 road on the northern outskirts of Oxford in Oxfordshire, it has a grade separated junction with the A34 road. From here, the road runs northwest, has a 2-mile section of dual-carriageway through the villages of Yarnton and Begbroke before reaching the town of Woodstock, home to Blenheim Palace; the road reaches the main market street in Chipping Norton before entering the Cotswolds. The road here has many hills and turns, is single-carriageway with some tight bends, with not much opportunity for overtaking.
The road enters Gloucestershire, the town of Moreton in Marsh, before sweeping up through woodland until it reaches Fish Hill near Broadway in Worcestershire. At this point, it descends steeply through some sharp bends, it bypasses Broadway before meeting up with the A46/A435 Evesham bypass. On reaching the northern end of the Evesham bypass the A44 heads northwest, passing Wyre Piddle and the town of Pershore before reaching the crossroads near Spetchley; the road crosses the M5 motorway and onto Worcester's eastern bypass. It turns south along the bypass before rejoining its original line west into the city itself; the road passes the Cathedral, crosses the River Severn and meets the western end of the bypass. After leaving Worcester, the A44 continues west past the village of Broadwas, following the River Teme until Knightwick where enters Herefordshire as it climbs over Bringsty Common before descending towards Bromyard; the A44 heads west over the downs to Bredenbury. It crosses the River Lugg before meeting the A49 Leominster bypass, where it turns left and heads through the town centre.
After leaving Leominster, the A44 crosses the River Arrow to bypass Monkland. The road heads towards the black and white villages of Eardisland and Pembridge. After Pembridge the A44 meanders west, passing numerous orchards en route, before reaching Lyonshall, where the road meets the A480 and passes Offa's Dyke. A couple of miles and the A44 meets Kington; the road follows the River Arrow before reaching the Welsh border. Leaving Herefordshire and entering Powys, the road continues through Walton and passes the village of New Radnor, before turning south to Llanfihangel Nant Melan; the road turns northwest to do some serious hill-climbing before winding its way downhill to a plateau. A few miles it reaches Penybont and Crossgates, where it meets the A483 road. Eight miles further the A44 reaches Rhayader. On reaching the centre of Rhayader, traffic heads to the left of the clock tower before turning right, where the road passes through the town and joins the A470 for 9 miles to Llangurig, following the course of the River Wye.
From on it is known as the Llangurig to Aberystwyth Trunk Road. Leaving Llangurig, the road starts clinging to hillsides as it winds its way through the Cambrian Mountains. A few miles the River Wye crosses under the road and up the hill to the north; the road enters Ceredigion where the next hamlet is Eisteddfa Gurig, which at 1339 feet above sea level is the highest point en route and the location of the iconic Elvis Rock. The A44 descends into the remote settlement of Ponterwyd; the road passes several abandoned mines en route to the villages of Goginan and Capel Bangor, where it meets the River Rheidol. The road passes the village of Llanbadarn Fawr, continuing for its last mile through the outskirts of Aberystwyth before terminating on the A487 at Penglais Hill. Evesham: the route now runs to the north. Evesham–Worcester: the route used to run on a road to the south. Leominster–Kington: for 4.8 miles west of Barons' Cross the road followed a more northerly route, crossing the River Arrow at Eardisland Wyre Piddle.
In 2004 the A44 was rerouted down the A4538 between Evesham and Worcester and therefore no longer goes down Pershore High Street. The old route is now known as the B4084. Trunk roads in Wales Media related to A44 road at Wikimedia Commons SABRE page on the A44