United States at the 1984 Summer Olympics
The United States was the host nation of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California. It was the nineteenth time. 522 competitors, 339 men and 183 women, took part in 217 events in 25 sports. These Olympic Games were unique for the United States in that the host state was California, the home state of the country's president, Ronald Reagan, who himself opened the Games, becoming the first American president to open a Summer Olympics, any Olympic games in the United States. Reagan was governor of the state from 1967 to 1975, it was not until the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City that an American president opened a Winter Olympics in the United States. The United States topped the medal count for the first time since 1968, winning a record 83 gold medals and surpassing the Soviet Union’s total of 80 golds at the 1980 Summer Olympics. Darrell Pace — Archery, Men's Individual Competition Carl Lewis — Athletics, Men's 100 metres Carl Lewis — Athletics, Men's 200 metres Alonzo Babers — Athletics, Men's 400 metres Roger Kingdom — Athletics, Men's 110 m Hurdles Edwin Moses — Athletics, Men's 400 m Hurdles Sam Graddy, Carl Lewis, Ron Brown, Calvin Smith — Athletics, Men's 4 × 100 m Relay Ray Armstead, Alonzo Babers, Antonio McKay, Sunder Nix — Athletics, Men's 4 × 400 m Relay Carl Lewis — Athletics, Men's Long Jump Al Joyner — Athletics, Men's Triple Jump Evelyn Ashford — Athletics, Women's 100 metres Valerie Brisco-Hooks — Athletics, Women's 200 metres Valerie Brisco-Hooks — Athletics, Women's 400 metres Joan Benoit — Athletics, Women's Marathon Benita Fitzgerald-Brown — Athletics, Women's 100 m Hurdles Evelyn Ashford, Jeanette Bolden, Alice Brown, Chandra Cheeseborough — Athletics, Women's 4 × 100 m Relay Valerie Brisco-Hooks, Chandra Cheeseborough, Sherri Howard, Lillie Leatherwood — Athletics, Women's 4 × 400 m Relay Steve Alford, Patrick Ewing, Vern Fleming, Michael Jordan, Joe Kleine, Jon Koncak, Chris Mullin, Sam Perkins, Alvin Robertson, Wayman Tisdale, Jeff Turner, Leon Wood — Basketball, Men's Team Competition Cathy Boswell, Denise Curry, Anne Donovan, Teresa Edwards, Lea Henry, Janice Lawrence, Pamela McGee, Carol Menken-Schaudt, Cheryl Miller, Kim Mulkey, Cindy Noble, Lynette Woodard — Basketball, Women's Team Competition Paul Gonzales — Boxing, Men's Light Flyweight Steve McCrory — Boxing, Men's Flyweight Meldrick Taylor — Boxing, Men's Featherweight Pernell Whitaker — Boxing, Men's Lightweight Jerry Page — Boxing, Men's Light Welterweight Mark Breland — Boxing, Men's Welterweight Frank Tate — Boxing, Men's Light Middleweight Henry Tillman — Boxing, Men's Heavyweight Tyrell Biggs — Boxing, Men's Super Heavyweight Mark Gorski — Cycling, Men's 1000 m Sprint Steve Hegg — Cycling, Men's 4000 m Individual Pursuit Alexi Grewal — Cycling, Men's Individual Road Race Connie Carpenter-Phinney — Cycling, Women's Individual Road Race Greg Louganis — Diving, Men's Springboard Greg Louganis — Diving, Men's Platform Terry Rudd Bruce Davidson, Michael Plumb, Karen Stives and Torrance Watkins-Fleischmann — Equestrian, Three-Day Event Team Joseph Fargis — Equestrian, Jumping Individual Leslie Burr, Joseph Fargis, Conrad Homfeld, Melanie Smith — Equestrian, Jumping Team Bart Conner — Gymnastics, Men's Parallel Bars Peter Vidmar — Gymnastics, Men's Pommel Horse Bart Conner, Timothy Daggett, Mitchell Gaylord, James Hartung, Scott Johnson, Peter Vidmar — Gymnastics, Men's Team Combined Exercises Mary Lou Retton — Gymnastics, Women's All-Around Individual Julianne McNamara — Gymnastics, Women's Asymmetrical Bars Paul Enquist and Bradley Lewis — Rowing, Men's Double Sculls Betsy Beard, Carol Bower, Jeanne Flanagan, Carie Graves, Kathryn Keeler, Harriet Metcalf, Kristine Norelius, Shyril O'Steen, Kristen Thorsness — Rowing, Women's Eights Jonathan McKee and Carl Buchan — Sailing, Flying Dutchman Robbie Haines, Ed Trevalyan and Rod Davis — Sailing, Soling William E. Buchan and Steven Erickson — Sailing, Star Ed Etzel — Shooting, Men's Small-bore Rifle Matthew Dryke — Shooting, Men's Skeet Shooting Pat Spurgin — Shooting, Women's Air Rifle Rowdy Gaines — Swimming, Men's 100 m Freestyle George DiCarlo — Swimming, Men's 400 m Freestyle Mike O'Brien — Swimming, Men's 1500 m Freestyle Rick Carey — Swimming, Men's 100 m Backstroke Rick Carey — Swimming, Men's 200 m Backstroke Steve Lundquist — Swimming, Men's 100 m Breaststroke Matt Biondi, Chris Cavanaugh, Rowdy Gaines and Mike Heath — Swimming, Men's 4 × 100 m Freestyle Relay Jeff Float, Geoff Gaberino, Bruce Hayes, David Larson and Mike Heath — Swimming, Men's 100 m 4 × 200 m Freestyle Relay Rick Carey, Rowdy Gaines, Steve Lundquist and Pablo Morales — Swimming, Men's 100 m 4 × 100 m Medley Relay Nancy Hogshead — Swimming, Women's 100 m Freestyle Carrie Steinseifer — Swimming, Women's 100 m Freestyle Mary Wayte — Swimming, Women's 200 m Freestyle Tiffany Cohen — Swimming, Women's 400 m Freestyle Tiffany Cohen — Swimming, Women's 800 m Freestyle Theresa Andrews — Swimming, Women's 100 m Backstroke Mary T. Meagher — Swimming, Women's 100 m Butterfly Mary T. Meagher — Swimming, Women's 200 m Butterfly Tracy Caulkins — Swimming, Women's 200 m Individual Medley Tracy Caulkins — Swimming, Women's 400 m Individual Medley Nancy Hogshead, Jenna Johnson, Carrie Steinseifer and Dara Torres — Swimming, Women's 4 × 100 m Freestyle Relay Theresa Andrews, Tracy Caulkins, Nancy Hogshead and Mary T. Meagher — Swimming, Women's 4 × 100 m Medley Relay Tracie Ruiz — Synchronized Swimming, Women's Solo Candy Costie and Tracie Ruiz — Synchronized Swimming, Women's Duet Dusty Dvorak, Dave Saunders, Steven Salmons, Paul Sunderland, Rich Duwelius, Steve Timmons, Craig Buck, Marc Waldie, Chris Marlowe, Aldis Berzins, Patrick Powers and Karch Kiraly — Volleyball, Men's team competition Bobby Weaver — Freestyle wrestling, Men's Light Flyweight Randy Lew
Piedmont is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest, it has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin; the name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i.e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains” attested in documents of the end of the 12th century. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population: Piedmont is surrounded on three sides by the Alps, including Monviso, where the Po rises, Monte Rosa, it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43.3 % mountainous, along with extensive areas of plains. Piedmont is the second largest of Italy's 20 regions, after Sicily, it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy's largest river.
The Po drains the semicircle formed by the. From the highest peaks, the land slopes down to hilly areas, to the upper, to the lower great Padan Plain; the boundary between the two is characterised by resurgent springs—typical of the Padan Plain—which supply fresh water to the rivers and a dense network of irrigation canals. The countryside is diverse: from the rugged peaks of the massifs of Monte Rosa and of Gran Paradiso, to the damp rice paddies of Vercelli and Novara, from the gentle hillsides of the Langhe and of Montferrat to the plains. 7.6% of the entire territory is considered protected area. There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley. Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi, they were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum and Eporedia. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was successively invaded by the Burgundians, the Ostrogoths, East Romans and Franks.
In the 9th -- 10th centuries there were further incursions by the Saracens. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marches and counties. In 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria and the marquisates of Saluzzo and Montferrat; the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia and increasing Turin's importance as a European capital; the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont. A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops. In June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont, it fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802.
In the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italy's unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and 1848–1849; this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers; the House of Savoy became Kings of Italy, Turin became the capital of Italy. However, when the Italian capital was moved to Florence, to Rome, the administrative and institutional importance of Piedmont was reduced and the only remaining recognition to Piedmont's historical role was that the crown prince of Italy was known as the Prince of Piedmont. After Italian unification, Piedmont was one of the most important regions in the first Italian industrialization. Lowland Piedmont is a fertile agricultural region; the main agricultural products in Piedmont are cereals, including rice, representing more than 10% of national production, grapes for wine-making and milk.
With more than 800,000 head of cattle in 2000, livestock production accounts for half of final agricultural production in Piedmont. Piedmont is one of the great winegrowing regions in Italy. More than half of its 700 square kilometres of vineyards are registered with DOC designations, it produces prestigious wines as Barolo, from the Langhe near Alba, the Moscato d'Asti as well as the sparkling Asti from the vineyards around Asti. Indigenous grape varieties include Nebbiolo, Dolcetto, Freisa and Brachetto; the region contains major industrial centres, the main of, Turin, home to the FIAT automobile works. Olivetti, once a major electronics industry whose plant was in Scarmagno, near Ivrea, has now turned into a small-sc
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Gruppi Sportivi Fiamme Gialle
The Gruppi Sportivi Fiamme Gialle is the sport section of the Italian police force, Guardia di Finanza. In the sport of athletics the group is called Gruppo Atletico Fiamme Gialle. AthleticsAntonella Palmisano Fabrizio Donato Antonietta Di Martino Simona La Mantia Giuseppe Gibilisco Ivano Brugnetti Nicola Vizzoni Filippo TortuAlpine skiingGustav Thöni Piero Gros Isolde Kostner Are 72 medals won by athletes of Fiamme Gialle in canoeing. Guardia di Finanza Italian military sports bodies European Champion Clubs Cup Official website
The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years, between nations around or close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe and Asia meet. The games are under the auspices of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games; the idea was proposed at the 1948 Summer Olympics by Muhammed Taher Pasha, chairman of the Egyptian Olympic Committee and vice-president of the International Olympic Committee, assisted by the Greek member of the I. O. C. Ioannis Ketseas. In 1949 an unofficial event was held in Istanbul, Turkey but the first official Mediterranean Games were held in Egypt in 1951; the Games were inaugurated in October 1951, in Alexandria, Egypt, in honour of Muhammed Taher Pasha, with contests being held in 13 sports along with the participation of 734 athletes from 10 countries. In 1955, in Barcelona, during the II Games, the set up was decided of a Supervisory and Controlling Body for the Games, a kind of Executive Committee; the decisions were materialized on 16 June 1961, the said Body was named, upon a Greek notion, ICMG.
Twelve countries were hosted for Mediterranean Games - four from Africa: Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The first 11 games took place always one year preceding the Summer Olympic Games. However, from 1993 on, they were held the year following the Olympic games; this transition meant that the only time the Mediterranean Games were not held four years after the previous Games was in 1993, when Languedoc-Roussillon in France hosted the Games just two years after Athens. The Mediterranean Games, in terms of the preparation and composition of the National Delegation, are held under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee and the Hellenic Olympic Committee. However, their establishment too must be credited to the HOC, for it held a leading part in their being founded despite all difficulties. Athens is the permanent seat of the ICMG and the Committee’s General Secretary is Greek; this comes as a further tribute to Greece, highlighting its leading role with regard to the function and strengthening of the institution.
Except that Greece bailed out of its 2013 Mediterranean Games commitment when the two cities of Volos and Larissa were supposed to host the 2013 edition of the Games. But because of Greece's financial troubles, they had to give that up and the 2013 honors went instead to Turkey, with the city of Mersin rescuing the 2013 edition of the Games instead; the logo of the games referred to as the "Mediterranean Olympics", is composed of three white rings symbolically representing Africa and Europe — the three continents that border the Mediterranean Sea. This logo has been used since the Split games in 1979, for which it was devised and afterwards accepted for the whole Games. During the closing ceremony, the flag of the games is transferred to the country of the city chosen for the organization of the next Mediterranean Games. At present, 26 countries participate in the games: Africa: Algeria, Libya and Tunisia Asia: Lebanon and Syria. Europe: Albania, Andorra and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Monaco, North Macedonia, San Marino, Slovenia and Turkey.
Kosovo was accepted as a member of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games in October 2015 and participated for the first time in the 2018 Mediterranean Games in Tarragona, Spain. Of all the National Olympic Committees within the Olympic Movement bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Palestine have not participated in the games, nor has Great Britain who represents the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. In the case of Israel, Allen Guttman in The Games Must Go On argued that Israel's exclusion is both antisemitic and politically motivated due to antagonism towards Israel by the participating Arab nations; the IOC's Avery Brundage was not supportive of Israel's desire to compete, saying: "I cannot understand why anyone wants to go where he is not wanted". The International Amateur Athletics Federation pushed the issue at the 1959 Mediterranean Games in Beirut by refusing to grant permission to hold an athletics competition unless Israel were allowed to compete. Lebanese games organizer Gabriel Gemayel conceded to this, but sidestepped the ruling by holding a parallel Lebanese Games comprising athletics events between the present nations alongside the official Mediterranean Games competitions.
There are countries not bordering the Mediterranean Sea which nonetheless participate: Portugal, Kosovo, San Marino and North Macedonia. The Hellenic Olympic Committee has suggested that nine more countries that do not satisfy geographic criteria could be allowed to participate, such as Bulgaria, some Arab countries such as Jordan and Iraq. Portugal competed in the 2018 Mediterranean Games after a decision which approved Portugal as effective National Olympic Committee; the symbol of the Mediterranean Games consists of three rings representing Asia and Europe, the three continents involved in this competition. The rings dissolve in a wavy line in their lower part, as if they were immersed in the Mediterranean Sea. During the closing ceremony, the flag is transferred to the country of the city chosen to host the next Mediterranean Games. No inland city has hosted the games. All but one of the host cities to date have been situated on the Mediterranean coast; the International Mediterranean Games Committee held a
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi was an Italian politician and banker. He was the 49th Prime Minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and was the tenth President of the Italian Republic from 1999 to 2006. Ciampi was born in Livorno, he received a B. A. in ancient Greek literature and classical philology in 1941 from the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, one of the country's most prestigious universities, defending a thesis entitled Favorino d'Arelate e la consolazione Περὶ φυγῆς under the direction of the Hellenist Augusto Mancini. He was called to military duty in Albania as a lieutenant. On 8 September 1943, on the date of the armistice with the Allies, he refused to remain in the Fascist Italian Social Republic, took refuge in Abruzzo, in Scanno, he subsequently managed to reach Bari, where he joined the Partito d'Azione. In 1946 he married Franca Pilla; that same year, he obtained a B. A. began working at the Banca d'Italia. He joined the CGIL, which he left in 1980. In 1960, he was called to work in the central administration of the Bank of Italy, where he became Secretary General in 1973, Vice Director General in 1976, Director General in 1978.
In October 1979, he was nominated Governor of the Bank of Italy and President of the national Bureau de Change, positions he filled until 1993. Ciampi was the first non-parliamentarian prime minister of Italy in more than 100 years. From April 1993 to May 1994 he oversaw a technical government; as treasury minister from 1996 to May 1999 in the governments of Romano Prodi and Massimo D'Alema, he was credited with adopting the euro currency. He chose the Italian design for the 1-euro coin, whereas all others were left to a television vote among some candidates the ministry had prepared. Ciampi chose the Vitruvian man of Leonardo da Vinci, on the symbolic grounds that it represented man as a measure of all things, in particular of the coin: in this perspective, money was at the service of man, instead of its opposite; the design fitted well on the bimetallic material of the coin. Ciampi was elected with a broad majority, was the second president to be elected at the first ballot in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies, the Italian Senate and representatives of the Regions.
He refrained from intervening directly into the political debate while serving as President. However, he addressed general issues, without mentioning their connection to the current political debate, in order to state his opinion without being too intrusive, his interventions have stressed the need for all parties to respect the constitution and observe the proprieties of political debate. He was held in high regard by all political forces represented in the parliament; the possibility of persuading Ciampi to stand for a second term as President – the so-called Ciampi-bis – was discussed, despite his advancing age, but it was dismissed by Ciampi himself on 3 May 2006, just a few days before his mandate expired. Ciampi resigned as President before the swearing-in ceremony of Giorgio Napolitano; as President, Ciampi was not considered to be close to the positions of the Vatican and the Catholic Church, in a sort of alternance after the devout Oscar Luigi Scalfaro. He praised patriotism, not always a common feeling in Italy because of its abuse by the fascist regime.
He died in Rome on 16 September 2016 at the age of 95. As President of the Italian Republic between 18 May 1999 and 15 May 2006, Ciampi held the roles of: Head of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Chief of the Military Order of Italy Head of the Order of Merit for Labour Head of the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity Head of the Order of Vittorio Veneto Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Collar of the Order of Pius IX 1982: Great Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 1985: Commander of the Legion of Honour 1986: Great Cross of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 1991: Honorary degree, University of Pavia 1993: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun 1995: Freeman of the City of Naples 1999: Collar of the Order of the White Rose 2000: Gold Medal of the Jean Monnet Foundation for Europe 2000: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath 2000: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle 2001: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav 2001: Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav 2001: Honorary doctorate from the University of Leipzig Faculty of Economics 2002: Grand Star of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria 2002: - Grand Cross of the Order of the White Double Cross 2002: Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry 2002: Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Hungarian Republic 2002: Collar Pro Merito Melitensi of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta 2003: Collar of the Order of the Star of Romania 2003: - Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm 2004: Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana 2004: Commander Grand Cross with Chain of the Order of Three Stars Honorary Member of the Xirka Ġieħ ir-Repubblika 2005: Charlemagne Prize 2005: - Grand Cross of the Or