Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived; some ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but, according to the Suda, it was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete and there are fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together because his popularity grew as theirs declined—he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer and Menander. Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances; this new approach led him to pioneer developments that writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he became "the most tragic of poets", focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way unknown.
He was "the creator of...that cage, the theatre of Shakespeare's Othello, Racine's Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg," in which "...imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates", yet he was the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw. Unique among writers of Ancient Athens, Euripides demonstrated sympathy towards the underrepresented members of society, his male contemporaries were shocked by the'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were offered to other artists.
Traditional accounts of the author's life are found in many commentaries and include details such as these: He was born on Salamis Island around 480 BC, with parents Cleito and Mnesarchus, a retailer who lived in a village near Athens. Upon the receipt of an oracle saying that his son was fated to win "crowns of victory", Mnesarchus insisted that the boy should train for a career in athletics. In fact the boy was destined for a career on the stage, where however he was to win only five victories, one of, after his death, he served for a short time as both torch-bearer at the rites of Apollo Zosterius. His education was not confined to athletics: he studied painting and philosophy under the masters Prodicus and Anaxagoras, he had two disastrous marriages and both his wives—Melite and Choerine —were unfaithful. He became a recluse. "There he built an impressive library and pursued daily communion with the sea and sky". He retired to the "rustic court" of King Archelaus in Macedonia, where he died in 406 BC.
However, as mentioned in the introduction, biographical details such as these should be regarded with scepticism. They are derived entirely from three unreliable sources: folklore, employed by the ancients to lend colour to the lives of celebrated authors; this biography is divided into three sections corresponding to the three kinds of sources. Euripides was the youngest in a set of three great tragedians who were contemporaries: his first play was staged thirteen years after Sophocles' debut and only three years after Aeschylus's masterpiece, the Oresteia; the identity of the threesome is neatly underscored by a patriotic account of their roles during Greece's great victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis—Aeschylus fought there, Sophocles was just old enough to celebrate the victory in a boys' chorus and Euripides was born on the day of the battle. The apocryphal account that he composed his works in a cave on Salamis island was a late tradition and it symbolizes the isolation of an intellectual, rather ahead of his time.
Much of his life and his whole career coincided with the struggle between Athens and Sparta for hegemony in Greece but he didn't live to see the final defeat of his city. It is said that he died in Macedonia after being attacked by the Molossian hounds of King Archelaus and that his cenotaph near Piraeus was struck by lightning—signs of his unique powers, whether for good or ill. In an account by Plutarch, the catastrophic failure of the Sicilian expedition led Athenians to trade renditions of Euripides' lyrics to their enemies in return for food and drink. Plutarch is the source for the story that the victorious Spartan generals, having planned the demolition of Athens and the enslavement of its people, grew merciful after being entertained at a banquet by lyrics from Euripides' play Electra: "they felt that it would be a barbarous act to annihilate a ci
The name Lycomedes may refer to several characters in Greek mythology, of whom the most prominent was the king of Scyros during the Trojan War. Lycomedes was a king of the Dolopians in the island of Scyros near Euboea, father of a number of daughters including Deidameia, grandfather of Pyrrhus or Neoptolemus. At the request of Thetis, Lycomedes concealed Achilles in female disguise among his own daughters. At Lycomedes' court Achilles had an affair with Deidamia, which resulted in the birth of Neoptolemus; as Odysseus drew Achilles out of his disguise and took him to Troy, Neoptolemus stayed with his grandfather until he too was summoned during the stages of the war. Plutarch says that Lycomedes killed Theseus who had fled to his island in exile by pushing him off a cliff for he feared that Theseus would dethrone him, as people of the island treated the guest with marked honor; some related that the cause of this violence was that Lycomedes would not give up the estates which Theseus had in Scyros, or the circumstance that Lycomedes wanted to gain the favour of Menestheus.
The asteroid 9694 Lycomedes is named for him - being a Jupiter Trojan, a group of asteroids which are by convention named for characters associated with the Trojan War. Lycomedes, a son of Creon, one of the Greek warriors at Troy. Lycomedes, son of Apollo and Parthenope. Lycomedes, a Cretan suitor of Helen
Thrace is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria and Turkey, bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east. It comprises northeastern Greece and the European part of Turkey; the word Thrace was established by the Greeks for referring to the Thracian tribes, from ancient Greek Thrake, descending from Thrāix. It referred to the Thracians, an ancient Indo-European people inhabiting Southeast Europe; the name Europe first referred to Thrace proper, prior to the term vastly extending to refer to its modern concept. The region could have been named after the principal river there, Hebros from the Indo-European arg "white river", According to an alternative theory, Hebros means "goat" in Thracian. In Turkey, it is referred to as Rumeli, Land of the Romans, owing to this region being the last part of the Eastern Roman Empire, conquered by the Ottoman Empire. In terms of ancient Greek mythology the name appears to derive from the heroine and sorceress Thrace, the daughter of Oceanus and Parthenope, sister of Europa.
The historical boundaries of Thrace have varied. The ancient Greeks employed the term "Thrace" to refer to all of the territory which lay north of Thessaly inhabited by the Thracians, a region which "had no definite boundaries" and to which other regions were added. In one ancient Greek source, the Earth is divided into "Asia, Libya and Thracia"; as the Greeks gained knowledge of world geography, "Thrace" came to designate the area bordered by the Danube on the north, by the Euxine Sea on the east, by northern Macedonia in the south and by Illyria to the west. This coincided with the Thracian Odrysian kingdom, whose borders varied over time. After the Macedonian conquest, this region's former border with Macedonia was shifted from the Struma River to the Mesta River; this usage lasted until the Roman conquest. Henceforth, Thrace referred only to the tract of land covering the same extent of space as the modern geographical region. In its early period, the Roman province of Thrace was of this extent, but after the administrative reforms of the late 3rd century, Thracia's much reduced territory became the six small provinces which constituted the Diocese of Thrace.
The medieval Byzantine theme of Thrace contained only. The largest cities of Thrace are: Plovdiv, Stara Zagora, Haskovo, Komotini, Xanthi, Istanbul, Çorlu, Kırklareli and Tekirdağ. Most of the Bulgarian and Greek population are Orthodox Christians, while most of the Turkish inhabitants of Thrace are Sunni Muslims. Ancient Greek mythology provides the Thracians with a mythical ancestor Thrax, the son of the war-god Ares, said to reside in Thrace; the Thracians appear in Homer's Iliad as Trojan allies, led by Peiros. In the Iliad, another Thracian king, makes an appearance. Cisseus, father-in-law to the Trojan elder Antenor, is given as a Thracian king. Homeric Thrace was vaguely defined, stretched from the River Axios in the west to the Hellespont and Black Sea in the east; the Catalogue of Ships mentions three separate contingents from Thrace: Thracians led by Acamas and Peiros, from Aenus. Ancient Thrace was home to numerous other tribes, such as the Edones, Bisaltae and Bistones in addition to the tribe that Homer calls the “Thracians”.
Greek mythology is replete with Thracian kings, including Diomedes, Lycurgus, Tegyrius, Polymnestor and Oeagrus. Thrace is mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the episode of Philomela and Tereus: Tereus, the King of Thrace, lusts after his sister-in-law, Philomela, he kidnaps her, holds her captive, rapes her, cuts out her tongue. Philomela manages to get free, however, she and her sister, plot to get revenge, by killing her son Itys and serving him to his father for dinner. At the end of the myth, all three turn into birds – Procne into a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale, Tereus into a hoopoe; the indigenous population of Thrace was a people called the Thracians, divided into numerous tribal groups. The region was controlled by the Persian Empire at its greatest extent, Thracian soldiers were known to be used in the Persian armies. On, Thracian troops were known to accompany neighboring ruler Alexander the Great when he crossed the Hellespont which abuts Thrace, during the invasion of the Persian Empire itself.
The Thracians did not describe themselves by name. Divided into separate tribes, the Thracians did not form any lasting political organizations until the founding of the Odrysian state in the 4th century BC. Like Illyrians, the locally ruled Thracian tribes of the mountainous regions maintained a warrior tradition, while the tribes based in the plains were purportedly more peaceable. Discovered funeral mounds in Bulgaria suggest that Thracian kings did rule regions of Thrace with distinct Thracian national identity. During this period, a subculture of celibate ascetics called the Ctistae lived in Thrace, where they served as philosophers and prophets. Sections of Thrace in the south star
Idomeneus of Crete
In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms. In Homer's Iliad, Idomeneus is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors, he was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, fought Hector and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well, he was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed at least three Amazon women, including Bremusa, at Troy. A tradition, preserved by the mythographer Apollodorus of Athens, continues the story as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm, he promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
The first living thing was his son. The gods sent a plague to Crete; the Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria and Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento, see Grecìa Salentina. Alternatively, Idomeneus was driven out of Crete by Leucus, his foster son, who had seduced and killed Idomeneus' wife Meda and usurped the throne of Crete; the tale is covered by the fourth-century Italian writer Maurus Servius Honoratus, the French 17th century writer François Fénelon. According to the hypothetical reading of Achterberg et al. Idomeneus may be mentioned on the Phaistos Disk as the governor of Mesara. Idomeneo, a 1781 opera seria by Mozart, is based on the story of Idomeneus's return to Crete. In this version, Poseidon spares Idomeneo's son Idamante, on condition that Idomeneo relinquish his throne to the new generation. Achterberg, Winfried.
Media related to Idomeneus at Wikimedia Commons
In Greek mythology and Roman mythology, Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War. He acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defence of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters", offers Hyginus. In Greek, Héktōr is a derivative of the verb ἔχειν, ékhein, archaic form *ἕχειν, hékhein, from Proto-Indo-European *seĝh-. Héktōr, or Éktōr as found in Aeolic poetry, is an epithet of Zeus in his capacity as'he who holds'. Hector's name could thus be taken to mean'holding fast'; as the first-born son of King Priam and Queen Hecuba, a descendant of Dardanus and Tros, the founder of Troy, he was a prince of the royal house and the heir apparent to his father's throne. He was married with whom he had an infant son, Scamandrius. During the European Middle Ages, Hector figures as one of the Nine Worthies noted by Jacques de Longuyon, known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives.
James Redfield describes Hector as a "martyr to loyalties, a witness to the things of this world, a hero ready to die for the precious imperfections of ordinary life." According to the Iliad, Hector did not approve of war between the Greeks and the Trojans. For ten years, the Achaeans their allies in the east. Hector commanded the Trojan army, with a number of subordinates including Polydamas, his brothers Deiphobus and Paris. By all accounts, Hector was the best warrior the Trojans and their allies could field, his fighting prowess was admired by Greeks and his own people alike. Diomedes and Odysseus, when faced with his attack, described him as what Robert Fagles translated as an'incredible dynamite', a'maniac'. In the Iliad, Hector's exploits in the war prior to the events of the book are recapitulated, he had fought the Greek champion Protesilaus in single combat at the start of the war and killed him. A prophecy had stated. Thus, Protesilaus and Odysseus would not land. Odysseus threw his shield out and landed on that, Protesilaus jumped next from his own ship.
In the ensuing fight, Hector killed him. As described by Homer in the Iliad at the advice of Hector’s brother Helenus and being told by him that he is not destined to die yet, Hector managed to get both armies seated and challenges any one of the Greek warriors to single combat; the Argives were reluctant to accept the challenge. However, after Nestor's chiding, nine Greek heroes stepped up to the challenge and drew by lot to see, to face Hector. Ajax fights Hector to a stalemate for the entire day. With neither able to achieve victory as the day was about to end, they express admiration for each other's courage and strength. Hector gave Ajax his sword, which Ajax uses to kill himself. Ajax gave Hector his girdle that Achilles will attach to his chariot to drag Hector's corpse around the walls of Troy; the Greeks and the Trojans make a truce to bury the dead. In the early dawn the next day the Greeks take advantage of it to build a wall and ditch around the ships. Zeus is watching in the distance.
Another mention of Hector's exploits in the early years of war was given in the Iliad in book IX. During the embassy to Achilles, Odysseus and Ajax all try to persuade Achilles to rejoin the fight. In his response, Achilles points out that while Hector was terrorizing the Greek forces now, that while he himself had fought in their front lines, Hector had'no wish' to take his force far beyond the walls and out from the Skiaian Gate and nearby oak tree, he claims,'There he stood up to me alone one day, he escaped my onslaught.' Another duel that took place, although Hector received help from Aeneas and Deiphobus, was when Hector rushed to try to save his brother Troilus from Achilles' hands. But he came too late and Troilus had perished. All Hector could do was to take the lifeless body of Troilus while Achilles escaped after he fought his way through from the Trojans reinforcement. In the tenth year of the war, observing Paris avoiding combat with Menelaus, Hector upbraids him with having brought trouble on his whole country and now refusing to fight.
Paris therefore proposes single combat between himself and Menelaus, with Helen to go to the victor, ending the war. The duel, leads to inconclusive results due to intervention by Aphrodite who leads Paris off the field. After Pandarus wounds Menelaus with an arrow the fight begins again; the Greeks drive the Trojans back. Hector must now go out to lead a counter-attack. According to Homer his wife Andromache, carrying in her arms her son Astyanax, intercepts Hector at the gate, pleading with him not to go out for her sake as well as his son's. Hector knows that Troy and the house of Priam are doomed to fall and that the gloomy fate of his wife and infant son will be to die or go into slavery in a foreign land. With understanding and tenderness he explains that he cannot refuse to fight, comforts her with the idea that no one can take him until it is his time to go; the gleaming bronze helmet makes him cry. Hector takes it off, embraces his wife and son, for his sake prays aloud to Zeus that his son might be chief after him, become more glorious in battle than he, to bring home the blood of his enemies, make his mother proud.
Once he left for battle, those in the house began to mourn. H
In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. He joined the Greeks in the expedition against Troy. Pausanias in his Description of Greece says that in Corinth is a Temple of Fortune in which Palamedes dedicated the dice that he had invented. After Paris took Helen to Troy, Agamemnon sent Palamedes to Ithaca to retrieve Odysseus, who had promised to defend the marriage of Helen and Menelaus. Odysseus did not want to honor his oath, so he pretended to be insane and plowed his fields with salt. Palamedes put Odysseus' son, Telemachus, in front of the plow. Odysseus revealed his sanity; the ancient sources show differences in regards to the details of. Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for ruining his attempt to stay out of the Trojan War; when Palamedes advised the Greeks to return home, Odysseus hid gold in his tent and wrote a fake letter purportedly from Priam. The letter was found and the Greeks accused him of being a traitor. Palamedes was stoned to death by Diomedes. According to other accounts the two warriors drowned him during a fishing expedition.
Still another version relates that he was lured into a well in search of treasure, was crushed by stones. Although he is a major character in some accounts of the Trojan War, Palamedes is not mentioned in Homer's Iliad. Ovid discusses Palamedes' role in the Trojan War in the Metamorphoses. Palamedes' fate is described in Virgil's Aeneid. In the Apology, Plato describes Socrates as looking forward to speaking with Palamedes after death, intimates in the Phaedrus that Palamedes authored a work on rhetoric. Euripides and many other dramatists have written dramas about his fate. Hyginus revives an old account that Palamedes created eleven letters of the Greek alphabet: The three Fates created the first five vowels of the alphabet and the letters B and T, it is said that son of Nauplius invented the remaining eleven consonants. Hermes reduced these sounds to characters, showing wedge shapes because cranes fly in wedge formation and carried the system from Greece to Egypt*; this was the Pelasgian alphabet, which Cadmus had brought to Boeotia Evander of Arcadia, a Pelasgian, introduced into Italy, where his mother, formed the familiar fifteen characters of the Latin alphabet.
Other consonants have since been added to the Greek alphabet. Alpha was the first of eighteen letters, because alphe means honor, alphainein is to invent. In one modern account, The Luck of Troy by Roger Lancelyn Green, Palamedes was double-dealing with the Trojans. Defense of Palamedes is a text by Gorgias, describing the defense speech that Palamedes gave when charged with treason; the major Dutch playwright Joost van den Vondel wrote in 1625 the play "Palamedes", based on the above Greek myth. The play had a clear topical political connotation, the unjust killing of Palamedes standing for the execution of the statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt six years earlier - which Vondel, like others in the Dutch Republic, considered a judicial murder. In Vondel's version, responsibility for the killing of Palamedes is attributed to to Agamemnon. Authorities in Amsterdam found no difficulty in deciphering the political meanings behind Vondel's Classical allusions, imposed a heavy fine on the playwright.
D. R. Reinsch, "Die Palamedes-Episode in der Synopsis Chronike des Konstantinos Manasses und ihre Inspirationsquelle," in Byzantinische Sprachkunst. Studien zur byzantinischen Literatur gewidmet Wolfram Hoerandner zum 65. Geburtstag. Hg. v. Martin Hinterberger und Elisabeth Schiffer. Berlin-New York, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, 266-276. Palamedes at Greek Mythology Link
In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. His mother was the immortal Nereid Thetis, his father, the mortal Peleus, was the king of the Myrmidons. Achilles' most notable feat during the Trojan War was the slaying of the Trojan hero Hector outside the gates of Troy. Although the death of Achilles is not presented in the Iliad, other sources concur that he was killed near the end of the Trojan War by Paris, who shot him in the heel with an arrow. Legends state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel because, when his mother Thetis dipped him in the river Styx as an infant, she held him by one of his heels. Alluding to these legends, the term "Achilles' heel" has come to mean a point of weakness in someone or something with an otherwise strong constitution; the Achilles tendon is named after him due to these legends. Linear B tablets attest to the personal name Achilleus in the forms a-ki-re-u and a-ki-re-we, the latter being the dative of the former.
The name grew more popular becoming common soon after the seventh century BC and was turned into the female form Ἀχιλλεία, attested in Attica in the fourth century BC and, in the form Achillia, on a stele in Halicarnassus as the name of a female gladiator fighting an "Amazon". Achilles' name can be analyzed as a combination of ἄχος "distress, sorrow, grief" and λαός "people, nation", resulting in a proto-form *Akhí-lāu̯os "he who has the people distressed" or "he whose people have distress"; the grief or distress of the people is a theme raised numerous times in the Iliad. Achilles' role as the hero of grief or distress forms an ironic juxtaposition with the conventional view of him as the hero of κλέος kléos. Furthermore, laós has been construed by Gregory Nagy, following Leonard Palmer, to mean "a corps of soldiers", a muster. With this derivation, the name obtains a double meaning in the poem: when the hero is functioning rightly, his men bring distress to the enemy, but when wrongly, his men get the grief of war.
The poem is in part about the misdirection of anger on the part of leadership. Another etymology relates the name to a Proto-Indo-European compound *h₂eḱ-pṓds "sharp foot" which first gave an Illyrian *āk̂pediós, evolving through time into *ākhpdeós and *akhiddeús; the shift from -dd- to -ll- is ascribed to the passing of the name into Greek via a Pre-Greek source. The first root part *h₂eḱ- "sharp, pointed" gave Greek ἀκή, ἀκμή and ὀξύς, whereas ἄχος stems from the root *h₂egʰ- "to be upset, afraid"; the whole expression would be comparable to the Latin acupedius "swift of foot". Compare the Latin word family of aciēs "sharp edge or point, battle line, engagement", acus "needle, bodkin", acuō "to make pointed, whet; some topical epitheta of Achilles in the Iliad point to this "swift-footedness", namely ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεὺς or more πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς. Some researchers deem the name a loan word from a Pre-Greek language. Achilles' descent from the Nereid Thetis and a similarity of his name with those of river deities such as Acheron and Achelous have led to speculations about him being an old water divinity.
Robert S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name, based among other things on the coexistence of -λλ- and -λ- in epic language, which may account for a palatalized phoneme /ly/ in the original language. Achilles was the son of the Nereid Thetis and of Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. Zeus and Poseidon had been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus, the fore-thinker, warned Zeus of a prophecy that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father. For this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, had her wed Peleus. There is a tale which offers an alternative version of these events: In the Argonautica Zeus' sister and wife Hera alludes to Thetis' chaste resistance to the advances of Zeus, pointing out that Thetis was so loyal to Hera's marriage bond that she coolly rejected the father of gods. Thetis, although a daughter of the sea-god Nereus, was brought up by Hera, further explaining her resistance to the advances of Zeus. Zeus was furious and decreed. According to the Achilleid, written by Statius in the 1st century AD, to non-surviving previous sources, when Achilles was born Thetis tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx.
However, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body by: his left heel. It is not clear. In another version of this story, Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosia and put him on top of a fire in order to burn away the mortal parts of his body, she was abandoned both father and son in a rage. However, none of the sources before Statius make any reference to this general invulnerability. To the contrary, in the Iliad Homer mentions Achilles being wounded: in Book 21 the Paeonian hero Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon, challenged Achilles by the river Scamander, he cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles' elbow, "drawing a spurt of blood". In the fragmentary poems of the Epic Cycle