Domestic violence is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation. Domestic violence may be used as a synonym for intimate partner violence, committed by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, can take place in heterosexual or same-sex relationships, or between former spouses or partners. In the broadest sense, domestic violence can involve violence against children, parents, or the elderly, it takes a number of forms, including physical, emotional, religious and sexual abuse, which can range from subtle, coercive forms to marital rape and to violent physical abuse such as choking, female genital mutilation, acid throwing that results in disfigurement or death. Domestic murders include stoning, bride burning, honor killings, dowry deaths. Globally, the victims of domestic violence are overwhelmingly women, women tend to experience more severe forms of violence, they are likelier than men to use intimate partner violence in self-defense.
In some countries, domestic violence is seen as justified in cases of actual or suspected infidelity on the part of the woman, is permitted. Research has established that there exists a direct and significant correlation between a country's level of gender equality and rates of domestic violence, where countries with less gender equality experience higher rates of domestic violence. Domestic violence is among the most underreported crimes worldwide for both women. Due to social stigmas regarding male victimization, men who are victims of domestic violence face an increased likelihood of being overlooked by healthcare providers. Domestic violence occurs when the abuser believes that abuse is an entitlement, justified, or unlikely to be reported, it may produce an intergenerational cycle of abuse in children and other family members, who may feel that such violence is acceptable or condoned. Many people do not recognize themselves as abusers or victims because they may consider their experiences as family conflicts that got out of control.
Awareness, perception and documentation of domestic violence differs from country to country. Domestic violence happens in the context of forced or child marriage. In abusive relationships, there may be a cycle of abuse during which tensions rise and an act of violence is committed, followed by a period of reconciliation and calm. Victims of domestic violence may be trapped in domestic violent situations through isolation and control, traumatic bonding to the abuser, cultural acceptance, lack of financial resources, shame, or to protect children; as a result of abuse, victims may experience physical disabilities, dysregulated aggression, chronic health problems, mental illness, limited finances, a poor ability to create healthy relationships. Victims may experience severe psychological disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Children who live in a household with violence show psychological problems from an early age, such as avoidance, hypervigilance to threats, dysregulated aggression which may contribute to vicarious traumatization.
The first known use of the term domestic violence in a modern context, meaning violence in the home, was in an address to the Parliament of the United Kingdom by Jack Ashley in 1973. The term referred to civil unrest, violence from within a country as opposed to violence perpetrated by a foreign power. Traditionally, domestic violence was associated with physical violence. Terms such as wife abuse, wife beating, wife battering were used, but have declined in popularity due to efforts to include unmarried partners, abuse other than physical, female perpetrators, same-sex relationships. Domestic violence is now defined broadly to include "all acts of physical, psychological or economic violence" that may be committed by a family member or intimate partner; the term intimate partner violence is used synonymously with domestic abuse or domestic violence, but it refers to violence occurring within a couple relationship. To these, the World Health Organization adds controlling behaviors as a form of abuse.
Intimate partner violence has been observed in opposite and same-sex relationships, in the former instance by both men against women and women against men. Family violence is a broader term used to include child abuse, elder abuse, other violent acts between family members. In 1993, The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women defined domestic violence as: Physical and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation. Prior to the mid-1800s, most legal systems viewed wife beating as a valid exercise of a husband's authority over his wife. One exception, was the 1641 Body of Liberties of the Massachusetts Bay colonists, which declared that a married woman should be "free from bodilie correction or stripes by her husband."Political agitation and the first-wave feminist movement during the 19th century led to changes in both popular opinion and legislation regarding domestic violence within the United Kingdom, the United States and other countries.
In 1850, Tennessee became the first state in the United States to explicitly outlaw wife beating. Other states soon followed. In 1
Iowa State Cyclones Cross Country represents Iowa State University and competes in the Big 12 Conference of NCAA Division I. The team is coached by Martin Smith, he is in his 4th year at Iowa State; the men's and women's teams were considered separate. The Cyclones host their home meets at the Cross Country Course located on Iowa State's campus; the Iowa State men's cross country team made their first appearance as a team at the National Cross country meet in 1952. Between 1952 and 1987, Iowa State produced ten different individual All-Americans, many of them receiving the honors more than once. In both 1987 and 1988, the men's team won the Big Eight Conference titles. In 1989, the team led by John Nuttall and Jonah Koech won their third consecutive Big Eight Conference championship and continued to the national meet with high hopes. At the NCAA Division 1 National Meet, Nuttall captured the individual crown, followed in second by his teammate Koech; the 1989 Iowa State Cyclone team won their first national championship with the second best team score in the previous 25 years.
For the next two years, Iowa State was the runner-up at the national. In 1994, the team, led by Ian Robinson, was once again Big Eight Conference Champions and was expected to contend for the national title. Although the meet was held on the home course of the defending champions, Iowa State captured the national title for the first time since 1989. Martin Smith was hired in 2013 to replace Corey Ihmels as the new Director of Track & Field / Cross Country. Martin has 35 years of collegiate coaching experience with 5 national championships, 25 conference championships, nearly 300 All-Americans under his guidance. Martin was hired from Oklahoma, where he led the men's cross country team to their highest finish at the 2012 NCAA XC National Championships. Prior to Oklahoma, Smith coached at Oregon. From 1983 - 1998, Smith coached at Wisconsin, where he led the men's cross country team to national championships in 1985 and 1988. Smith coached at Virginia from 1980 - 1983. Iowa State first formed a collegiate women's cross country team in 1975.
Organizing a competitive team out of the gate, they won the 1975 Team AIAW Championship. The team was led by Peg Neppel-Darrah, they would go on to win the 1976, 1977, 1978 title going on an early streak of dominance. Iowa State would win the 1981 title off the back of Dorthe Rasmussen's individual 1981 title; the team was rocked by tragedy when the team plane crashed on the way back from finishing as runner-up at the 1985 NCAA Championships. The university owned; those aboard were Burton Watkins of pilot of the airplane. After the set-backs the team didn't return to dominance until the mid-2000s under the wings of Lisa Koll. While at Iowa State Lisa was a three time all-American and she would go on to compete in the 2012 Olympics. Koll's individual success was followed shortly by Betsy Saina's, culminating in her winning an NCAA championship in 2012, she too would go on placing 5th at the 2016 games. The current women's cross country coach is Andrea Grove-McDonough, she is in her fifth year. Iowa State is one of only a handful of institutions in the country to have its own dedicated cross country course located on its campus.
The convenience of the course's location provides Iowa State University's distance runners a significant training advantage. The athletic department dedicated the Cross Country Course in October 1995 as the first course in the nation designed for competitive cross country racing; the University showcased the course to a national audience by hosting the 1995 NCAA Division I Cross Country Championships. Since that time the course served as the site of the 2000 NCAA Championships, the 2008 Big 12 Championships and the 2013 NCAA Midwest Cross Country Regional; the athletics program invested nearly $1 million in course improvements including irrigating the entire course and creating a permanent finish line structure with two large grass berms that provide spectators incredible views of the finish area. The irrigation system allows the department's staff to maintain the running surface at a championship level throughout the season. Iowa State Cyclones track and field
Van Don International Airport or Ha Long Airport, is an airport in Vân Đồn District, Quảng Ninh Province, home to World Heritage Ha Long Bay. It is located about 50 km away from Hạ Long and 20 km from Cẩm Phả. According to Decision No 1296 / QD-TTg approving the Prime Minister's Plan 19/07/2009. According to the announcement of Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc at the meeting with the leaders of Quang Ninh province in early February 2014, the adjustment of the planning of Quang Ninh airport into an international airport was approved; the Ministry of Transport is assigned to complete the planning adjustment procedures and submit them to the Prime Minister for approval. Vân Đồn is the first airport in Vietnam to be developed under a build–operate–transfer format with its payback period expected to be 45 years. Construction on the airport commenced in 2015; the 3-phase project has an estimated total budget of 7.5 trillion VND. Upon completion of all three phases in 2030, the airport will be capable of handling 5 million passengers per year.
On July 11, 2018, a King Air 350 from Noi Bai International Airport landed in Van Don for a calibration flight, marking it the first flight that the airport received. On December 30th, 2018, the airport is opened for operations, with a flight from Hanoi by Vietnam Airlines. Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc was present on the flight and pressed the button to formally open the airport for airline operations. Located on the coast of Quảng Ninh, Van Don International Airport covers an area of 325 ha and contains one single runway: Runway 03/21: 3,600 m × 45 m with a 300 m x 300 m runway safety areaRunway 03/21 is certified for Cat II Instrument Landing operations; the airport has an air traffic control tower 42 m tall. Van Don is building one passenger terminal capable of handling 2.5 million passengers and 10,000 cargo tons per year The terminal has an area of 27,000 m2. It is equipped with 4 baggage carousels, 8 security gates and 31 check-in counters; the Ninh Binh-Hai Phong-Quang Ninh Expressway connects the airport to Ha Long city.
It was built at a cost of over US$500 million. Operation started in December 2018. Official website Quang Ninh International Airport on Voice of Vietnam