Dominica the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island country in the West Indies. The capital, Roseau, is located on the western side of the island, it is part of the Windward Islands in the Lesser Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean Sea. The island is located near Guadeloupe to the Martinique to the south-southeast, its area is 750 km2, the highest point is Morne Diablotins, at 1,447 m in elevation. The population was 71,293 at the 2011 census; the Commonwealth of Dominica is one of the Caribbean's few republics. The island was inhabited by the Kalinago and colonised by Europeans, predominantly by the French from the 1690s to 1763. Columbus is said to have passed the island on Sunday 3 November 1493, the island's name is derived from the Latin for "Sunday". Great Britain took possession in 1763 after the Seven Years' War, it established English as its official language; the island republic gained independence in 1978. Its name is pronounced with emphasis on the third syllable, related to its French name of Dominique.
Dominica has been nicknamed the "Nature Isle of the Caribbean" for its natural environment. It is the youngest island in the Lesser Antilles, in fact it is still being formed by geothermal-volcanic activity, as evidenced by the world's second-largest hot spring, called Boiling Lake; the island has lush mountainous rainforests, it is the home of many rare plants and bird species. There are xeric areas in some of the western coastal regions; the Sisserou parrot known as the imperial amazon and found only on Dominica, is the island's national bird and featured on the national flag, one of only two national flags containing the color purple. Dominica's precolonial indigenous inhabitants were the Island Carib people, they had named it Wai‘tu kubuli, which means "Tall is her body."Christopher Columbus, sailing for Spain, named the island as Dominica, after the Latin term dies Dominica for Sunday, the day on which the Spanish first saw it in November 1493. Some Spanish colonizers settled here. But, as European explorers and settlers entered the region, indigenous refugees from surrounding islands settled Dominica and pushed out the Spanish settlers.
They went to other areas that had more natural resources. Spain had little success in colonising Dominica. In 1632, the French Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique claimed it and other "Petites Antilles" for France, but no physical occupation took place. Between 1642 and 1650, French missionary Raymond Breton became the first regular European visitor to the island. In 1660, the French and English agreed that Dominica and St. Vincent should not be settled, but left to the Carib as neutral territory, but its natural resources attracted expeditions of English and French foresters, who began harvesting timber. In 1690, the French established their first permanent settlements. French woodcutters from Martinique and Guadeloupe began to set up timber camps to supply the French islands with wood, they became permanent settlers, they brought the first enslaved Africans from West Africa to Dominique. In 1715, a revolt of "poor white" smallholders in the north of Martinique, known as La Gaoulé, caused settlers to migrate to southern Dominique, where they set up smallholdings.
Meanwhile, French families and others from Guadeloupe settled in the north. In 1727, the first French commander, M. Le Grand, took charge of the island with a basic French government. Dominique formally became a colony of France, the island was divided into districts or "quarters"; the French had developed plantation agriculture on Martinique and Guadeloupe, where they cultivated sugarcane with enslaved African workers. In Dominique they developed coffee plantations, they imported so many African slaves to fill the labour demands that the population became predominantly African in ethnicity. In 1761, during the Seven Years' War in Europe, a British expedition against Dominica led by Andrew Rollo conquered the island, along with several other Caribbean islands. In 1763, France ceded the island to Great Britain under the Treaty of Paris; the same year, the British established a legislative assembly, with only European colonists represented. French remained the official language, but Antillean Creole, which had developed from it, was spoken by most of the population.
In 1778 the French, with the active co-operation of the population, began the Invasion of Dominica. This was ended by the Treaty of Paris, but the island population the class of free people of color, resisted British restrictions. The British retained control through French invasions in 1795 and 1805, the first taking place during the period of the Haitian Revolution, which gained the independence of Haiti. Great Britain established a small colony in 1805, it used Dominica as part of the triangular trade, by which slaves were imported and sold as labour in the islands as part of a trade that included producing and shipping sugar and coffee as commodity crops to Europe. The best documented slave plantation on the island is Hillsborough Estate, which had 71 male and 68 female slaves; the Greg family were notable: Thomas Hodgson, a brother-in-law, owned a slave ship, Thomas Greg and his son John Greg were part-owners of sugar plantations on Dominica. In January 1814, 20 slaves absconded from Hillsborough.
They were recorded as recaptured and punished with 100 lashes applied to the males and 50 for the females. The slaves said that one of their
United States–Zimbabwe relations
United States–Zimbabwe relations are bilateral relations between Zimbabwe and the United States. After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence of Rhodesia in November 1965, the United States recalled its Consul General from Salisbury, closed the U. S. Information Service library, withdrew its U. S. Agency for International Development and trade promotion officials. After 1965, the small remaining American consular staff continued to operate under authority of exequaturs issued by Queen Elizabeth II. Following Rhodesia's declaration of a republic, the United States closed its Consulate General on March 17, 1970. In 1971, despite Administration opposition, the U. S. Congress passed legislation permitting the United States to import strategic materials, such as chrome, from Rhodesia; the legislation, which took effect on January 1, 1972, was of little real economic benefit to the Rhodesian economy, the United States continued to support the balance of the sanctions program. After the legislation was repealed in March 1977, the United States once again enforced all sanctions.
The United States supported the United Nations and the United Kingdom in their efforts to influence Rhodesian authorities to accept the principles of majority rule. Beginning in 1976, the United States began to take a more active role in the search for a settlement in cooperation with the UK; the Anglo-American proposals of late-1977, aimed at bringing a negotiated end to the dispute, lent the weight of the United States to the search for a peaceful settlement and were a counterpart to the Soviet-Cuban use of military power to increase their influence in southern Africa. The United States supported British efforts to bring about and implement the settlement signed at Lancaster House on December 21, 1979, extended official diplomatic recognition to the new government after independence as the Republic of Zimbabwe. A resident Embassy was established in Salisbury on Zimbabwean Independence Day, April 18, 1980; the first U. S. Ambassador arrived and presented his credentials in June 1980. US President Jimmy Carter met with Zimbabwean Prime Minister Robert Mugabe in August 1980.
Author Geoff Hill criticized Carter for keeping "quiet as Mugabe's ZANU government nationalised the press, committed genocide against minority tribes and subverted constitution to make himself the sole source of authority."At the Zimbabwe conference on reconstruction and development in March 1981, the United States pledged $225,000,000 over a three-year period towards the Government of Zimbabwe's goals of post-war reconstruction and development of land, the development of skilled manpower. By the end of FY 1986, the United States had contributed $380,000,000 the majority in grants, with some loans and loan guarantees. However, in July 1986, the US Government decided to discontinue future bilateral aid to Zimbabwe as a result of a continuing pattern of uncivil and undiplomatic statements and actions by the Government of Zimbabwe in the United Nations and elsewhere. Aid programmes agreed upon were not affected by the decision. Full programming was restored in 1988. USAID assistance to Zimbabwe since 2002 has focused on family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention and governance programs, emergency food aid, assistance to internally displaced persons.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a direct assistance program in August 2000. CDC's program consists of prevention of HIV transmission, improved care for persons with HIV/AIDS, surveillance and evaluation of the epidemic, health-sector infrastructure support. Since 2000, the United States has taken a leading role in condemning the Zimbabwean Government's increased assault on human rights and the rule of law, has joined much of the global village in calling for the Government of Zimbabwe to embrace a peaceful democratic evolution. In 2002 and 2003, the United States imposed targeted measures on the Government of Zimbabwe, including financial and visa sanctions against selected individuals, a ban on transfers of defence items and services, a suspension of non-humanitarian government-to-government assistance. Despite strained political relations, the United States continues as a leading provider of humanitarian assistance to the people of Zimbabwe, providing about $400,000,000 in humanitarian assistance from 2002–07, most of it being food aid.
French President Jacques Chirac angered the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States in February 2003, when he invited President Mugabe to a Franco-African conference on Africa held in France. Mugabe said, he held firm to his principles. We need leaders of his stature." Chirac emphasised that he had not kissed Mugabe on his cheeks when the conference began. The UK had tried to get the European Union to deny Mugabe the right to come to Europe, citing human rights abuses in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwean Foreign Minister Simbarashe Mumbengegwi summoned the U. S. Ambassador to Zimbabwe Christopher Dell on November 9, 2005, expressed his "extreme displeasure" with comments Dell made a few days earlier in Mutare: Dell had said government corruption had led to food shortages. Mugabe replied that Dell could "go to hell." Dell left Zimbabwe for Washington, D. C. United States, on November 9 for consultations after meeting with Mumbengegwi. Mugabe visited Washington DC informally in September 1980, on official working visits in September 1983, July 1991 and 1995, meeting with Presidents Carter, Reagan and Clinton respectively.
He has led a Zimbabwean delegation to the UN on several occasions, most in 2006. Vice-President G
United States–Zambia relations
The diplomatic relationship between the United States of America and Zambia can be characterized as warm and cooperative. Several U. S. administrations cooperated with Zambia's first president, Kenneth Kaunda, in hopes of facilitating solutions to the conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. The United States works with the Zambian Government to defeat the HIV/AIDS pandemic, ravaging Zambia, to promote economic growth and development, to effect political reform needed to promote responsive and responsible government; the United States is supporting the government's efforts to root out corruption. Zambia is a beneficiary of Opportunity Act; the U. S. Government provides a variety of technical assistance and other support, managed by the Department of State, U. S. Agency for International Development, Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Treasury, Department of Defense, Peace Corps; the majority of U. S. assistance is provided through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in support of the fight against HIV/AIDS.
In addition to supporting development projects, the United States has provided considerable emergency food aid during periods of drought and flooding through the World Food Program and is a major contributor to refugee programs in Zambia through the UN High Commission for Refugees and other agencies. According to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 59% of Zambians approve of U. S. leadership, with 30% disapproving and 11% uncertain. In 2007, U. S. assistance to Zambia exceeded $259 million. USAID's program in Zambia included over $116 million for HIV/AIDS programs utilizing PEPFAR funding and $11 million to fight corruption and increase trade under the MCA Threshold Program. In addition to programs funded through PEPFAR, the President's Malaria Initiative, the Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program, USAID's program in Zambia supported training and technical assistance to promote economic growth through trade and investment. A country agreement inviting the Peace Corps to work in Zambia was signed by the United States and Zambia on September 14, 1993.
The first group of volunteers was sworn in on April 7, 1994. The Peace Corps program in Zambia has continued to increase with more than 200 American volunteers working to promote sustainable development through their activities in agricultural and natural resource management and sanitation, rural education, humanitarian assistance. Volunteers are working in all of Zambia's nine provinces to build the local capacity to manage family fish farms, develop an innovative paradigm via appropriate technologies, to promote food security and promote positive resource management practices, to implement health reforms at the village level, to promote and support rural education, to extend HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts through full participation in PEPFAR. Volunteers live in rural villages in remote parts of the country without running water, electricity, or other amenities. Peace Corps Zambia has one of the highest rates of extension and enjoys successful partnerships with many other aid organizations in Zambia.
Ambassador--Donald Booth Deputy Chief of Mission—Michael Koplovsky Public Affairs Officer—Christopher Wurst Political/Economic Section Chief—Jill Derderian Consular Officer—Malia Heroux Defense Attaché—Lt. Col. David Dougherty Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—vacant USAID Mission Director—Melissa Williams Peace Corps Director—Thomas Kennedy The U. S. Embassy in Zambia is in Lusaka; the US Embassy realizes Zambia's potential to become one of Africa's leading free market democracies, they are committed to aiding critical areas of Zambia's development like human and financial resources. Zambia is one of the 15 countries promised a total of 1.5 billion dollars for AIDS Relief under President Bush's Emergency Plan. In education, the Ambassador's Scholarship Program provides education for 1,500 Zambian boys and girls; the Embassy's Public Affairs Section sends about 15 Zambians a year to the US to participate in International Visitor programs, brings speakers from the US to Zambia about 4 times a year.
It provides for scholars from the US to come to Zambia for longer stays, sends Zambians to study in the US on Humphrey and Fulbright Fellowships. To promote economic development, The US government is prepared to forgive 100% of Zambia's bilateral debt when Zambia completes the Highly Indebted Poor Country initiative; until the US government has forgiven all payments of interest and principal on Zambia's half billion dollar debt to the US, in 2003, $34 million in payments were forgiven. Zambian Americans Foreign relations of Zambia Foreign relations of the United States New York Times: "For the hungry in Zambia, U. S. law may hinder urgent food aid" This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Zambia - U. S. relations Media related to Relations of the United States and Zambia at Wikimedia Commons
Somalia–United States relations
Somalia–United States relations are bilateral relations between the Federal Republic of Somalia and the United States of America. Somalia has an embassy in Washington, D. C. while the United States is represented through its embassy in Nairobi, due to the security situation in Somalia. Somalia had historic relations with the United States under the Geledi Sultanate. In 1776, the Geledi Sultanate was the first independent state in Africa to recognise the United States, diplomatic relations were established in 1777 with the Geledi sharing naval intelligence with the American naval forces. In 1897, the Geledi Sultanate sent a high-profile delegation to New York under their foreign minister Khalid Aden Mohammed and signed the Indian Ocean Naval Treaty to combat Zanzibar slave trading. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Somalia's socialist government abandoned alliances with its former partner the Soviet Union due to fallout over the Ogaden War; because the Soviet Union had close relations with both the Somali government and Ethiopia's new communist Dergue regime, they were forced to choose one side to commit to.
The Soviet shift in support to Ethiopia motivated the Siad Barre government to seek allies elsewhere. It settled on the Soviet Unions' Cold War rival, the United States; the US had been courting the Somali government for some time on account of Somalia's strategic position at the mouth of the Bab el Mandeb gateway to the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. Somalia's initial friendship with the Soviet Union and military support by the United States enabled it to build the largest army on the continent. After the collapse of the Barre government and the start of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s, the United States embassy in Mogadishu was evacuated and closed down. However, the American government never formally severed diplomatic ties with Somalia, leading the UN-sanctioned multinational Unified Task Force in southern Somalia. Following the establishment of the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, the U. S. acknowledged and supported the internationally recognized TFG as the country's national governing body.
It engaged Somalia's regional administrations, such as Puntland and Somaliland, to ensure broad-based inclusion in the peace process. The Federal Government of Somalia was established on August 20, 2012, concurrent with the end of the TFG's interim mandate, it represents the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war. On September 10, 2012, the new Federal Parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as the incumbent President of Somalia; the election was welcomed by the U. S. authorities, who re-affirmed United States' continued support for Somalia's government, its territorial integrity and sovereignty. In January 2013, the U. S. announced that it was set to exchange diplomatic notes with the new central government of Somalia, re-establishing official ties with the country for the first time in 20 years. According to the Department of State, the decision was made in recognition of the significant progress that the Somali authorities had achieved on both the political and war fronts.
The move is expected to grant the Somali government access to new sources of development funds from American agencies as well as international bodies like the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, thereby facilitating the ongoing reconstruction process. At the behest of the Somali and American federal governments, among other international actors, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 during its 6 March 2013 meeting to suspend the 21-year arms embargo on Somalia; the endorsement lifts the purchase ban on light weapons for a provisional period of one year, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles and cannons. On April 9, 2013, the U. S. government approved the provision of defense articles and services by the American authorities to the Somali Federal Government. At the request of the Somali authorities and AMISOM, the U. S. military in late 2013 established a small team of advisers in Mogadishu to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces.
On 5 May 2015, President of Somalia Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, other senior Somali government officials met with US Secretary of State John Kerry in Mogadishu. The bilateral meeting was the first visit to Somalia by an incumbent US Secretary of State, it served as a symbol of the ameliorated political and security situation in the country. The officials focused on the benchmarks enshrined within Somalia's Vision 2016 political roadmap, as well as cooperation in the security sector. In January 2017 after President Donald Trump took office, Somali citizens were temporary banned from entering the United States by the executive order "Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States." This includes Somali refugees who are willing to resettle in the United States through the US refugee admissions program. After the election of Somali-American dual citizen Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed as the next Somali President, US Secretary Of State Rex Tillerson congratulated the president-elect and is looking forward to strengthen the relationship between Somalia and the United States and that the recent elections marks an important milestone in Somalia’s ongoing transition to peace and prosperity.
The United States has continued to be one of the main suppliers of armaments to the Somali National Army. In June 2009, the reconstituted SNA received 40 tonnes worth of arms and ammunition from the U. S. government to assist it in com
North American Union
The North American Union is a theoretical economic and political continental union of Canada and the United States. The concept is loosely based on the European Union including a common currency called the Amero or the North American Dollar. A union of the North American continent, sometimes extending to Central and South America, has been the subject of academic concepts for over a century, as well as becoming a common trope in science fiction. One reason for the difficulty in realizing the concept is that individual developments in each region have failed to prioritize a larger union; some form of union has been discussed or proposed in academic and political circles for decades. However, government officials from all three nations say there are no plans to create a North American Union and that no agreement to do so has been proposed, much less signed; the formation of a North American Union has been the subject of various conspiracy theories. Since at least the mid-19th century, numerous concepts for a union among Canada and the United States of America, some including the Caribbean, the Central American and the South American countries, have been proposed, such as the North American Technate.
Following the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Maastricht Treaty going into effect there was speculation about the formation of a North American Union, similar to the European Union created by Maastricht, being a possible future step for the region. Several proposals for continental integration of North America advocated the creation of a union styled after the European Union, though many academic and business groups advocated less dramatic changes involving the formation of a customs union or common market. While serving as a policy adviser to the presidential campaign of Vicente Fox during the 2000 general election in Mexico, Jorge Castañeda, influenced by academic Robert Pastor's ideas on deepening integration of NAFTA, encouraged Fox to include policies on integration as part of his campaign. Before and after the election Fox made appearances on several U. S. news programs advocating greater integration including a plan to open up the U. S.-Mexico border within ten years. Some in the United States saw this proposal for open borders as a call for or inevitable step towards a "North American Union" and received it with a mixture of praise and criticism, with critics like Pat Buchanan suggesting it would mean an end to U.
S. sovereignty. During an interview for Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy in 2001, after he was elected president, Fox said that he sought with the United States a "convergence of our two economies, convergence on the basic and fundamental variables of the economy, convergence on rates of interest, convergence on income of people, convergence on salaries." He suggested this might take as long as 20 years to be realized, but the ultimate "convergence" he saw between the United States and Mexico would allow them to "erase that border, open up that border for free flow of products, capital as well as people". Fox cited the success he claimed countries Republic of Ireland and Spain had in modernizing their economies and raising the standard of living for their citizens by joining what is now the European Union. Vicente Fox proposed a plan to U. S. President George W. Bush and Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien that he said would move the North American continent towards an economic union based on the example of the European Union.
Fox's proposal was rejected by President Bush, with Fox alleging in his book Revolution of Hope that the White House wanted him to "stop raising hackles" by talking about a North American Union. Amid a push for greater integration and concerns about the impact of heightened security on trade relations following the September 11 attacks in 2001, an effort was organized in 2003 by the Canadian Council of Chief Executives, U. S. Council on Foreign Relations, the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations called the Independent Task Force on North America. Several weeks before a meeting of North American leaders on March 23, 2005 the Task Force issued a press release and a statement from the Task Force's chairmen calling for deeper integration of NAFTA to form a North American Economic and Security Community by 2010. A January 2005 diplomatic cable, released by WikiLeaks in 2011 includes discussion by U. S. government officials about the best approach to North American integration based on an assessment of Canadian views.
The cable suggested a new "North American Initiative" that would address goals in the areas of "security" and "prosperity" through incremental measures, saying such a proposal would get the most support from Canadian policymakers. It notes many Canadian economists supported "ambitious" goals like a single market, with some supporting a monetary union, but that they believed the incremental approach was more appropriate at the time. Canada's central bank governor is quoted in the cable as having said that a monetary union is "an issue that should be considered once we have made more progress towards establishing a single market." The National Post's Robert Hiltz described the cable in June 2011 as discussing "the obstacles surrounding the merger of the economies of Canada, the United States and Mexico in a fashion similar to the European Union."Two months at the March meeting of North American leaders, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was formed. It was described by the leaders of Canada and the United States as a dialogue to provide greater cooperation on security and economic issues.
In response to concerns, a section was put up on the initiative's site clarifying the SPP was not a legal agreement, that the initiative
Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative
The Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative is a United States legal framework from 2007 that requires all travelers to show a valid passport, passport card, or other approved secure document when traveling to the U. S. from areas within the Western Hemisphere. The purpose, according to the U. S. Department of State and U. S. Department of Homeland Security, is to strengthen border security and facilitate entry into the United States for both legitimate U. S. citizens and foreign visitors. The initiative is an outcome of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, approved after the September 11th, 2001 al Qaeda mass-terror attacks on the US; the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative was implemented to deter or prevent the use of forged documents, both for terror and criminal purposes. The following documents are acceptable for border crossings for most travelers: U. S. citizens and nationals: U. S. passport Passport card State enhanced driver's license approved by the Secretary of Homeland Security Trusted traveler program card A valid Merchant Mariner Document when traveling in conjunction with official maritime business A valid U.
S. military identification card when traveling on official orders The final rule outlines ongoing efforts to provide other alternative documents. U. S. lawful permanent residents: Lawful Permanent Resident Card. Canadian citizens: A valid Canadian passport Provincial enhanced driver's license A valid trusted traveler program card. Bermudian permanent residents: A British Overseas Territories passport with valid Bermudian belonger status. Mexican nationals: A valid Mexican passport and a visa A valid Form DSP-150, B-1/B-2 laser visa A valid SENTRI card may be used for access to expedited border crossing lanesUS or Canadian citizen children under age 16 can use other documents as identification, including a birth certificate, for land and sea border crossings. Native Americans in the United States and Canada may be able to use certain additional forms of identification: Members of the Kickapoo Band of Texas and Tribe of Oklahoma will continue to be able to use the I-872 American Indian Card, regardless of U.
S. or Mexican citizenship. Members of other U. S. tribes may use an "Enhanced Tribal Card", when available and approved by DHS. Members of Canadian tribes may be allowed to use the proposed Secure Certificate of Indian Status designed and approved by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, waiting for DHS approval. In addition to the other documents designated under WHTI, U. S. citizens on round-trip cruise-ship voyages that begin and end at the same port of entry in the United States may carry a government-issued photo ID and birth certificate, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, or Certificate of Naturalization. Foreign nationals need a WHTI-designated document to travel to the United States on a cruise ship. Beginning on January 23, 2007, all persons traveling by air to the United States from all foreign countries are required to present a valid passport, NEXUS card, or U. S. Coast Guard/Merchant Mariner Document. On January 31, 2008, U. S. Customs and Border Protection officers stopped taking verbal declarations of citizenship from U.
S. Canadian, or Bermudian travelers as proof of citizenship arriving from sea and land ports of entry. On March 27, 2008, the Departments of Homeland Security and State announced that "full implementation" of the land and sea provisions of WHTI would begin June 1, 2009; the U. S. Department of State names the following jurisdictions: Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Aruba Bahamas Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Caribbean Netherlands Cayman Islands Costa Rica Curaçao Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Jamaica Mexico Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands The following jurisdictions in the Western Hemisphere are not named by the Department of State: Barbados Belize Cuba El Salvador Greenland Guadeloupe Guatemala Haiti Honduras Martinique Nicaragua Panama Trinidad and Tobago Bureau of Consular Affairs Visa Waiver Program Official website Bureau of Consular Affairs, U. S. Department of State
Angola–United States relations
Angola – United States relations are diplomatic relations between the Republic of Angola and the United States of America. These relations were tense during the Angolan Civil War when the U. S. government backed National Union for the Total Independence of Angola rebels, but have warmed since the Angolan government renounced Communism in 1992. Starting in the 1970s, the U. S. supported the National Liberation Front of Angola and UNITA, insurgents opposing the ruling political party, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola. When it was discovered that Communist Cuba had 30,000 troops in Angola, the Republican administration of President Ford attempted to counter them; this was thwarted by the Tunney/Clark amendment, passed by a Democratic congress forbidding any involvement. The United States opposed Angola's membership in the United Nations from its declaration of independence in 1975 to its acceptance in December 1976. Angola did not have formal relations with the United States until 1993.
Fidel Castro regarded the attitude of the United States: Why were they vexed? Why had they planned everything to take possession of Angola before 11 November? Angola is a country rich in resources. In Cabinda there is lots of oil; some imperialists wonder. They are used to thinking that one country helps another one only when it wants its oil, diamonds or other resources. No, we are not after material interests and it is logical that this is not understood by the imperialist, they only know chauvinistic and selfish criteria. By helping the people of Angola we are fulfilling a fundamental duty of Internationalism. In a meeting by the National Security Council on 27 June 1975 including President Gerald Ford, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, CIA Director William Egan Colby among others, the U. S. took a closer look at the development in Angola after they became aware of Soviet aid for the MPLA. They found, it was clear that whoever owned the capital owned the country, similar to the situation during the civil war in the Congo, where the U.
S. helped their allies succeed in holding the capital Leopoldville, thus securing or regaining control of all of Zaire. The U. S. considered a diplomatic campaign, both of which Kissinger dismissed. In the further course of the conversation President Ford declared, in spite of planned elections, it is important to get "his man" in first, referring to Savimbi. Secretary Schlesinger thought. Cabinda in the clutches of Mobutu would mean far greater security of the petroleum resources". In any case success must be certain before anything is done otherwise the US should remain neutral. For the president it was unacceptable to do nothing, he ordered the preparation of options. The United States had known of South Africa's covert invasion plans in advance and co-operated militarily with its forces, contrary to Kissinger's testimony to Congress at the time, as well as the version in his memoirs and what President Ford told the Chinese, who were worried about South African engagement in Angola. A report by Henry Kissinger of 13.
January 1976 gives an insight into the activities and hostilities in Angola, inter alia:. There follows an updated situation report based on classified sources. A: Diplomatic Two Cuban delegations were present in Addis Ababa. During the just concluded Organization for African Unity meeting, one..... Headed by Osmany Cienfuegos, PCC? Official concerned with Africa and Middle East and member of the PCC Central Committee, visited the Congo, Nigeria and Algeria prior to the OAU meeting. Another Cuban delegation was headed by Cuba's ambassador Ricardo Alarcon. In late December early January an MPLA delegation visited Jamaica, Guyana and Panama to obtain support for its cause; the delegation is still in the region. B: Military It is estimated that Cuba may now have as many as 9,000 troops in Angola, based on the number of Cuban airlifts and sealifts which have presently transited Angola. Military assistance to the MPLA may have cost Cuba the equivalent of U. S. $30 million. This figure includes the value of the military equipment that Cuba has sent to Angola, the costs of transporting men and materiel, the cost of maintaining troops in the field.
Cuban troops bore the brunt of fighting in the MPLA offensive in the northern sector last week which resulted in MPLA capture of Uige. The MPLA may be preparing for an offensive in the south at the request of the SWAPO. Eight Soviet fighters MiG-17s, are reported being assembled in Luanda; these fighters arrived from an unknown source at the end of December. Eight MiGs, type unknown, are expected to be sent to Angola from Nigeria, numerous Cuban pilots arrived during December; the pilots are operating many aircraft now available to the MPLA including a Fokker Friendship F-27. The Cubans will operate the MiGs. Cuban troops are in complete control of Luanda by January 9, they are conducting all security patrols, operating police checkpoints, will soon assume control of Luanda's airport complex. Cuba may have begun to use 200 passenger capacity IL-42 aircraft in its airlift support operations; the IL-42 has double the capacity of Bristol Britannias and IL? which Cuba has employed and has a longer range as well.
IL-42 left Havana for Luanda Jan. 10. and Jan. 11. C: Other: All Portuguese commercial flights now landing at Luanda carry as cargo as much food as possible. Food supplies available to the general population have become