The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
The topographic isolation of a summit is the minimum great-circle distance to a point of equal elevation, representing a radius of dominance in which the peak is the highest point. It can be calculated for small hills and islands as well as for major mountain peaks, can be calculated for submarine summits; the following sortable table lists the Earth's 40 most topographically isolated summits. The nearest peak to Germany's highest mountain, the 2,962-metre-high Zugspitze, that has a 2962-metre-contour is the Zwölferkogel in Austria's Stubai Alps; the distance between the Zugspitze and this contour is 25.8 km. Its isolation is thus 25.8 km. Because there are no higher mountains than Mount Everest, it has no definitive isolation. Many sources list its isolation as the circumference of the earth over the poles or – questionably, because there is no agreed definition – as half the earth's circumference. After Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the American continents, has the greatest isolation of all mountains.
There is no higher land for 16,534 kilometres when its height is first exceeded by Tirich Mir in the Hindu Kush. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain of the Alps; the geographically nearest higher mountains are all in the Caucasus. Kukurtlu, which rises near Mount Elbrus, is the reference peak for Mont Blanc. Musala is the highest peak in Rila mountain, in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,925 m it is the 4th most topographically isolated peak in Continental Europe.. Rila is the 6th highest mountain in Europe. With a topographic prominence of 2473 m, Musala is the 6th highest peak by topographic prominence in mainland Europe. Table of the most isolated major summits of North America Table of the most isolated major summits of the United States Most isolated mountain peaks of Canada Most isolated mountain peaks of Mexico geodesy physical geography summit topographic elevation topographic prominence topography bivouac.com Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia peakbagger.com peaklist.org peakware.com World Mountain Encyclopedia summitpost.org^ ^ "Europe Ultra-Prominences".
Peaklist. Retrieved 26 February 2015
Dolores County, Colorado
Dolores County is the seventh-least populous of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,064; the county seat is Dove Creek. It is thought that the area has been the site of human habitation since at least 2500 B. C. Dolores County's western portions were densely populated between 900 and 1300 AD. Population estimates of as many as 10,000 population, with villages of hundreds of rooms, have been made by archaeologists and other researchers, but this population was destroyed or migrated elsewhere following a drought and severe societal upheaval in the 14th century, for centuries thereafter, both the western and eastern mountainous areas of the county were occupied by nomads, including the Ute and the Navajo Indians. Like much of southwestern Colorado, Dolores County is rich in Indian sites of the Anasazi. According to the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores County contains at least 816 recorded archaeological sites as of 1989, with many more inventoried since that time.
The county contains a portion of a site of regional historic interest, the Dominguez-Escalante Trail of 1776. The trail marks a historic 1,800-mile trip, intended to discover an overland route between Santa Fe, New Mexico and Monterey, California; the Expedition camped on Dove Creek in the western portion of the county. The Old Spanish Trail passed through the western portion of the County. Anglo trappers worked the mountains of eastern Dolores County as early as 1832-33, gold was discovered in the County in 1866, but it was not until the area was taken from the Ute and removed from the Ute Reservation by the Brunot Agreement of 1878 that large-scale minerals exploration and mining began in the county, although the Pioneer Mining District was established in 1876 in the Rico area. The development of the area was spurred by the discovery of large silver deposits near Rico in 1879, the Rio Grande Southern Railroad was constructed through the County to connect Durango and Ridgway in 1890-92 The RGS served the eastern end of Dolores County until 1952 when it was abandoned.
Rico's high point was in 1892, when the mining district population was more than 5,000. The 1893 Silver Panic hit the town hard; the mountainous area of Dolores County went through a series of booms and busts through the 20th Century. The low point of the community came in 1974 with an estimated population of 45. Efforts are underway in the early 21st Century to again begin major mining activities in the region. Dove Creek was a way station on the Old Spanish Trail from the mid 19th century, for caravans and travelers moving between Santa Fe, Salt Lake City, northern California and Nevada; the western portion of the county was used, beginning in the 1870s, for cattle ranching, but the lush grass soon suffered from overgrazing and fire suppression, allowing the massive expansion of sagebrush and juniper. Homesteading in the area became common beginning in 1914, dryland farming expanded throughout the Great Sage Plain. Today dryland farming of pinto beans and winter wheat is still a mainstay of the county's economy.
But the development of irrigation using water from the Dolores Project in the 1980s, with the construction of McPhee Reservoir, has changed the history and population of the county. Dolores County was created by the Colorado legislature on February 19, 1881, from the western portions of Ouray County, was named for the Dolores River, which heads up in the county and passes through the county in the Dolores Canyon; the complete Spanish name was Rio de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores, as reported by Father Silvestre Vélez de Escalante in 1776. Set in Rico, the first county courthouse was a 23x48 foot two storage log cabin, but was replaced by a stone and brick courthouse completed in 1883; the county seat was moved to Dove Creek in 1946, the current courthouse built in 1957. In 2009, Dolores County achieved notoriety as the most economically depressed county in Colorado. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,068 square miles, of which 1,067 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water.
Dolores County, like other counties in Colorado along its border with Utah, is split into two geographically distinct regions, in fact, under normal travel conditions, it is necessary to leave the county to travel between the two regions. The western portion of the county is the northern portion of the Great Sage Plain low and flat, consists of irrigated and dryland farming areas; the central portion of the county has higher open grasslands with forested hills and canyons, used for livestock raising. The eastern portion of the county is located in the highest peaks of the San Juan Mountains, around the old mining and modern tourist town of Rico, except for cattle grazing in the San Juan National Forest, has no agriculture, in part because its elevations range from 9,000 to 14,000+. Rico is developing in many ways as a
Snowmass Mountain is a fourteen thousand foot tall mountain in the U. S. state of Colorado, is the thirty-fourth highest mountain peak in the state. Located in the Elk Mountains, within the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of the White River National Forest, it lies along the border between the Pitkin and Gunnison counties, west of Aspen and southwest of the town of Snowmass Village. Snowmass Mountain is named for the large snowfield. Snowmass Mountain should not be confused with the Snowmass ski area, located outside Snowmass Village. Hagerman Peak sits between Snowmass Mountain and Snowmass Peak and is often mistaken for Snowmass Mountain; the route most used to climb Snowmass Mountain is the Snowmass Creek approach. The route to the summit starts at Snowmass Lake, itself an 8.1-mile hike up Snowmass Creek from the parking area. Most people hike to the lake, camp the night and proceed to the top; this route is recommended in the spring and early summer when the snowfield still covers much of the route.
In the summer there is more travel on talus and more danger from rockfall. An alternative in snow-free conditions is to hike up to the saddle between the peak and Hagerman Peak. From that point there are climbers' trails which proceed on the opposite side of the ridge to the summit. A different and much less used route climbs the west side of Snowmass Mountain from Geneva Lake, accessed from the North Fork of the Crystal River. Snowmass Mountain Snowmass Peak List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Snowmass Mountain on 14ers.com "Snowmass Mountain". SummitPost.org. Photo Journal from a trip up Snowmass Mountain and on to Capitol Peak Aspen Ski & Snow Report
Mount Sopris is a twin-summit mountain in the northwestern Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 12,965-foot mountain is located in the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest, 6.6 miles north by northeast of the community of Redstone in Pitkin County, United States. Mount Sopris is located in western Pitkin County, south of Carbondale and southwest of the confluence of the Crystal and Roaring Fork rivers. Mount Sopris is notable for having two summits, East Sopris and West Sopris, that are one-half mile apart and have the same elevation of 12,965 feet, it is named for Richard Sopris, a former mayor of Denver and part of the first European expedition in the Roaring Fork Valley. In 2011 J. P. McDaniels petitioned to rename East Sopris "Mount John Denver" after the Colorado singer. A local poll in Aspen and Carbondale said. Mount Sopris is believed to have been formed by an igneous intrusion 10,000 feet below the earth's surface, geologically referred to as a pluton, that occurred around 30 million years ago, after the initial uplift of the modern Rocky Mountains.
Mount Sopris is not a volcano, but it is possible that an ancient volcano sat above it, with the current rock forming the magma chamber far below. Due to subsequent continued erosion, any evidence is now gone. In either case, the rock that makes up Sopris never reached the surface and crystallizing in situ, becoming exposed due to erosion. Nearby prominent peaks Mount Gunnison and Crested Butte are believed to have formed similarly. Mount Sopris dominates the skyline of Carbondale and the lower Roaring Fork Valley, serving as an unofficial symbol of the area, it is prominently visible from State Highway 82 in the vicinity of Carbondale. In terms of local relief, it is one of the largest peaks in the state of Colorado. For example, West Sopris rises 6,400 ft above the valley to the west in only 2.7 mi. In fact a vertical rise of over 6,000 feet in less than 3 miles is rare and impressive anywhere in the contiguous United States; the Mount Sopris Trail ascends to East Sopris via its east ridge. It starts near Dinkle Lake, on the northeast side of the mountain, passes between the two Thomas Lakes just before reaching timberline.
The ascent involves 12 mi of hiking. Mount Sopris Sopris Peak List of Colorado mountain ranges List of Colorado mountain summits List of Colorado fourteeners List of Colorado 4000 meter prominent summits List of the most prominent summits of Colorado List of Colorado county high points Live Mount Sopris webcam. Mount Sopris on Summitpost, an excellent article with many further links Rock Glacier on Mount Sopris at NASA Earth Observatory
Treasure Mountain (Colorado)
Treasure Mountain, elevation 13,535 ft, is a summit in the Elk Mountains of western Colorado. The mountain is in the Raggeds Wilderness southeast of Marble; the massif has been a legend of lost French gold. Treasure Mountain forms a single massif with Treasury Mountain, elevation 13,462 feet, that rises on the southeast. Another Treasure Mountain, el. 11,834 feet is located in Mineral County, Colorado. Other peaks in the vicinity include elevation 11,975 feet; the Ruby Range extends southward from Treasury Mountain forming the east boundary of the Raggeds Wilderness. The Yule Lakes are a series of lakes situated on the southern slopes which drain into Yule Creek and feeds Beaver Lake east of Marble; the watershed is part of Crystal River basin which drains the northern slopes of Treasure Mountain and is the northeastern boundary of Raggeds Wilderness. Yule Pass, south of Treasury Mountain separates the Raggeds Wilderness of the Sopris Ranger District from the Gunnison Ranger District and leads to the southeast along the Slate River drainage.
Yule Pass is to the east of the headwaters of Yule Creek. The Colorado Yule marble comes from the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age quarried near the mountain, it was formed by contact metamorphism in the Tertiary period following the intrusion and uplift of nearby granitic Treasure Mountain dome. Yule marble was used in the building of the Lincoln Memorial; the Yule marble quarry is at an elevation of 9,300 ft on the west side of Treasure Mountain along Yule Creek. The quality and durability of the Yule marble was questioned prior to the building of the Lincoln Memorial as was the opened quarry's ability to provide the quantity and size required for construction; the original name of the peak was Citadel Mountain. The current name came from an ill-fated French mining expedition described in folklore documented in the 1930s and 1940s; the folklore states that the expedition was organized in the late 1700s by Napoleon Bonaparte, who needed financing to fund his ambitions. The expedition was reported to have consisted of 450 horses.
They traveled through Leavenworth, Kansas en route to the Rocky Mountains. The folklore claims that a large amount of gold was discovered and amassed by the expedition near Wolf Creek Pass; the local Native Americans were initially friendly, but relations deteriorated. In the folklore, the French buried the gold and escaped from the area and hunted by warriors. One survivor, by the name of Le Blanc, made it back to Kansas, he was the expedition's historian and was reported to have made two maps of the hidden treasure. A expedition failed to find the treasure. William Yule, many years claimed to possess a copy of the original map and explored the area south and west of the mountain; the mountain was named after the legend of the missing treasure. List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado
The Elkhead Mountains are a mountain range in Colorado. The mountain range is considered to be low altitude within Colorado as the mountains are under 11,000 feet. Located within Routt and Moffat counties, the mountain range is far from metropolitan areas and has few lakes and streams, so it attracts few visitors; the mountain range is a volcanic range and all of the peaks were formed by volcanic action. The mountain range extends 16 miles east to west and 10 miles north to south, its center is located at 40.77404°N 107.32132°W / 40.77404. All of the peaks within the Elkhead Mountains are a part of Routt National Forest. Significant peaks are: Bears Ears, Sugar Loaf, Saddle Mountain, Black Mountain, Pilot Knob, Meaden Peak. Park Range Mountain ranges of Colorado