A keep is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars have debated the scope of the word keep, but consider it to refer to large towers in castles that were fortified residences, used as a refuge of last resort should the rest of the castle fall to an adversary; the first keeps were made of timber and formed a key part of the Motte-and-Bailey castles that emerged in Normandy and Anjou during the 10th century. The Anglo-Normans and French rulers began to build stone keeps during the 11th centuries. Stone keeps carried considerable political as well as military importance and could take up to a decade or more to build. During the 12th century, new designs began to be introduced – in France, quatrefoil-shaped keeps were introduced, while in England polygonal towers were built. By the end of the century and English keep designs began to diverge: Philip II of France built a sequence of circular keeps as part of his bid to stamp his royal authority on his new territories, while in England castles were built without keeps.
In Spain, keeps were incorporated into both Christian and Islamic castles, although in Germany tall fighting towers called bergfriede were preferred to keeps in the western fashion. In the second half of the 14th century, there was a resurgence in the building of keeps. In France, the keep at Vincennes began a fashion for tall machicolated designs, a trend adopted in Spain most prominently through the Valladolid school of Spanish castle design. Meanwhile, tower keeps in England became popular amongst the most wealthy nobles: these large keeps, each uniquely designed, formed part of the grandest castles built during the period. In the 15th century, the protective function of keeps was compromised by improved artillery. For example, in 1464 during the Wars of the Roses, the keep in the Bamburgh Castle considered to be impregnable, was defeated with bombards. By the 16th century, keeps were falling out of fashion as fortifications and residences. Many were destroyed in civil wars between the 17th and 18th centuries, or incorporated into gardens as an alternative to follies.
During the 19th century, keeps became fashionable once again and in England and France a number were restored or redesigned by Gothic architects. Despite further damage to many French and Spanish keeps during the wars of the 20th century, keeps now form an important part of the tourist and heritage industry in Europe. Since the 16th century, the English word keep has referred to large towers in castles; the word originates from around 1375 to 1376, coming from the Middle English term kype, meaning basket or cask, was a term applied to the shell keep at Guînes, said to resemble a barrel. The term came to be used. By the 17th century, the word keep lost its original reference to baskets or casks, was popularly assumed to have come from the Middle English word keep, meaning to hold or to protect. Early on, the use of the word keep became associated with the idea of a tower in a castle that would serve both as a fortified, high-status private residence and a refuge of last resort; the issue was complicated by the building of fortified Renaissance towers in Italy called tenazza that were used as defences of last resort and were named after the Italian for to hold or to keep.
By the 19th century, Victorian historians incorrectly concluded that the etymology of the words "keep" and tenazza were linked, that all keeps had fulfilled this military function. As a result of this evolution in meaning, the use of the term keep in historical analysis today can be problematic. Contemporary medieval writers used. In Latin, they are variously described as turris, turris castri or magna turris – a tower, a castle tower, or a great tower; the 12th-century French came to term them a donjon, from the Latin dominarium "lordship", linking the keep and feudal authority. Medieval Spanish writers called the buildings torre del homenaje, or "tower of homage." In England, donjon turned into dungeon, which referred to a keep, rather than to a place of imprisonment. This ambiguity over terminology has made historical analysis of the use of "keeps" problematic. While the term remains in common academic use, some academics prefer to use the term donjon, most modern historians warn against using the term "keep" simplistically.
The fortifications that we would today call keeps did not form part of a unified medieval style, nor were they all used in a similar fashion during the period. The earliest keeps were built as part of motte-and-bailey castles from the 10th century onwards – a combination of documentary and archaeological evidence places the first such castle, built at Vincy, in 979; these castles were built by the more powerful lords of Anjou in the late 10th and 11th centuries, in particular Fulk III and his son, Geoffrey II, who built a great number of them between 987 and 1060. William the Conqueror introduced this form of castle into England when he invaded in 1066, the design spread through south Wales as the Normans expanded up the valleys during the subsequent decades. In a motte-and-bailey design, a castle would include a mound called a motte artificially constructed by piling up turf and soil, a bailey, a lower walled enclosure. A keep and a protective wall would be built on top of the motte; some protectiv
Devolution in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities. Devolution differs from federalism in that the devolved powers of the subnational authority reside in central government, thus the state remains, de jure, a unitary state. Legislation creating devolved parliaments or assemblies can be repealed or amended by central government in the same way as any statute; the issue of Irish home rule was the dominant political question of British politics at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Earlier in the 19th century, Irish politicians like Daniel O'Connell had demanded a repeal of the Act of Union 1800 and a return to two separate kingdoms and parliaments, united only in the personal union of the monarch of Great Britain and Ireland.
In contrast to this, demands for home rule called for autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, with a subsidiary Irish parliament subject to the authority of the parliament at Westminster. This issue was first introduced by the Irish Parliamentary Party led by Isaac Butt, William Shaw and Charles Stewart Parnell. Over the course of four decades, four Irish Home Rule Bills were introduced into the British Parliament: the First Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1886 by Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone. Following intense opposition in Ulster and the departure of Unionists from Gladstone's Liberal Party, the bill was defeated in the House of Commons; the Second Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1893 by Prime Minister Gladstone and passed the Commons but was rejected in the House of Lords. The Third Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1912 by Prime Minister H. H. Asquith based on an agreement with the Irish Parliamentary Party. After a prolonged parliamentary struggle was passed under the provisions of the Parliament Act 1911, under which the Commons overruled the veto by the Lords.
Again, this bill was fiercely opposed by Ulster Unionists who raised the Ulster Volunteers and signed the Ulster Covenant to oppose the bill, thereby raising the spectre of civil war. The act received royal assent shortly after the outbreak of World War I but implementation was suspended until after the war's conclusion. Attempts at implementation failed in 1916 and 1917 and the subsequent Irish War of Independence resulted in it never coming into force; the Fourth Home Rule Bill was introduced in 1920 by Prime Minister David Lloyd George and passed both houses of parliament. It divided Ireland into Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, which each had their own parliament and judiciary but which shared some common institutions; the Act was implemented in Northern Ireland, where it served as the basis of government until its suspension in 1972 following the outbreak of the Troubles. The southern parliament convened only once and in 1922, under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, Southern Ireland became the Irish Free State, a dominion within the British Empire, was declared sovereign in 1937.
Home Rule came into effect for Northern Ireland in 1921 under the Fourth Home Rule Act. The Parliament of Northern Ireland established under that act was prorogued on 30 March 1972 owing to the destabilisation of Northern Ireland upon the onset of the Troubles in late 1960s; this followed escalating violence by state and paramilitary organisations following the suppression of civil rights demands by Northern Ireland Catholics. The Northern Ireland Parliament was abolished by the Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973, which received royal assent on 19 July 1973. A Northern Ireland Assembly was elected on 28 June 1973 and following the Sunningdale Agreement, a power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive was formed on 1 January 1974; this collapsed on 28 May 1974, due to the Ulster Workers' Council strike. The Troubles continued; the Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention and second Northern Ireland Assembly were unsuccessful at restoring devolution. In the absence of devolution and power-sharing, the UK Government and Irish Government formally agreed to co-operate on security and political progress in the Anglo-Irish Agreement, signed on 15 November 1985.
More progress was made after the ceasefires by the Provisional IRA in 1994 and 1997. The 1998 Belfast Agreement, resulted in the creation of a new Northern Ireland Assembly, intended to bring together the two communities to govern Northern Ireland. Additionally, renewed devolution in Northern Ireland was conditional on co-operation between the newly established Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland through a new all-Ireland body, the North/South Ministerial Council. A British-Irish Council covering the whole British Isles and a British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference were established. From 15 October 2002, the Northern Ireland Assembly was suspended due to a breakdown in the Northern Ireland peace process but, on 13 October 2006, the British and Irish governments announced the St Andrews Agreement, a'road map' to restore devolution to Northern Ireland. On 26 March 2007, Democratic Unionist Party leader Ian Paisley met Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams for the first time and together announced that a devolved government would be returning to Northern Ireland.
The Executive was restore
Owain Goch ap Gruffydd
Owain ap Gruffudd, was brother to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Dafydd ap Gruffudd and, for a brief period in the late 1240s and early 1250s, ruler of part of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Owain was the grandson of Llywelyn the Great, he was imprisoned together with his father in Criccieth Castle in 1239 by his uncle Dafydd ap Llywelyn, accompanied his father to England two years when Dafydd was forced to hand Gruffudd over to King Henry III of England. In 1244 Gruffudd was killed when a makeshift rope broke as he attempted to escape from the Tower of London; this freed Dafydd ap Llywelyn's hand as King Henry could no longer use Gruffudd against him, war broke out between him and King Henry in the spring of 1244. Owain meanwhile had been freed by Henry after his father's death in the hope that he would start a civil war in Gwynedd, but he remained at Chester, so that when Dafydd died unexpectedly in February 1246 without leaving an heir, his brother Llywelyn, who had supported his uncle against the king, had the advantage of being on the spot.
Owain and Llywelyn came to terms with King Henry, but were restricted by the terms of the Treaty of Woodstock in 1247 to Gwynedd Uwch Conwy, the part of Gwynedd west of the River Conwy, divided between them. Gwynedd Is Conwy, east of the river, was taken over by the king. Though paying homage to the English and Llywelyn soon broke with Henry III in protest over the ruthless raids being conducted on the Welsh borders; the third brother, Dafydd ap Gruffudd, came of age soon afterwards, King Henry accepted his homage and announced his intention of giving him a part of the much reduced Gwynedd. Llywelyn refused to accept this, Owain and Dafydd formed an alliance against him; this led to the Battle of Bryn Derwin in June 1255. Llywelyn defeated Owain and Dafydd and captured them, thereby becoming sole ruler of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy; the medieval Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion described the struggle thus: In those days great strife was bred at the instigation of the Devil between the sons of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, Namely Owain Goch and Dafydd on the one side, Llywelyn on the other.
And Llywelyn and his men, trusting in God, unafraid on Bryn Derwin the fierce coming of his brothers, a mighty host along with them. And before the end of one hour Owain Goch was captured and Dafydd fled, after many of his host had been slain. With his brothers out of the way, Llywelyn proceeded to extend Gwynedd's territory until it encompassed much of the rest of Wales, in the process claiming the title of Prince of Wales. Owain was imprisoned again, remained in prison until 1277. In a contemporary poem of the 13th century, court poet Hywel Foel ap Griffri laments Owain's captivity, describing him in the opening line as: Gŵr ysydd yn nhŵr yn hir westai, it is unclear where Owain was imprisoned, but some scholars believe he was kept in Dolbadarn Castle near Llanberis. Wherever he was kept, Llywelyn reluctantly released Owain in 1277 under the terms of the Treaty of Aberconwy, after some 20 years of captivity. Upon being released, Owain retired to his estate in north-west Wales and never again mounted a serious challenge to his brother Llywelyn's rule.
He is thought to have died c. 1282. List of rulers of Wales J. Beverley Smith Llywelyn ap Gruffudd: Tywysog Cymru
A manor house was the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a manor in the European feudal system; the term is today loosely applied to various country houses dating from the late medieval era, which housed the gentry. They were sometimes fortified, but this was intended more for show than for defence. Manor houses existed in most European countries where feudalism existed, where they were sometimes known as castles, so on; the lord of the manor may have held several properties within a county or, for example in the case of a feudal baron, spread across a kingdom, which he occupied only on occasional visits. So, the business of the manor required to be directed and controlled by regular manorial courts, which appointed manorial officials such as the bailiff, granted copyhold leases to tenants, resolved disputes between manorial tenants and administered justice in general. A large and suitable building was required within the manor for such purpose in the form of a great hall, a solar might be attached to form accommodation for the lord.
Furthermore, the produce of a small manor might be insufficient to feed a lord and his large family for a full year, thus he would spend only a few months at each manor and move on to another where stores had been laid up. This gave the opportunity for the vacated manor house to be cleaned important in the days of the cess-pit, repaired, thus such non-resident lords needed to appoint a steward or seneschal to act as their deputy in such matters and to preside at the manorial courts of his different manorial properties. The day-to-day administration was carried out by a resident official in authority at each manor, who in England was called a bailiff, or reeve. Although not built with strong fortifications as were castles, many manor-houses were fortified, which required a royal licence to crenellate, they were enclosed within walls or ditches which also included agricultural buildings. Arranged for defence against roaming bands of robbers and thieves, in days long before police, they were surrounded by a moat with a drawbridge, were equipped with gatehouses and watchtowers, but not, as for castles, with a keep, large towers or lofty curtain walls designed to withstand a siege.
The primary feature of the manor house was its great hall, to which subsidiary apartments were added as the lessening of feudal warfare permitted more peaceful domestic life. By the beginning of the 16th century, manor houses as well as small castles began to acquire the character and amenities of the residences of country gentlemen, many defensive elements were dispensed with, for example Sutton Place in Surrey, circa 1521. A late 16th-century transformation produced many of the smaller Renaissance châteaux of France and the numerous country mansions of the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles in England. Before around 1600, larger houses were fortified for true defensive purposes but as the kingdom became internally more peaceable after the Wars of the Roses, as a form of status-symbol, reflecting the position of their owners as having been worthy to receive royal licence to crenellate; the Tudor period of stability in England saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses, for example Sutton Place in Surrey, circa 1521.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII resulted in many former monastical properties being sold to the King's favourites, who converted them into private country houses, examples being Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey, Nostell Priory and many other mansions with the suffix Abbey or Priory to their name. During the second half of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and under her successor King James I the first mansions designed by architects not by mere masons or builders, began to make their appearance; such houses as Burghley House, Longleat House, Hatfield House are among the best known of this period and seem today to epitomise the English country house. Nearly every large medieval manor house had its own deer-park adjoining, emparked by royal licence, which served as a store of food in the form of venison. Within these licensed parks deer could not be hunted by royalty, nor by neighbouring land-owners nor by any other persons. During the 16th century many lords of manors moved their residences from their ancient manor houses situated next to the parish church and near or in the village and built a new manor house within the walls of their ancient deer-parks adjoining.
This gave them space. The suffixes given to manor houses today have little substantive meaning, many have changed over time, thus a manor house may have been known as "Heanton House" in the 18th century and in the 19th century as "Heanton Court" and as "Heanton Satchville". "Court" was a suffix which came into use in the 16th century, contemporary topographers felt the need to explain the term to their readers. Thus the Devonshire historian Tristram Risdon clarified the term at least three times in his main work, Survey of Devon: "This now lord of these lands Sir Robert Basset hath his dwelling at Heanton-Court, in this parish, an adjunct importing a manor-house in the lord's signiory". "This Nutwell Court, which signifies a mansion-house in a signiory, came to the family of Prideaux". and regarding the manor of Yarnscombe: "Their house is called "Court", which implieth a manor house, or chief dwelling in a lordship". The biographer John Prince, (1643–1723
The Welsh Marches is an imprecisely defined area along the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom. The precise meaning of the term has varied at different periods; the English term Welsh March was used in the Middle Ages to denote the marches between England and the Principality of Wales, in which Marcher lords had specific rights, exercised to some extent independently of the king of England. In modern usage, "the Marches" is used to describe those English counties which lie along the border with Wales Shropshire and Herefordshire, sometimes adjoining areas of Wales. However, at one time the Marches included all of the historic counties of Cheshire, Herefordshire and Gloucestershire. After the decline and fall of the Roman Empire which occupied Britain until about AD 410, the area, now Wales comprised a number of separate Romano-British kingdoms, including Powys in the east. Over the next few centuries, the Angles and others conquered and settled in eastern and southern Britain.
The kingdom of Mercia, under Penda, became established around Lichfield, established strong alliances with the Welsh kings. However, his successors sought to expand Mercia further westwards into what is now Cheshire and Herefordshire. Campaigns and raids from Powys led around about AD 820, to the building of Wat's Dyke, a boundary earthwork extending from the Severn valley near Oswestry to the Dee estuary; as the power of Mercia grew, a string of garrisoned market towns such as Shrewsbury and Hereford defined the borderlands as much as Offa's Dyke, a stronger and longer boundary earthwork erected by order of Offa of Mercia between AD 757 and 796. The Dyke still exists, can best be seen at Knighton, close to the modern border between England and Wales. In the centuries which followed, Offa's Dyke remained the frontier between the Welsh and English. Athelstan seen as the first king of a united England, summoned the British kings to a meeting at Hereford in AD 926, according to William of Malmesbury laid down the boundary between Wales and England the disputed southern stretch where he specified that the River Wye should form the boundary.
By the mid-eleventh century, Wales was united under Gruffudd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd, until his death in 1063. After the Norman Conquest, King William of England installed three of his most trusted confidants, Hugh d'Avranches, Roger de Montgomerie, William FitzOsbern, as Earls of Chester and Hereford with responsibilities for containing and subduing the Welsh; the process was never permanently effective. The term "March of Wales" was first used in the Domesday Book of 1086. Over the next four centuries, Norman lords established small marcher lordships between the Dee and Severn, further west. Military adventurers went to Wales from Normandy and elsewhere and after raiding an area of Wales fortified it and granted land to some of their supporters. One example was Bernard de Neufmarché, responsible for conquering and pacifying the Welsh kingdom of Brycheiniog; the precise dates and means of formation of the lordships varied. The March, or Marchia Wallie, was to a greater or lesser extent independent of both the English monarchy and the Principality of Wales or Pura Wallia, which remained based in Gwynedd in the north west of the country.
By about AD 1100 the March covered the areas which would become Monmouthshire and much of Flintshire, Radnorshire, Glamorgan and Pembrokeshire. This amounted to about two-thirds of Wales. During the period, the Marches were a frontier society in every sense, a stamp was set on the region that lasted into the time of the Industrial Revolution. Hundreds of small castles were built in the border area in the 12th and 13th centuries, predominantly by Norman lords as assertions of power as well as defences against Welsh raiders and rebels; the area still contains Britain's densest concentration of motte-and-bailey castles. The Marcher lords encouraged immigration from all the Norman-Angevin realms, encouraged trade from "fair haven" ports like Cardiff. Peasants went to Wales in large numbers: Henry I encouraged Bretons, Flemings and English settlers to move into the south of Wales. Many new towns were established, some such as Chepstow, Monmouth and Newtown becoming successful trading centres, these tended to be a focus of English settlement.
At the same time, the Welsh continued to attack English soil and supported rebellions against the Normans. The Norman lords each had similar rights to the Welsh princes; each owed personal allegiance, as subjects, to the English king whom they were bound to support in times of war, but their lands were exempt from royal taxation and they possessed rights which elsewhere were reserved to the crown, such as the rights to create forests and boroughs. The lordships were geographically compact and jurisdictionally separate one from another, their privileges differentiated them from English lordships. Marcher lords ruled their lands by their own law—sicut regale as Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester stated— whereas in England fief-holders were directly accountable to the king; the crown's powers in the Marches were limited to those periods when the king held a lordship in its own hands, such as when it was forfeited for treason or on the death of the lord without a legitimate heir whereupon the title reverted to the Crown in escheat.
At the top of a culturally diverse, intensely feudalised and local society, the Marcher barons co
Abergavenny is a market town and community in Monmouthshire, Wales. Abergavenny is promoted as a Gateway to Wales, it is located on the A40 trunk road and the A465 Heads of the Valleys road and is 6 miles from the border with England. The site of a Roman fort, Gobannium, it became a medieval walled town within the Welsh Marches; the town contains the remains of a medieval stone castle built soon after the Norman conquest of Wales. Abergavenny is situated at a tributary stream, the Gavenny, it is entirely surrounded by mountains and hills: the Blorenge, the Sugar Loaf, Ysgyryd Fawr, Ysgyryd Fach, Deri and Mynydd Llanwenarth, known locally as "Llanwenarth Breast". Abergavenny provides access to the Brecon Beacons National Park; the Offa's Dyke Path is close by and the Marches Way, the Beacons Way and Usk Valley Walk all pass through the town. In the UK 2011 census, the six relevant wards collectively listed Abergavenny's population as 12,515; the town hosted the 2016 National Eisteddfod of Wales. The town derives its name from a Brythonic word Gobannia meaning "river of the blacksmiths", relates to the town's pre-Roman importance in iron smelting.
The name is related to the modern Welsh word gof, so is associated with the Welsh smith Gofannon from folklore. The river became, in Welsh and the town's name became Abergafenni, meaning "mouth of the Gavenny". In Welsh, the shortened form Y Fenni may have come into use after about the 15th century, is now used as the Welsh name. Though pronounced in English or Welsh, the English spelling Abergavenny is in general use. Gobannium was a Roman fort guarding the road along the valley of the River Usk, which linked the legionary fortress of Burrium and Isca Augusta or Isca Silurum in the south with Y Gaer and Mid Wales, it was built to keep the peace among the local British Iron Age tribe, the Silures. Remains of the walls of this fort were discovered west of the castle when excavating the foundations for a new post office and telephone exchange building in the late 1960s. Abergavenny grew as a town in early Norman times under the protection of the Lords of Abergavenny; the first Baron was Hamelin de Balun, from Ballon, a small town and castle in Maine-Anjou called "Gateway to Maine", near Le Mans, today in the Sarthe département of France.
He founded the Benedictine priory, now the Priory Church of St Mary, in the late 11th century. The Priory belonged to the Benedictine foundation of St. Vincent Abbaye at Le Mans, it was subsequently endowed by William de Braose, with a tithe of the profits of the castle and town. The church contains some unique alabaster effigies, church monuments and unique medieval wood carving, such as the Tree of Jesse. Owing to its geographical location, the town was embroiled in the border warfare and power play of the 12th and 13th centuries in the Welsh Marches. In 1175, Abergavenny Castle was the site of a massacre of Seisyll ap Dyfnwal and his associates by William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber. Reference to a market at Abergavenny is found in a charter granted to the Prior by William de Braose. Owain Glyndŵr attacked Abergavenny in 1404. According to popular legend, his raiders gained access to the walled town with the aid of a local woman who sympathised with the rebellion, letting a small party in via the Market Street gate at midnight.
They were able to open the gate and allow a much larger party who set fire to the town and plundered its churches and homes leaving Abergavenny Castle intact. Market Street has been referred to as "Traitors' Lane" thereafter. In 1404 Abergavenny was declared its own nation by Ieuan ab Owain Glyndŵr, illegitimate son of Owain Glyndŵr; the arrangement lasted two weeks. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1541, the priory's endowment went towards the foundation of a free grammar school, King Henry VIII Grammar School, the site itself passing to the Gunter family. During the Civil War, prior to the siege of Raglan Castle in 1645, King Charles I visited Abergavenny and presided in person over the trial of Sir Trefor Williams, 1st Baronet of Llangibby, a Royalist who changed sides, other Parliamentarians. In 1639, Abergavenny received a charter of incorporation under the title of bailiff and burgesses. A charter with extended privileges was drafted in 1657, but appears never to have been enrolled or to have come into effect.
Owing to the refusal of the chief officers of the corporation to take the oath of allegiance to William III in 1688, the charter was annulled, the town subsequently declined in prosperity. Chapter 28 of the 1535 Act of Henry VIII, which provided that Monmouth, as county town, should return one burgess to Parliament, further stated that other ancient Monmouthshire boroughs were to contribute towards the payment of the member. In consequence of this clause Abergavenny on various occasions shared in the election, the last instance being in 1685; the right to hold two weekly markets and three yearly fairs, beginning in the 13th century, was held since as confirmed in 1657. Abergavenny was celebrated for the production of Welsh flannel, for the manufacture, whilst the fashion prevailed, of goats' hair periwigs. Abergavenny railway station opened on 2 January 1854 as part of the Newport and Hereford Railway; the London North Western Railway sponsored the construction of the railway linking Newport station to Hereford station.
The line was taken over b
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd known as Llywelyn the Last or Llywelyn Yr Ail, was Prince of Wales from 1258 until his death at Cilmeri in 1282. The son of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn Fawr and grandson of Llywelyn the Great, he was the last sovereign prince of Wales before its conquest by Edward I of England. Llywelyn was the second of the four sons of Gruffudd, the eldest son of Llywelyn the Great, Senana ferch Caradog, the daughter of Caradoc ap Thomas ap Rhodri, Lord of Anglesey; the eldest was Owain Goch ap Gruffudd and Llywelyn had two younger brothers, Dafydd ap Gruffudd and Rhodri ap Gruffudd. Llywelyn is thought to have been born around 1222 or 1223, he is first heard of holding lands in the Vale of Clwyd around 1244. Following his grandfather's death in 1240, Llywelyn's uncle, Dafydd ap Llywelyn, succeeded him as ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn's father and his brother, were kept prisoner by Dafydd transferred into the custody of King Henry III of England. Gruffudd died in 1244, from a fall while trying to escape from his cell at the top of the Tower of London.
The window from which he attempted to escape the Tower was bricked up and can still be seen to this day. This freed Dafydd ap Llywelyn's hand as King Henry could no longer use Gruffudd against him, war broke out between him and King Henry in 1245. Llywelyn supported his uncle in the savage fighting. Owain, was freed by Henry after his father's death in the hope that he would start a civil war in Gwynedd, but stayed in Chester, so when Dafydd died in February 1246 without leaving an heir, Llywelyn had the advantage of being on the spot. Llywelyn and Owain came to terms with King Henry and in 1247, signed the Treaty of Woodstock at Woodstock Palace; the terms they were forced to accept restricted them to Gwynedd Uwch Conwy, the part of Gwynedd west of the River Conwy, divided between them. Gwynedd Is Conwy, east of the river, was taken over by King Henry; when Dafydd ap Gruffudd came of age, King Henry accepted his homage and announced his intention to give him part of the reduced Gwynedd. Llywelyn refused to accept this, Owain and Dafydd formed an alliance against him.
This led to the Battle of Bryn Derwin in June 1255. Llywelyn defeated Owain and Dafydd and captured them, thereby becoming sole ruler of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy. Llywelyn now looked to expand his area of control; the population of Gwynedd Is Conwy resented English rule. This area known as "Perfeddwlad" had been given by King Henry to his son Edward and during the summer of 1256, he visited the area, but failed to deal with grievances against the rule of his officers. An appeal was made to Llywelyn, that November, crossed the River Conwy with an army, accompanied by his brother, whom he had released from prison. By early December, Llywelyn controlled all of Gwynedd Is Conwy apart from the royal castles at Dyserth and Dnoredudd as a reward for his support and dispossessing his brother-in-law, Rhys Fychan, who supported the king. An English army led by Stephen Bauzan invaded to try to restore Rhys Fychan but was decisively defeated by Welsh forces at the Battle of Cadfan in June 1257, with Rhys having slipped away to make his peace with Llywelyn.
Rhys Fychan now accepted Llywelyn as overlord, but this caused problems for Llywelyn, as Rhys's lands had been given to Maredudd. Llywelyn restored his lands to Rhys, but the king's envoys approached Maredudd and offered him Rhys's lands if he would change sides. Maredudd paid homage to Henry in late 1257. By early 1258, Llywelyn was using the title Prince of Wales, first used in an agreement between Llywelyn and his supporters and the Scottish nobility associated with the Comyn family; the English Crown refused to recognise this title however, in 1263, Llywelyn's brother, went over to King Henry. On 12 December 1263 in the commote of Ystumanner, Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn did homage and swore fealty to Llywelyn. In return he was made a vassal lord and the lands taken from him by Llywelyn about six years earlier were restored to him. In England, Simon de Montfort defeated the king's supporters at the Battle of Lewes in 1264, capturing the king and Prince Edward. Llywelyn began negotiations with de Montfort, in 1265, offered him 30,000 marks in exchange for a permanent peace, in which Llywelyn's right to rule Wales would be acknowledged.
The Treaty of Pipton, 22 June 1265, established an alliance between Llywelyn and de Montfort, but the favourable terms given to Llywelyn in this treaty were an indication of de Montfort's weakening position. De Montfort was to die at the Battle of Evesham in a battle in which Llywelyn took no part. After Simon de Montfort's death, Llywelyn launched a campaign in order to gain a bargaining position before King Henry had recovered. In 1265, Llywelyn captured Hawarden Castle and routed the combined armies of Hamo Lestrange and Maurice fitz Gerald in north Wales. Llywelyn moved on to Brycheiniog, in 1266, he routed Roger Mortimer's army. With these victories and the backing of the papal legate, Llywelyn opened negotiations with the king, was recognised as Prince of Wales by King Henry in the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267. In return for the title, the retention of the lands he had conquered and the homage of all the native rulers of Wales, he was to pay a tribute of 25,000 marks in yearly instalments of 3,000 marks, could if he wished, purchase the homage of the one outstandin