Domain Name System

The Domain Name System is a hierarchical and decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most prominently, it translates more memorized domain names to the numerical IP addresses needed for locating and identifying computer services and devices with the underlying network protocols. By providing a worldwide, distributed directory service, the Domain Name System has been an essential component of the functionality of the Internet since 1985; the Domain Name System delegates the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to Internet resources by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. Network administrators may delegate authority over sub-domains of their allocated name space to other name servers; this mechanism provides distributed and fault-tolerant service and was designed to avoid a single large central database.

The Domain Name System specifies the technical functionality of the database service, at its core. It defines the DNS protocol, a detailed specification of the data structures and data communication exchanges used in the DNS, as part of the Internet Protocol Suite; the Internet maintains two principal namespaces, the domain name hierarchy and the Internet Protocol address spaces. The Domain Name System maintains the domain name hierarchy and provides translation services between it and the address spaces. Internet name servers and a communication protocol implement the Domain Name System. A DNS name server is a server; the most common types of records stored in the DNS database are for Start of Authority, IP addresses, SMTP mail exchangers, name servers, pointers for reverse DNS lookups, domain name aliases. Although not intended to be a general purpose database, DNS has been expanded over time to store records for other types of data for either automatic lookups, such as DNSSEC records, or for human queries such as responsible person records.

As a general purpose database, the DNS has been used in combating unsolicited email by storing a real-time blackhole list. The DNS database is traditionally stored in a structured text file, the zone file, but other database systems are common. An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain name translates to the addresses and 2606:2800:220:1:248:1893:25c8:1946. The DNS can be and transparently updated, allowing a service's location on the network to change without affecting the end users, who continue to use the same hostname. Users take advantage of this when they use meaningful Uniform Resource Locators and e-mail addresses without having to know how the computer locates the services. An important and ubiquitous function of DNS is its central role in distributed Internet services such as cloud services and content delivery networks.

When a user accesses a distributed Internet service using a URL, the domain name of the URL is translated to the IP address of a server, proximal to the user. The key functionality of DNS exploited here is that different users can receive different translations for the same domain name, a key point of divergence from a traditional phone-book view of the DNS; this process of using the DNS to assign proximal servers to users is key to providing faster and more reliable responses on the Internet and is used by most major Internet services. The DNS reflects the structure of administrative responsibility in the Internet; each subdomain is a zone of administrative autonomy delegated to a manager. For zones operated by a registry, administrative information is complemented by the registry's RDAP and WHOIS services; that data can be used to gain insight on, track responsibility for, a given host on the Internet. Using a simpler, more memorable name in place of a host's numerical address dates back to the ARPANET era.

The Stanford Research Institute maintained a text file named HOSTS. TXT that mapped host names to the numerical addresses of computers on the ARPANET. Elizabeth Feinler maintained the first ARPANET directory. Maintenance of numerical addresses, called the Assigned Numbers List, was handled by Jon Postel at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute, whose team worked with SRI. Addresses were assigned manually. Computers, including their hostnames and addresses, were added to the master file by contacting the SRI's Network Information Center, directed by Elizabeth Feinler, by telephone during business hours. Feinler set up a WHOIS directory on a server in the NIC for retrieval of information about resources and entities, she and her team developed the concept of domains. Feinler suggested that domains should be based on the location of the physical address of the computer. Computers at educational institutions would have the domain edu, for example, she and her team managed the Host Naming Registry from 1972 to 1989.

By the early 1980s, maintaining a single, centralized host table had become slow and unwieldy and the emerging network required an automated naming system to address technical and personnel issues. Postel directed the task of forging a compromise between five competing proposals of solutions to Paul Mockapetris. Mockapetris instead created the Domain Name System in 1983; the Internet Engineering Task Force pu


KCHQ is a radio station broadcasting a Country music format. Licensed to Soda Springs, United States, the station is owned by Ted Austin, through licensee Jackson Hole Media LLC, features programming from AP Radio and Jones Radio Network; the station was assigned the call letters KFIS on February 23, 1981. On September 1, 2001, the station changed its call sign to KFIF and on August 3, 2004 to KITT. In June 2008, the FCC granted KITT permission to upgrade from a Class A station to a Class C2 station, increase its power to 11,000 watts, relocate the station to Wilson, Wyoming; the move was part of a complex proceeding. Following this proceeding, the FCC changed its rules to allow no more than four stations in a single change; the station remains in Soda Springs, Idaho awaiting modifications by other stations in FCC rulemaking 05-243. On May 29, 2009, the Fifth District Court in Washington County, UT appointed a receiver for US Capital, Incorporated, an investment company in Boulder, Colorado that foreclosed on Legecy Media, the owner of KITT and several other stations.

KITT's call letters were used in Las Vegas, Pearl City, Parowan, San Diego and Shreveport, Louisiana. On September 18, 2014, KITT was sold to Jackson Hole Media LLC for $76,500; the station changed its call sign to KQJK on June 23, 2017, to the current KCHQ on December 7, 2018. Query the FCC's FM station database for KCHQ Radio-Locator information on KCHQ Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KCHQ

The Rag

The Rag was an underground newspaper published in Austin, Texas from 1966-1977. The weekly paper covered political and cultural topics that the conventional press ignored, such as the growing antiwar movement, the sexual revolution, gay liberation, the drug culture; the Rag encouraged these political constituencies and countercultural communities to coalesce into a significant political force in Austin. As the sixth member of the Underground Press Syndicate and the first underground paper in the South, The Rag helped shape a flourishing national underground press. According to historian and publisher Paul Buhle, The Rag was "one of the first, the most long-lasting and most influential" of the Sixties underground papers. In his 1972 book, The Paper Revolutionaries, Laurence Leamer called The Rag "one of the few legendary undergrounds." The Rag first hit the streets in Austin on October 10, 1966. Thorne Dreyer and Carol Neiman were the original editors of the paper; the Rag was associated with SDS and played a major role in bringing together the anarchist-leaning New Lefties and Austin's rich countercultural community, helping to merge them into a major political force.

Former staffer Alice Embree recalls that "The Rag covered what was not covered by the'straight' press. The writers participated in the political and cultural uprising and wrote about it, and they told you where to get a chicken dinner for 35 cents." The Rag featured the writing of major New Left figures like Gary Thiher, Jeff Shero, Robert Pardun, Greg Calvert. It covered the Austin rock scene, one of the birthplaces of the psychedelic music phenomenon. According to John McMillian, author of the 2011 book Smoking Typewriters, The Rag "was a spirited and humorous paper, whose founders pushed the New Left's political agenda as they embraced the counterculture's zeal for rock music and personal liberation," and, according to historian Douglas Rossinow, the paper was "enormously important to local activists."The Rag would become indistinguishable from the community it served, helping to coalesce and mobilize the movement in Austin, both as a news source and as a direct agent of change. Thorne Dreyer and Victoria Smith wrote at Liberation News Service in 1969 that "the people who put The Rag together were the same people who conceived demonstrations and love-ins, who were among the leaders of confrontations with local authorities, who were at the forefront of local cultural gatherings."

The Rag featured news coverage and commentary on the War in Vietnam and the movement opposing it, the Civil Rights Movement, the student freedom movement, the development of the New Left and SDS, the psychedelic rock and folk music scenes, the sixties counterculture movement, of which Austin was a major outpost. It carried national and world news and opinion from Liberation News Service and from other underground newspapers around the country; the Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, Gilbert Shelton's iconic sixties comic strip, was born in The Rag and was republished in underground papers and comic books all over the world. Artist Jim Franklin—whose surrealist armadillos helped to place the ugly little armored critters right up there with the longhorn as a symbol of Texas—designed many of the paper's covers, as did noted cartoonist and artist Kerry Awn. God Nose, a comic strip by Jack Jackson, ran in The Rag. Alan Pogue, now a documentary photographer, was a staff photographer for eight years. Over its life span the paper evolved with the times, for a while becoming one of the strongest voices of the women's liberation movement and focusing on local politics, covering Austin city government, neighborhood protests and the labor movement.

As Glenn Scott recalls about the Rag, one "could not have imagined a more democratic process than a Rag copy meeting. An all volunteer group of self-taught editors and copy writers debated the sexism and violence in pornography, the corporate influence in utility policies, the CIA's involvement in Chile, and how much space went to the Free Clinic benefit and the Freak Brothers."Many of the underground newspapers met with establishment opposition and legal action. In Austin, the regents at the University of Texas sued The Rag to prevent circulation on campus. David Richards, attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union defended The Rag's First Amendment rights before the U. S. Supreme Court; the Rag was one of the most influential of the early underground papers and, according to historian John McMillian, it served as a model for many papers that followed. The Rag was credited with being the first underground paper to combine the radical politics of the New Left with the spirit of the burgeoning alternative culture.

Abe Peck, editor of the Chicago Seed and author of Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times of the Underground Press, wrote that "The Rag was the first independent undergrounder to represent... the participatory democracy, community organizing and synthesis of politics and culture that the New Left of the midsixties was trying to develop." The Austin Chronicle's Kevin Brass called the paper "a firebrand little troublemaker", "a seminal influence in the national underground press movement."Many of the forces behind the founding of The Rag played major roles in developing other alternative media. Thorne Dreyer worked with Liberation News Service and, along with The Rag's Dennis and Judy Fitzgerald, started Space City News in Houston. Carol Neiman edited New Left Notes, the national SDS newspaper. Dreyer, Gary Thiher, Jeff Shero worked with KPFT-FM, the Pacifica radio station in Houston. Shero