Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I was King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain prior to the abolition in 1931. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his familys exile, Juan Carloss father, Don Juan, was the fourth child of Alfonso who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Don Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969, was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Francos successor, Juan Carlos spent his early years in Italy and came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his education in 1955, he began his military training. Later, he attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, in 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Greece in Athens, daughter of King Paul. The couple had two daughters and a son together, Elena and Felipe, due to Francos declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spains head of state in the summer of 1974. Expected to continue Francos legacy, soon after his accession, Juan Carlos, introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy.
In 1981, Juan Carlos played a role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the Kings name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America, in 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded the throne as Felipe VI. He was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias and he was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His early life was dictated largely by the concerns of his father. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there after his father persuaded Franco to allow it and he began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the San Isidro Institute in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza, Juan Carlos has two sisters, Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, and Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria. He had a brother, Alfonso.
On the evening of Holy Thursday,29 March 1956, Juan Carloss younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the familys home Villa Giralda in Estoril, Portugal. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infantes return from the Maundy Thursday religious service and it is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun that had apparently been given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had actually held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired
Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire, which was below that of Emperor and King and above that of a Grand Duke, the territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918, in the Carolingian Empire, the title Archduke was awarded not as rank of nobility, but as a unique honorary title to the Duke of Lotharingia. Lotharingia was eventually absorbed by East Francia, becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than a fully independent Kingdom, the extended fragmentation of both territories created two succeeding Duchies in the Low Countries and Geldre. Both claimed archducal status but were never recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. Archduke of Austria, the archducal title to re-emerge, was invented in the Privilegium Maius in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title, as did all the ruling dynasties of the member countries of the Empire. But Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants assumed the title of Archduke. Emperor Frederick III himself simply used the title Duke of Austria, never Archduke, the title was first granted to Fredericks younger brother, Albert VI of Austria, who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick III granted the title of Archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, the title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and his son Philip in the Low Countries. Archduke was initially borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory—i. e, only by males and their consorts, appanages being commonly distributed to cadets. But these junior archdukes did not thereby become sovereign hereditary rulers, occasionally a territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward and its form, Archduchess.
After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire this usage was retained in the Austrian Empire, thus those members of the Habsburg family who are residents of the Republic of Austria are simply known by their first name and their surname Habsburg-Lothringen. However, members of the family who reside in other countries may or may not use the title, in accordance with laws, for example, Otto Habsburg-Lothringen, the eldest son of the last Habsburg Emperor, was an Austrian and German citizen. Hence, no member of the family other than the King bears the title of Archduke. The insignia of the Archduke of Lower and Upper Austria was the archducal hat, List of rulers of Austria List of Austrian consorts
Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland, Alexanders most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russias serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator. In foreign policy, Alexander sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, despite his otherwise pacifist foreign policy, he fought a brief war with Turkey in 1877–78, pursued further expansion into Siberia and the Caucasus, and conquered Turkestan. Although disappointed by the results of the Congress of Berlin in 1878, among his greatest domestic challenges was an uprising in Poland in 1863, to which he responded by stripping that land of its separate constitution and incorporating it directly into Russia. Alexander was proposing additional parliamentary reforms to counter the rise of nascent revolutionary, born in Moscow, Alexander Nikolaevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and of Charlotte of Prussia.
Personal and official censorship was rife, criticism of the authorities was regarded as a serious offence, aleksandrs alleged lack of interest in military affairs resulted from his reaction to the effects of the unsavoury Crimean War of 1853-1856 on his own family and on the whole country. Unusually for the time, the young Alexander was taken on a tour of Russia. He visited many prominent Western European countries in 1838 and 1839, as Tsesarevich, Alexander became the first Romanov heir to visit Siberia. Alexander II succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father in 1855, the first year of his reign was devoted to the prosecution of the Crimean War and, after the fall of Sevastopol, to negotiations for peace led by his trusted counsellor Prince Alexander Gorchakov. The country had exhausted and humiliated by the war. Bribe-taking and corruption were everywhere, in 1867 he sold Alaska to the United States for $7.2 million after recognising the great difficulty of defending it against the United Kingdom or the former British colony of Canada.
After Alexander became emperor in 1855, he maintained a generally liberal course, despite this, he was a target for numerous assassination attempts. On 13 March 1881, members of the Narodnaya Volya party killed him with a bomb and this step had been followed by one even more significant. The hint was taken, in all provinces where serfdom existed, the emancipation was not merely a humanitarian question capable of being solved instantaneously by imperial ukase. It contained very complicated problems, deeply affecting the economic and political future of the nation, the emperor gave his support to the latter project, and the Russian peasantry became one of the last groups of peasants in Europe to shake off serfdom. The architects of the manifesto were Alexanders brother Konstantin, Yakov Rostovtsev. On 3 March 1861, six years after his accession, the law was signed and published. The changes included universal military conscription, introduced for all classes on 1 January 1874
Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies
Ferdinand II was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859. Ferdinand was born in Palermo, to King Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his paternal grandparents were King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies and Queen Maria Carolina of Austria. His maternal grandparents were Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma, Ferdinand I and Charles IV were brothers, both sons of Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony. In his early years he was fairly popular, progressives credited him with Liberal ideas and, in addition, his free and easy manners endeared him to the so-called lazzaroni, the lower classes of Neapolitan society. However, in 1837 he violently suppressed Sicilian demonstrators demanding a constitution, progressive intellectuals, who were motivated by visions of a new society founded upon a modern constitution, continued to demand the King to grant a constitution and to liberalize his rule. In September 1847, violent riots inspired by Liberals broke out in Reggio Calabria, on 12 January 1848 a rising in Palermo spread throughout the island and served as a spark for the Revolutions of 1848 all over Europe.
A dispute, arose as to the nature of the oath which should be taken by the members of the chamber of deputies, as an agreement could not be reached and the King refused to compromise, riots continued in the streets. Eventually, the King ordered the army to break them and dissolved the parliament on 13 March 1849. Although the constitution was never formally abrogated, the King returned to reigning as an absolute monarch, during this period, Ferdinand showed his attachment to Pope Pius IX by granting him asylum at Gaeta. The pope had been forced to flee from Rome following similar revolutionary disturbances. In the meantime, Sicily proclaimed its independence under the leadership of Ruggeru Sèttimu, in response, the King assembled an army of 20,000 under the command of General Carlo Filangieri and dispatched it to Sicily to subdue the Liberals and restore his authority. After a campaign lasting close to nine months, Sicilys Liberal regime was completely subdued on 15 May 1849, between 1848 and 1851, the policies of King Ferdinand caused many to go into exile.
Meanwhile, an estimated 2,000 suspected revolutionaries or dissidents were jailed, gladstone had not actually been to Southern Italy and so some of his accusations were unreliable, but reports of misgovernment in the Two Sicilies were widespread throughout Europe during the 1850s. The British government, which had been the ally and protector of the Bourbon dynasty during the Napoleonic Wars, had already additional interests to limit the independence of the kingdom and it had extensive business interests in Sicily and relied on Sicilian sulfur for certain industries. The King had endeavored to limit British influence, which had begun to cause tension, as Ferdinand ignored the advice of the British and the French governments, those powers recalled their ambassadors in 1856. A soldier attempted to assassinate Ferdinand in 1856, and many believe that the infection he received from the soldiers led to his ultimate demise. He died on 22 May 1859, shortly after the Second French Empire and this would lead to the invasion of his Kingdom by Giuseppe Garibaldi and Italian unification in 1861.
Naples–Portici railway line This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Sigismund, Archduke of Austria
Sigismund of Austria, Archduke of Further Austria was a Habsburg archduke of Austria and ruler of Tirol from 1446 to 1490. Sigismund was born in Innsbruck, his parents were Frederick IV, Duke of Austria and he was a first cousin of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who served as regent until 1446. In 1449, he married Eleanor of Scotland, the daughter of James I, for much of his reign, Sigismund was engaged in disputes with Nicholas of Cusa, bishop of Brixen, for the control of the Eisack and Inn valleys. In 1460, when he had Nicholas imprisoned, he was excommunicated by Pope Pius II, the bishop fled to Todi, but died before the archduke surrendered in order to receive the papal pardon. In 1469, he sold his lands on the Rhine and in the Alsace to Charles, in any case, he bought back these possessions in 1474, and together with the Swiss and the Alsatian cities, he sided against Charles in the Battle of Héricourt. In 1477, Frederick III made him archduke, three years later, Eleanor died, and 1484, Sigismund married the 16-year-old Catherine of Saxony, daughter of Albert, Duke of Saxony.
He had no offspring from either marriage and this coin was the ancestor of many of the major European coin denominations to come and of the US dollar. This production of large coinage exploded as silver from Spains colonies in the Americas flooded the European economy and it is from these reforms in part that Sigismund acquired the nickname of der Münzreiche, or rich in coin. Sigismund was easily swayed by the bad advice of his council and in March 1487 entered into a war with the Republic of Venice. Tyrol stormed the Pass of Calliano and besieged the castle at Rovereto using a massive bombard, the war continued through summer but ended with no decisive victory for either side. One notable casualty of the conflict was the condottiero Roberto Sanseverino dAragona, by 1490 the opposition of the population of Tirol compelled Sigismund to hand over the rulership to Archduke Maximilian I, who became Holy Roman Emperor. Whether Sigismund voluntarily handed over power to Maximilian or was coerced by the latter is not clear.
History of the House of Austria, Henry G. Bohn, New York Street, Covent Garden
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Alfred reigned as Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1893 to 1900. He was the son and fourth child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg. He was known as the Duke of Edinburgh from 1866 until he succeeded his paternal uncle Ernest II as the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and he was second in the line of succession behind his elder brother, the Prince of Wales. He was known to his family as Affie, after a childhood mispronunciation of the name Alfred, Alfred was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley, at the Private Chapel in Windsor Castle on 6 September 1844. His godparents were his mothers first cousin, Prince George of Cambridge, his aunt, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Alfred studied violin at Holyrood, where his accompanist was Hungarian expatriate George Lichtenstein. Alfred remained second in line to the British throne from his birth until 8 January 1864, any legitimate children of his older brother took priority in the succession list.
Alfred became third in line to the throne and as Edward and Alexandra continued to have children, in 1856 it was decided that Prince Alfred, in accordance with his own wishes, should enter the Royal Navy. A separate establishment was accordingly assigned to him, with Lieutenant J. C. Cowell, RE and he passed the examination in August 1858, and was appointed as midshipman in HMS Euryalus at the age of 14. In July 1860, while on this ship, he paid a visit to the Cape Colony. He took part in a hunt at Hartebeeste-Hoek, resulting in the slaughter of large numbers of game animals and she and her late husband had made plans for him to succeed to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg. Prince Alfred, remained in the navy, and was promoted to lieutenant on 24 February 1863 and he was promoted to captain on 23 February 1866 and was appointed to the command of the frigate HMS Galatea in January 1867. In the Queens Birthday Honours on 24 May 1866, the Prince was created Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Ulster and he took his seat in the House of Lords on 8 June.
While still in command of the Galatea, the Duke of Edinburgh started from Plymouth on 24 January 1867 for his round the world. On 7 June 1867, he left Gibraltar, reached the Cape of Good Hope on 24 July and he landed at Glenelg, South Australia, on 31 October. Being the first member of the family to visit Australia. During his stay of five months he visited Adelaide, Sydney, Brisbane. Adelaide school Prince Alfred College was named in his honour to mark such an occasion, at the function he was wounded in the back by a revolver fired by Henry James OFarrell
Michael I of Romania
Michael I reigned as King of Romania from 20 July 1927 to 8 June 1930 and again from 6 September 1940 until his abdication on 30 December 1947. Shortly after his birth, Michaels father Prince Carol had become involved in a relationship with Magda Lupescu. In 1925, Carol was eventually pressured to renounce his rights to the throne, in 1927, Michael ascended the throne following the death of his grandfather, Ferdinand I. As he was still a minor, a council was instituted which composed of his uncle, Prince Nicholas, the Patriarch Miron Cristea. The council proved to be ineffective and in 1930, Carol returned to Romania, as a result, Michael returned to being heir apparent to the throne and was given the additional title of Grand Voievod of Alba-Iulia. Carol II was deposed in 1940, and Michael once again became king, under the government led by the military dictator Ion Antonescu, Romania became aligned with Nazi Germany. In 1944, Michael participated in a coup against Antonescu, appointed Constantin Sănătescu as his replacement, in March 1945, political pressures forced Michael to appoint a pro-Soviet government headed by Petru Groza.
From August 1945 to January 1946, Michael went on a strike and unsuccessfully tried to oppose Grozas Communist-controlled government by refusing to sign. In November, Michael attended the wedding of his cousins, the future Queen Elizabeth II, shortly thereafter, on the morning of 30 December 1947, Groza requested a meeting with Michael where he was forced to abdicate. Michael was forced into exile, confiscated of his properties, and he married Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma in 1948 with whom he had five daughters and eventually settled in Switzerland. Nicolae Ceaușescus communist dictatorship collapsed in 1989 and the following year Michael attempted to return to Romania only to be arrested and forced to leave upon arrival. In 1992, Michael was allowed to visit Romania for Easter where he was greeted by huge crowds, alarmed by Michaels popularity, the government refused to allow Michael further visits. In 1997, after Iliescus defeat by Emil Constantinescu, Michaels citizenship was restored, several confiscated properties, such as Elisabeta Palace, were eventually returned to his family.
He is the last surviving monarch or other head of state from the Interwar period, although often called the last surviving head of state from World War II, this ignores the childhood reigns of King Simeon II of Bulgaria and the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Michael was born at Foișor Castle, Romania, the son of Carol II of Romania and he was born as the grandson of then-reigning King Ferdinand I of Romania. When Carol eloped with his mistress Elena Magda Lupescu and renounced his rights to the throne in December 1925, Michael succeeded to the throne of Romania upon Ferdinands death in July 1927. A regency, which included his uncle, Prince Nicolae, Patriarch Miron Cristea, and the countrys Chief Justice functioned on behalf of the 5-year-old Michael, when he succeeded Ferdinand in 1927. In November 1939, Michael joined the Romanian Senate, as the 1938 Constitution guaranteed him a seat there upon reaching the age of eighteen
Carlos, Duke of Madrid
Don Carlos, Duke of Madrid was the senior member of the House of Bourbon from 1887 until his death. Carlos was born in Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola in what is now Slovenia and his name in full was Carlos María de los Dolores Juan Isidro José Francisco, Quirico Antonio Miguel Gabriel Rafael. As an infant he lived with his family briefly in London where his younger brother Alfonso was born, after their father, considered too liberal for Carlist tastes, left their mother, the boys lived with her in Modena. Her brother Duke Francis V of Modena was largely responsible for the education of the boys and was the influence in their early lives. Carlos was known for his traditionalist views, much different from those of his father, on February 4,1867, at Frohsdorf in Austria, Carlos married Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma, daughter of Duke Charles III of Parma and of his wife, Louise Marie Thérèse of France. The couple had five children, Infanta Blanca of Spain m in 1889 at Frohsdorf Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria, Duke of Madrid Infanta Elvira of Spain died unmarried.
Carlos organized and led the Third Carlist War, between 1872 and 1876 he effectively ruled much of peninsular Spain, having as much legitimacy as the Presidents of the First Republic. In January 1893 Carlos wife, died, the following year he decided to remarry. He consulted his mother who suggested two ladies, Princess Theresia of Liechtenstein and Berthe de Rohan, having met both ladies, Carlos decided on the latter and asked for her hand in marriage. On April 28,1894, Carlos and Berthe were married by Cardinal Schönborn in his chapel in Prague. Berthe had a dominant personality, making the very unpopular among Carlists. All writers agree that this marriage was disastrous, not only for the family of Don Carlos and for himself. Carlos died in Varese in 1909 and he is buried in the Cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste. He was succeeded in his Spanish and French claims by his son Jaime, Carlos VII y su tiempo, Leyenda y realidad. The Curé Santa Cruz and the Carlist War, the Spanish Pretender, Who he is and What he has Been
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization, French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group, UNIDO believes that competitive and environmentally sustainable industry has a crucial role to play in accelerating economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. UNIDO thus works largely in developing countries, with governments, business associations, UNIDO was established as a UN programme in 1966 with headquarters in Vienna and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1985. In 2004, UNIDO established the UNIDO Goodwill Ambassador programme, in 2009, UNIDO created a new flagship publication, Making It, Industry for Development. As of January 2017,168 States are Members of UNIDO, the estimated total volume of UNIDO operations for the biennium 2012–2013 is €460 million, the value of technical cooperation delivery in 2012 amounted to $189.2 million.
UNIDOs services therefore focus on encouraging the creation of decent employment, the technical ability of developing countries to produce competitive exportable products that comply with international standards is key to their successful participation in international trade. Fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development, UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consumption and production to de-link the processes of economic growth and environmental degradation. UNIDO is a provider of services for improved industrial energy efficiency. It assists developing countries in implementing multilateral environmental agreements and in reaching their economic. UNIDO organizes the Global Renewable Energy Forum in October 2009, the Industry Section of the Secretariat became a branch in 1959, and in 1962 it became the Industrial Development Centre, headed by a Commissioner for Industrial Development. In the aftermath, proposals for further institutionalizing industrial development-related issues within the UN were considered by various advisory groups, the United Nations General Assembly created the UNIDO in November 1966 as a special organ of the United Nations.
In January 1967, the Organization was formally established with Headquarters in Vienna, compared to the Industrial Development Centre, UNIDOs creation was intended to broaden the work of its predecessor. The setting up of UNIDO as a special organ had nonetheless been a compromise solution, the developing countries had in the first instance promoted the idea of a specialized agency with its own political decision-making governing bodies and autonomy in budgetary matters. The same position was advocated by several high-level expert groups and intergovernmental committees during the following years, an intergovernmental committee prepared a draft constitution, which was adopted in Vienna in 1979. However, the objections and doubts of industrialized countries as to the necessity of a specialized agency contributed to delaying the ratification process. All necessary formal requirements were fulfilled in 1985, and in December of the same year, during the subsequent years, UNIDO continuously expanded particularly its operational activities.
As a result, the United States, and Australia subsequently withdrew from the Organization between 1993 and 1997, in addition, a weak management structure and lack of focus and integration of UNIDOs activities contributed to aggravate the crisis. UNIDOs Member States responded by adopting a stringent Business Plan on the Future Role, activities laid out in the Business Plan are based on the clear comparative advantages of UNIDO, while avoiding overlap and duplication with other multilateral institutions
Bran Castle, situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Braşov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The fortress is situated on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia, on DN73, commonly known as Draculas Castle, it is often erroneously referred to as the home of the title character in Bram Stokers Dracula. There is, however, no evidence that Stoker knew anything about this castle, which has only tangential associations with Vlad the Impaler, voivode of Wallachia, Stokers description of Draculas crumbling fictional castle bears no resemblance to Bran Castle. The castle is now a dedicated to displaying art and furniture collected by Queen Maria. Tourists can see the interior individually or by a guided tour, at the bottom of the hill is a small open-air museum park exhibiting traditional Romanian peasant structures from across the country. In 1438–1442, the castle was used in defense against the Ottoman Empire and it is believed the castle was briefly held by Mircea the Elder of Wallachia during whose period the customs point was established.
The Wallachian ruler Vlad Țepeș does not seem to have had a significant role in the history of the fortress, although he passed several times through the Bran Gorge. Bran Castle belonged to the Hungarian Kings but due to the failure of King Vladislas II to repay loans, Bran played a militarily strategic role up to the mid-18th century. In 1920 the Treaty of Trianon deprived Hungary of Transylvania, and it became the favorite home and retreat of Queen Marie, who ordered its extensive renovation conducted by the Czech architect Karel Zdeněk Líman. The castle was inherited by her daughter Princess Ileana who ran a hospital there in World War II, however, in October 2007 the Constitutional Court of Romania rejected the parliaments petition on the matter. On 18 May 2009, the Bran Castle administration was transferred from the government to the administration of Archduke Dominic and his sisters Maria-Magdalena Holzhausen, poenari Castle, an authentic Vlad the Impaler castle ruin Corvin Castle a. k. a.
Hunedoara Castle or Hunyadi Castle Castles in Romania Tourism in Romania Official Site of Castle Bran