Feria de Agosto
The Feria de Agosto or Feria de Málaga takes place every August in the city of Málaga, Spain. Commemorates the taking of the city by the Catholic Monarchs 18 August 1487, at which time Málaga was incorporated into the Crown of Castile; the Catholic Monarchs gave the city the religious statue of the Virgen de la Victoria. The formed city government began a tradition of commemorating the taking of the city; the first such celebration took place in the form of a procession on the Feast Day of the Assumption, 15 August 1491. The following year the celebration was shifted to the feast day of Saint Louis; that year there was a bullfight with four bulls. The celebration continued on an annual basis. In the 17th century and rockets became part of the celebration; the procession carried the royal standard from the conquest of Málaga, proceeded from the Cathedral to the Church of Saint James Apostle where a mass was celebrated. The festivities went into decline, the celebration of the Feast of Saint Louis became little more than a mass and sermon.
Coinciding with the liturgical celebrations of the chapter of the cathedral, the municipal government of Málaga established the popular festivities now celebrated on 15 August. In 1887, to commemorate the fourth centenary of the conquest, the festival was returned to the traditional date for the taking of Málaga by the Catholic Monarchs, with a procession of the Virgen de la Victoria, a procession simulating the entry of the Catholic Monarchs and their army, expositions of plants and flowers, concerts, etc; the Fair has had various locations in the course of its history since 1887. It was located along the water at the Muelle de Heredia in the nearby Parque de Málaga, the grounds of the Theatines, before settling in the Cortijo de Torres district, site of the Palacio de Ferias y Congresos de Málaga. Nowadays, the fair begins just before midnight on a Friday and runs ten nights and nine days, ending on a Sunday night; the fair today has two entertainment zones. The main one is the Real de la Feria in the Cortijo de Torres district, active in the evening for the "Feria de la noche".
Separately, in the historic center of the city, is the "Feria de día" During the Fair, the streets of the city center are adorned with paper lanterns and floral displays. Booths are set up, there are performances for children and adults and dance, decked out horses and carriages attempting to make their way through it all; the sounds of flamenco and copla are along with less traditional music. There is bullfighting each afternoon at La Malagueta, after sunset the fair continues at the Real; the city's public transit network is reorganized during the fair, including the addition of several special buses to the fair districts from various parts of town. Article about the Málaga Fair and useful information about the Costa del Sol
Jacarilla is a municipality and village in the province of Alicante and autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 12.2 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 2,102 people. The Palace is a place of significant historical interest in the village; the magnificent country palace was owned by the Marques de Fontabla about 90 years ago. However he died in his daughter married and moved away; the Fontabla family were noble land owners. In 1947 they sold it to the workers, bringing prosperity to the village; the main source of income has always been agriculture citrus fruits and lemons
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Elche, or Elx, is a town located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, Spain. According to the 2014 census, Elche has a population of 228,647 inhabitants, ranking as the third most populated city in the Valencian Community and the 20th largest Spanish city. Part of the municipality is coastal but the main city is some 11 km from the Mediterranean Sea. A small creek called Vinalopó flows through the city splitting it in two parts. Elche is so close to the city of Alicante, that both cities form a de facto conurbation of some 800,000 inhabitants that can well double during the summer peak-season. La Alcudia is 10 km from the current city's location and the immediate predecessor of current day Elche; this original location was settled by the Greeks and occupied by Carthaginians and Romans. Greeks Ionian colonists from the Achaean city Helike established their new colony, naming it Helíkē around 600 BC, it was a point of resistance against Carthaginian advance in Spain between the First and Second Punic Wars.
The Romans granted it the status of colonia. Elche lost importance during the period of Moorish occupation, when it was moved north to its present location. James II of Aragon took the city from the Moors during the Reconquista; the city grew throughout the 18th century and became more important during the 19th century with the arrival of the railway and a booming industrial development of what used to be the traditional footwear industry. Many archaeological remains have been found in Elche, with the stone bust of the Lady of Elche being the most important; this may date from the Iberian period. The original is in the National Archaeological Museum of Spain; the economy of Elche is based, in large part, on the footwear industry, with over 1,000 shoe factories, being one of the most important footwear centres in Spain and the rest of Europe with brands like Pura Lopez or Panama Jack. There are other economic activities in Elche: agriculture, although it has lost importance in recent years. Elche has a conference centre, an international airport a public University, Universidad Miguel Hernández, a private University, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera.
Elche has a hot subtropical semi-arid climate. Palmeral of Elche, it is an orchard of over 200,000 palm trees, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. Altamira Castle known as Alcázar de la Señoría, located next to the Municipal Park It was built in Almohad times, was renovated with brick exterior in the 15th century. A former fortress, in 1913 it became a fabric plant, it has been used as the town hall and as a prison during the Spanish Civil War, while today is home to the Elche Archaeology and History Museum Baños Arabes, which re-uses old Roman baths. Basilica of Santa Maria Calahorra Tower, of rectangular plan and Rabic origin, it represent the last relic of the old city walls. Municipio Convento de la Merced Huerto del Cura Elche Palaeontological Museum Elche Municipal Festa Museum Palm Groves MuseumThe Mystery Play of Elx is a sacral-lyrical medieval drama, dated from the 15th century, declared a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2002, it is played every year in mid August, in the context of the local holidays dedicated to the Assumption of Virgin Mary.
As a part of this celebration, on the 13th of August is the date of a celebration in Elche called Nit de l'Albà in which a citywide night-long show of fireworks takes place. Saúl Ñíguez Aarón Ñíguez Silvia Soler Espinosa Francisco Mojica, a microbiologist noted for his research on the CRISPR gene editing technique Oran, since 1939 Toulouse, since 1981 Jaca, since 1983 Subotica, since 2004 Kasukabe, since 2010 Kanpur, since 2014 Elche CF Medieval Festival of Elx Route of the Castles of Vinalopó Tour virtual 360° por la ciudad de Elche Economical and social information about the city 2007 Ajuntament d'Elx, Town Hall of Elche Instituto Valenciano de Estadística City official statistics. Turisme d'Elx, City council official Tourist guide Elche, City overview from a local citizen Cultura d'Elx, City council Cultural events website FuturElx, City council strategical development guidelines The first Elche Home Page Miguel Hernandez University of Elche BBC Radio 3 programme on Mystery Play - available to listen online 14-21 October 2006 Festival of street arts Elx al Carrer Museums of Elche
Province of Alicante
Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community. The second and third biggest cities in the Valencian Community are located in this province. Alicante is bordered by the provinces of Murcia on the southwest, Albacete on the west, Valencia on the north, the Mediterranean Sea on the east; the province is named after the city of Alicante. According to the 2018 population data, Alicante ranks as the 4th most populous province in Spain, with 1,838,819 inhabitants. Cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in the province are Alicante, Torrevieja, Benidorm, Alcoy and San Vicente del Raspeig; the province has the largest ratio of foreigner population among all Spanish provinces. The total of 446,368 foreigners are registered in the province, which represents 23.6 percent of the total population. Out of 141 municipalities that make up the province, foreign population is above 25% in 54 municipalities, above 50% in 19 municipalities; the latter include San Fulgencio, Benitatxell, Algorfa, Llíber, Daya Vieja.
From the 50 provinces of Spain, Alicante is the only one with three metropolitan areas—Alicante–Elche, Elda–Petrer and Benidorm—even though only one of them is ranked within the Spanish top ten metropolitan areas. It has an area of 5.816,5 km², so it has a population density of 313.8 hab/km². The province is mountainous in the north and west, whereas it is flat to the south, in the Vega Baja del Segura area. All of these peaks are a part of the Subbaetic Range; the coast extends from the cape, Cap de la Nau, in the north to reaching the Mar Menor in the south. With regard to water sources, due to the dry rain regime there are no major rivers, but ramblas, which fill in with water when torrential rains occur; the only remarkable streams are the Vinalopó, the river Segura. Other minor seasonal creeks are Girona, Algar and Ebo. There are saline wetlands and marshlands along the coast such El Fondo and the former wetlands and now salt evaporation ponds in Santa Pola and Torrevieja. All of them are key Ramsar Sites which make the Alicante province of high relevance for both migratory and resident seabirds and waterbirds.
Important coastal dunes are present in the Guardamar area which were planted with thousands of pine trees during the 19th century in order to protect the ville from the dunes advancing, which has created now an area of remarkable ecologic value. The climate is strikingly diverse for such a reduced area. Three major areas can be cited, it goes along the coastal plain from La Vila Joiosa through the southernmost border. Summers are long, hot to hot and dry, winters are cool to mild and its most prominent feature is scarce precipitation below 300mm. Per year and most to happen during spring and autumn; the reasons for this lack of precipitation is the marked rain shadow effect caused by hills to the west of the Alicante province. Most of its few rainy days happen during Spring; the predominant vegetation in this part of the province is Matorral Scrublands including thyme, esparto and the like. Proper Mediterranean climate is present in the northeastern areas around Cap de la Nau to its North but to its South, in diminishing grades until disappearing north of Benidorm.
It goes along the coastal plain from the northern border of the province through the Benidorm area. The north slopes of the mountains in the Marina Alta have a remarkably wetter microclimate with an average of up to 900mm of precipitation due to orographic lift, with most of the precipitation occurring in Autumn and Spring; the precipitation in this area is an average four times the one of the semiarid South, with this big precipitation gap occurring in a matter of just 100 km. The vegetation of this part is an enriched version of the Matorral shrubland and Mediterranean pine woods; the Alicante province has a dry Mediterranean to Continental Mediterranean climate. These are the innermost part of some closer to the sea but at a higher elevation. Here winters are cool to cold and a few days of snow are not unusual; the innermost part of this domain is more quite dry while the mountainous part reach higher precipitation figures which allow Kermes Oak woods to thrive, such as the one in La Carrasqueta or in the Mariola range, both near Alcoy.
The Iberians were the oldest documented people living in. Belonging to these there are several archaeologi
Alicante–Elche Airport named El Altet, is —as of 2017— the fifth-busiest airport in Spain based on passenger numbers, the main airport serving the Valencian Community and the Region of Murcia. The airport is located in the municipality of Elche, about 10 kilometres east of this city and about 9 km southwest of Alicante, its influence area spans other cities in the Valencia province—the city of Valencia is located about 160 km north of the airport—and in the Region of Murcia. The airport is located about 70 km north of Murcia; the airport is a base for Air Nostrum, Evelop Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Vueling. Passenger traffic has increased in the last decade, beating its own yearly record since 2013 to date. In 2016 it set its new record with 12,350,000 passengers,, it is one of the 50 busiest in Europe. Up to 80% of all passenger flights are international; the largest numbers of passengers arrive from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. Popular domestic destinations are Barcelona.
El Altet airport opened on 4 May 1967, replacing the older aerodrome La Rabassa that had served Alicante since 1936. It took its name after the El Altet area; the first commercial flight that landed in the airport was Convair Metropolitan by Aviaco. Iberia established a regular connections Alicante–Madrid and Alicante–Barcelona in November 1969. In early 1970s passengers' traffic reached 1 million, which prompted a construction of a new passenger terminal. In 1980 the runway was extended to three kilometres; the next renovation took place during the 1990s. A new office building together with operation and business centres were constructed. For the first time, five air bridges were installed to facilitate boarding. In 2011, the new terminal was opened at the airport increasing the annual airport capacity to 20 million passengers per year. All flights depart from this new terminal. Terminals 1 and 2, which were in service before the opening of the new terminal, are closed. Works however will not be completed until 2014, as plans are to construct a connecting hallway between the new terminal and terminals 1 and 2 that will allow to exploit the passenger space of all terminals.
Up until 2003, Iberia was the leading airline at the airport. With the decline of conventional airlines, in 2004 low-cost EasyJet took the lead. In 2007, the largest European low-cost airline established a base in Alicante, it has become the leading carrier at the airport in 2009, by 2011 it has increased its presence further with eleven aircraft based, 62 routes, more than 3 million passengers. However, from the end of October 2011, Ryanair has cut 31 routes due to disagreement with AENA on the usage of air bridges at the new terminal; the airport is located within Elche's comarca and so there had been a historical petition from Elche to include the city's name in the official name of the airport. This was implemented in July 2013 when the name of the airport was changed from "Alicante Airport" to "Alicante–Elche Airport" with the IATA airport code remaining unchanged, ALC. In 2015, the number of passengers increased by 5,1% to 10,574,484; the passenger traffic has increased in every year since 2000, with the exception of 2009 and 2012.
By 2015 the largest number of passengers was carried followed by EasyJet and Vueling. Norwegian Air Shuttle is the "distant" four. On 23 July 2016 the airport registered its busiest day to date, handling 347 flights—with an average of one flight every 3 minutes—and about 58,000 passengers in a single day; the New Terminal is the only terminal in service. Terminals 1 and 2 have been closed since the opening of the new terminal; the new terminal was opened on 23 March 2011. All flight operations at the airport were moved to this terminal on the following day; the first flight that used the terminal was a Ryanair flight to Memmingen. The terminal has an area of 333,500 square metres, more than six times the size of terminals 1 and 2 together, it includes 96 check-in desks, 40 gates, including 15 with airbridges, 16 baggage reclaim carousels. The terminal is split into two areas, the processor where the C Gates are held, the dock where the majority of B Gates are located. Flights within the Schengen Area use both areas of the terminal while flights to non-Schengen destinations only use the dock.
This terminal was constructed to the east of Terminal 1. Terminal 1 had 38 check-in desks numbered 1–38, along with one for special baggage, desk number 39, it included 11 gates of which five have airbridges, which were the odd-numbered gates, nine baggage reclaim carousels. It was closed after the opening of the new terminal on 24 March 2011. There are plans to reopen Terminal 1 in the future, which would require the construction of a connecting walkway with the new terminal, as both terminals are unconnected. Terminal 2 had 14 check-in desks numbered 51–64, six gates, two baggage reclaim carousels; this terminal is adjacent to Terminal 1. The terminal was opened in January 2007. Prior to the opening of the new terminal whilst it was still active it was the smal
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".