Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Pietro Antonio Trezzini
Pietro Antonio Trezzini was a Swiss architect from the Trezzini family who worked in St. Petersburg. After several years of training in Milan, Trezzini arrived in St. Petersburg summoned by a relative, Domenico Trezzini. Trezzini collaborated with Mikhail Zemtsov on several major projects, including the new part of Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Trezzini's contributions to mid-18th century Russian architecture have been overshadowed by those of Bartolomeo Rastrelli, his name is associated with modest, one-domed Baroque churches, such as St. Sampson's Cathedral and the Prince Vladimir Church. Most of his buildings gave way to grander Neoclassical edifices. After completing the pentacupolar Transfiguration Church, Trezzini went on leave to Italy where he entered the service of the Habsburgs, he is last mentioned as living in St. Petersburg in 1760. St. Clement's Church in Moscow and Vladimirskaya Church in St. Petersburg are cited as his last major commissions
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Peter and Paul Fortress
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress. In the early 1920s, it was still used as a execution ground by the Bolshevik government. Today it has been adapted as the central and most important part of the State Museum of Saint Petersburg History; the museum has become the sole owner of the fortress building, except the structure occupied by the Saint Petersburg Mint. The fortress was established by Peter the Great on May 16 1703 on small Hare Island by the north bank of the Neva River, the last upstream island of the Neva delta. Built at the height of the Northern War in order to protect the projected capital from a feared Swedish counterattack, the fort never fulfilled its martial purpose; the citadel was completed with six bastions in earth and timber within a year, it was rebuilt in stone from 1706 to 1740. From around 1720, the fort served as a base for the city garrison and as a prison for high-ranking or political prisoners.
The Trubetskoy Bastion, rebuilt in the 1870s, became the main prison block. The first person to escape from the fortress prison was the anarchist Prince Peter Kropotkin in 1876. Other people incarcerated in the "Russian Bastille" include Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, Artemy Volynsky, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Alexander Radishchev, the Decembrists, Grigory Danilevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Maxim Gorky, Mikhail Bakunin, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Leon Trotsky and Josip Broz Tito. During the February Revolution of 1917, it was attacked by mutinous soldiers of the Pavlovsky Regiment on February 27 and the prisoners were freed. Under the Provisional Government, hundreds of Tsarist officials were held in the Fortress; the Tsar was threatened with being incarcerated at the Fortress on his return from Mogilev to Tsarskoe Selo on March 8. On July 4 during the July Days demonstrations, the Fortress garrison of 8,000 men declared for the Bolsheviks, they surrendered to government forces without a struggle on July 6.
On October 25, the fortress fell into Bolshevik hands. Following the ultimatum from the Petrograd Soviet to the Provisional Government ministers in the Winter Palace, after the blank salvo of the Cruiser Aurora at 21.00, the guns of the Fortress fired 30 or so shells at the Winter Palace. Just two hit, inflicting only minor damage, the defenders refused to surrender at that time. At 02.10 on the morning of October 26, the Winter Palace was taken by forces under Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko. Between 1918 and 1921 at least 112 persons, including 4 grand dukes, were killed here. In 1924, most of the site was converted to a museum. In 1931, the Gas Dynamics Laboratory was added to the site; the structure suffered heavy damage during the bombardment of the city during WWII by the German army who were laying siege to the city. It is a prime tourist attraction. In the years before and after the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution and Paul Fortress was portrayed by Bolshevik propaganda as a hellish, torturous place, where thousands of prisoners suffered endlessly in filthy and grossly overcrowded dungeons amid frequent torture and malnutrition.
Such legends had the effect of turning the prison into a symbol of government oppression in the minds of the common folk. In reality, conditions in the fortress were far less brutal; when the fortress was liberated during the early stages of the revolution in February 1917, the prison was holding only nineteen incarcerated prisoners, the ringleaders of a mutinous army regiment that had sided with the revolutionaries during the mass protests on the 26th. Despite their ultimate falsehood, stories about the prison were vital to the spread of Bolshevik revolutionary sentiment; the legends served to portray the government as cruel and indiscriminate in the administration of justice, helping to turn the common mind against Tsarist rule. Many inmates, after being released, wrote chilling and exaggerated accounts of life there that solidified the structure's horrible image in the public mind and pushed the people further towards dissent. Writers purposely exaggerated their experiences to garner more hatred for the government.
The fortress contains several notable buildings clustered around the Peter and Paul Cathedral, which has a 122.5 m bell-tower and a gilded angel-topped cupola. The cathedral is the burial place of all Russian tsars from Peter I to Alexander III, with the exception of Peter II and Ivan VI; the remains of Nicholas II and his family and entourage were re-interred there, in the side chapel of St. Catherine, on July 17, 1998, the 80th anniversary of their deaths. Toward the end of 2006, the remains of Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna were brought from Roskilde Cathedral outside Copenhagen and reinterred next to her husband, Alexander III; the newer Grand Ducal Mausoleum is connected to the cathedral by a corrid
Petrine Baroque is a name applied by art historians to a style of Baroque architecture and decoration favoured by Peter the Great and employed to design buildings in the newly founded Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, under this monarch and his immediate successors. Different from contemporary Naryshkin Baroque, favoured in Moscow, the Petrine Baroque represented a drastic rupture with Byzantine traditions that had dominated Russian architecture for a millennium, its chief practitioners - Domenico Trezzini, Andreas Schlüter, Mikhail Zemtsov - drew inspiration from a rather modest Dutch and Swedish architecture of the time. Peter I known as Peter the Great, served as the tsar of Russia from 1682-1725, he was the first Russian monarch to travel outside of Russia and this travel exposed him to the architecture of many other countries. His own library contained architectural books from the Netherlands, France and Italy; the buildings of these countries influenced Peter's taste in architecture as he set forward to build the new Russian capital of St. Petersburg.
Peter had a specific idea of what he wanted this new city to look like in terms of architectural style, he took initiative in recruiting people who could help accomplish his vision and researching architectural styles. While in rule, Peter attempted to bring about change to the nation of Russia as as possible and tried to incorporate western style and tradition into the everyday lives of his citizens; as part of this, Peter put regulations into effect. Peter's original goal for St. Petersburg was to re-create the city of Amsterdam; as the city began construction, Peter started making changes to the designs of the buildings altering the planned appearance of buildings once their construction had started. These last minute alterations led to buildings not belonging to one particular architectural school. Peter was raised in Moscow, lived at the Grand Palace of Kremlin, spent time at multiple royal estates outside of the city, his father died when he was four years old, so Peter had a unsupervised youth to pursue his own passions.
Peter developed his taste for architecture by looking at the buildings which surrounded him in his childhood, many of which were patronized by his family. These churches and houses which surrounded Moscow reflected European influence in their structure and decoration; the Moscow or Naryshkin Baroque style, named after Peter's maternal side of the family, was prominent in these buildings. Characteristic of the Naryshkin Baroque style is large scale buildings and lack of wood amongst building materials; as Peter entered young adulthood and spent time travelling, his architectural taste began to favor the elements of Dutch architecture. Peter met with the Dutch architect Simon Schijnvoet in 1697. Schijnvoet specialized in Dutch Baroque but taught Peter about naval architecture; the first house in St. Petersburg that Peter designed utilized elements from this naval style which Schjinvoet taught him, including flat, painted log walls, wooden tile-like shingles, windows made from small planes of glass.
These elements of design were unlike the Russian styles seen up until this point. The Russian history scholar James Cracraft suggests that the clearest example of Dutch architecture designed under Peter's rule was his Summer Palace in St. Petersburg, referred to as "Monplaisir" or "Little Dutch House". In a 1724 letter to the architectural student Ivan Korobov, Peter discusses his preference for the ornamentation of Dutch Baroque. In this same letter, Peter conveys his disinterest for the architectural styles of the French and Italian due to its lack of adornment and use of stone rather than brick. Among Peter's papers, a note was found describing how he sent two Russian architecture students to Holland so that they could learn the Dutch Baroque style and come back to build churches and houses for St. Petersburg. In addition to having Russian students train abroad, Peter hired Dutch architects to come and work on projects in Russia. While Peter preferred the Dutch Baroque style, he sought out architectural inspiration from other countries.
Despite his recorded dislike for the French and Italian styles, Peter sent two architectural students to Rome in 1723 to replace another two students working there. Scholars suggest that an equal amount of architectural students were sent to Holland and Italy during his reign and more Italian builders worked on projects for Peter in Russia than Dutch builders did. In the early years of St. Petersburg, the French served as prominent decorators. Domenico Trezzini was born in Italian controlled region of Switzerland in 1670; the architects that surrounded him in his youth were responsible for the development of the Baroque style in southern Germany. Trezzini's architectural style has visible influences from this German Baroque style along with the northern style of Baroque architecture that he picked up during his time living in Copenhagen. Trezzini was influenced by the Lombard Baroque style of architecture, popular in Northern Italy where he grew up during the 17th century. From 1703 until his death in 1734, Trezzini lived in St. Petersburg during the rule of Peter I.
Trezzini began many of the building projects. Due to the many projects that Trezzini worked on, he was given the title of "Lieutenant-Colonel of Fortification and Architect" in 1710; some of Trezzini's major additions to the city include: Peter I's Summer Palace, the Alexander-Nevskii Monastery, the Twelve Colleges, the Peter-Paul Church. Trezzini and his team designed the layout of the developing St. Petersburg including the streets of the anticipat
The Twelve Collegia, or Twelve Colleges is the largest edifice from the Petrine era remaining in Saint Petersburg. It was designed by Domenico Trezzini and Theodor Schwertfeger and built from 1722 to 1744; the three-storey, red-brick complex of 12 buildings is 400–440 meters long, giving an illusion of one enormous edifice. The result is an "austerely structured" complex with a "rustic style"; the original design separated the 12 individual buildings. In subsequent restructuring, they would be connected to form the modern complex; the Twelve Collegia was commissioned by Peter the Great, who wanted a place for the Russian government, at the time divided into 12 branches: The Senate The Synod Nine colleges, which replaced the old prikazy system: Foreign Affairs, Revenue Collection, Expenditure, Financial Control, Admiralty, Commerce and Manufacturing Additional, or tenth college/ministry for trade Twelve Collegia presently serves as one of three Petrine Baroque structures for Saint Petersburg State University.
The Twelve Collegia are the headquarters of the university, founded in 1819, stands along Mendeleevskaya Line on Vasilievsky Island. Media related to Building of Twelve Collegiums at Wikimedia Commons