Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy devised by Carl Woese in 1990. According to this system, the tree of life consists of three domains: Archaea and Eukarya; the first two are all prokaryotic microorganisms, or single-celled organisms whose cells have no nucleus. All life that has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, multicellular organisms, is included in the Eukarya; the term "domain" was proposed by Carl Woese, Otto Kandler and Mark Wheelis in a three-domain system. This term represents a synonym for the category of dominion, introduced by Moore in 1974. However, only Stefan Luketa uses the term "dominion", he created two additional domains for Viruses. Each of these three domains contains unique rRNA; this forms the basis of the three-domain system. While the presence of a nuclear membrane differentiates the Eukarya from the Archaea and Bacteria, both of which lack a nuclear membrane, distinct biochemical and RNA markers differentiate the Archaea and Bacteria from each other.

Archaea are prokaryota cells characterized by membrane lipids that are branched hydrocarbon chains attached to glycerol by ether linkages. The presence of these other linkages in Archaea adds to their ability to withstand extreme temperatures and acidic conditions, but many archaea live in mild environments. Halophiles, organisms that thrive in salty environments, hyperthermophiles, organisms that thrive in hot environments, are examples of Archaea. Archaea evolved many cell sizes, but all are small, their size ranges from 0.1 μm to up to 200 μm long. They are about the size of bacteria, or similar in size to the mitochondria found in eukaryotic cells. Members of the genus Thermoplasma are the smallest of the Archaea. Though bacteria are prokaryotic cells just like Archaea, their membranes are made of oligonucleotide acid attached to glycerol by ester linkages. Cyanobacteria and mycoplasmas are two examples of bacteria, they characteristically do not have ether linkages like Archaea, they are grouped into a different category—and hence a different domain.

There is a great deal of diversity in this domain. Confounded by that diversity and horizontal gene transfer, it is next to impossible to determine how many species of bacteria exist on the planet, or to organize them in a tree-structure, without cross-connections between branches. Members of the domain Eukarya—called eukaryotes—have membrane-bound organelles and are represented by five kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia and Fungi; the three-domain system does not include any form of non-cellular life. As of 2011 there was talk about nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses being a fourth domain of life, a view supported by researchers in 2012. Stefan Luketa proposed a five-domain system in 2012, adding Prionobiota and Virobiota to the traditional three domains. Alternative classifications of life include: The two-empire system or superdomain system, with top-level groupings of Prokaryota and Eukaryota; the eocyte hypothesis, first proposed by James A. Lake et al. in 1984. Biological dark matter Neomura, the two domains of life of Archaea and Eukaryota Phylogenetics Protein structure Systematics Learn Biology: Classification-Domains on YouTube

Rafique Rajwana

Malik Muhammad Rafique Rajwana was the 36th Governor of Punjab, in office since 10 May 2015. He is affiliated with PML-N, he conducted landmark cases, including Mian Nawaz Sharif, Memogate Scandal, Election expenses, Alstom Energy Ltd, Rally Energy Ltd and Liverpool Cotton Association. He was the chairman of the parliamentary committee for appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan in 2014, he is a native of Multan in southern Punjab. Rajwana graduated from Government Emerson College Multan and earned a master's degree in Economics from Forman Christian College University, Lahore. Rajwana joined the judiciary in 1987, resigning to start law firm Rajwana & Rajwana. In 1996, he was elected as President of High Court Bar Association Multan, his core areas of practice are Civil, Alternate Dispute Resolution and Arbitration. He served as senator from southern Punjab in 1997 and in 2012. Rajwana is the senior Advocate Supreme Court of Pakistan. In February 2014, he was appointed chair of the parliamentary committee for appointment of Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan.

He has been member of senate committees for Foreign Affairs, Law Justice and Human Rights, Government Assurances, Committee on Rules of Procedure and Privileges, Senate House Committee, Devolution ProcessOn May 10, 2015 he became Governor of Punjab

Neftegorsk, Samara Oblast

Neftegorsk is a town and the administrative center of Neftegorsky District in Samara Oblast, located 103 kilometers southeast of Samara, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 19,254 , it was founded in 1960 as an oil-extracting settlement. Urban-type settlement status was granted to it in 1966. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Neftegorsk serves as the administrative center of Neftegorsky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Neftegorsk is incorporated within Neftegorsky Municipal District as Neftegorsk Urban Settlement. Самарская Губернская Дума. Закон №54-ГД от 25 февраля 2005 г. «Об образовании городского и сельских поселений в пределах муниципального района Нефтегорский Самарской области, наделении их соответствующим статусом и установлении их границ», в ред. Закона №106-ГД от 11 октября 2010 г. «О внесении изменений в законодательные акты Самарской области, устанавливающие границы муниципальных образований на территории Самарской области».

Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волжская коммуна", №36, 28 февраля 2005 г.. Самарская Губернская Дума. Закон №189-ГД от 28 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении статусом городского округа и муниципального района муниципальных образований в Самарской области», в ред. Закона №23-ГД от 30 марта 2015 г. «Об осуществлении местного самоуправления на территории городского округа Самара Самарской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волжская коммуна", №247, 31 декабря 2004 г.. Entry on Neftegorsk