United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Adolph Alexander Weinman
Adolph Alexander Weinman was a German-born American sculptor and architectural sculptor. Born in Durmersheim, near Karlsruhe, Weinman arrived in the United States at the age of 14. At the age of 15, he attended evening classes at Cooper Union and studied at the Art Students League of New York with sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Philip Martiny, he served as an assistant to Charles Niehaus, Olin Warner, Daniel Chester French. Weinman opened his own studio in 1904. Although Weinman is now best remembered as a medalist, when he once was introduced as such he vehemently denied being one and said that he was an architectural sculptor, his steadiest income was derived from the sale of small bronze reproductions of his larger works, such as Descending Night commissioned for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, 1915. Weinman was a member of the National Sculpture Society and served as its president from 1927 to 1930, he served on the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts from 1929 to 1933.
He was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the National Institute of Arts and Letters, the National Academy of Design, the New York City Art Commission, among other organizations. Weinman died in Port Chester, New York, on August 8, 1952. Following a mass at Manhattan's St. Patrick's Cathedral, he was buried at Calvary Cemetery in Queens. Weinman's papers are at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art, his son Robert Weinman was a sculptor. Despite his objections, Weinman is still best remembered as the designer of the Walking Liberty Half Dollar and the "Mercury" dime along with various medals for the Armed Services of the United States. Among these are the identical reverses of the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, the American Campaign Medal. Weinman was one of many artists who employed Audrey Munson as a model; as an architectural sculptor, Weinman's work can be found on the Wisconsin and Louisiana state capitol buildings.
He became the sculptor of choice for the architectural firm McKim and White and designed sculpture for their Manhattan Municipal Building, Madison Square Presbyterian Church, Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument, the since-demolished Pennsylvania Railroad Station, all in New York City. A photograph of one of his angels, Day, in a landfill in New Jersey is one of the saddest reminders of the destruction of Penn Station in 1963, but two of his eagles were retained as trophies outside the entrance to the new subterranean Penn Station. Elsewhere he created the dramatic frieze on the Elks National Veterans Memorial in Chicago and executed sculpture for the Post Office Department Building, the Jefferson Memorial, the interior of the U. S. Supreme Court, all in Washington, D. C. Weinman's non-architectural works include the Maybury monuments in Detroit. Another example of his non-architectural work is his Abraham Lincoln Statue located in the center of Hodgenville, Kentucky. Weinman was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949.
Weinman's works are executed in a lyrical neoclassical style. His figures wear classical drapery, but there is a fluidity found in his work, a harbinger of the Art Deco style, to follow him, his bronze statuette. This work evokes classical sculpture in its attention to anatomy and movement and the nude status of the athlete while the subject, a modern golfer, provides a modern twist. Weinman taught. General Alexander Macomb, Michigan. Union Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Wyman Park, Maryland. Abraham Lincoln, Kentucky. A replica of this is at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Alexander Johnston Cassatt, Pennsylvania Station, New York City. Abraham Lincoln, Kentucky State Capitol, Kentucky. William Cotter Maybury Memorial, Grand Circus Park, Michigan. Rising Sun, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California. Descending Night, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California. Samuel Rea, Pennsylvania Station, New York City. Fountain of the Centaurs, Missouri State Capitol, Jefferson City, Missouri.
Pair of Lions, Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland. Dewitt Clinton and Alexander Hamilton, Museum of the City of New York, New York City. Riders of the Dawn, Brookgreen Gardens, Murrell's Inlet, South Carolina. Architectural sculpture, Pennsylvania Station, McKim and White, architects. Salvaged pieces of statuary survive in multiple locations. Architectural sculpture, Madison Square Presbyterian Church, New York City, McKim and White, architects. Architectural sculpture, Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument, Fort Greene Park, New York City, McKim and White, architects. Masonic Sphinxes: Power and Wisdom, House of the Temple, Washington, D. C. John Russell Pope, architect. Architectural sculpture, Manhattan Municipal Building, New York City, McKim and White, architects. Bronze doors, American Academy of Arts and Letters administration building, West 155th Street, Audubon Terrace, New York City. Architectural sculpture, Elks National Veterans Memorial, Illinois. Architectural sculpture: South Pediment, Missouri State Capitol, Jeffers
Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal
The Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Marine Corps. It was established on 8 May 1919 as the Marine Corps Expeditionary Ribbon. A full-sized medal was authorized on 1 March 1921 by Presidential Order of Warren G. Harding; the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal is therefore one of the oldest medals of the United States military, still issued to active duty personnel. To be awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, a Marine must have engaged in a landing on foreign territory, participated in combat operations against an opposing force, or participated in a designated operation for which no other service medal is authorized. After 1961, some commands permitted eligible personnel to choose between the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal, or the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, depending on the nature of the operation in question; the medal was designed by Walker Hancock and features a 1920s-era Marine in full combat gear, advancing with one foot in the water and one foot on land, bayonet at the ready, with the word "Expeditions".
On the reverse of both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, in the center of the bronze medallion an eagle is shown alight upon an anchor. The eagle is grasping sprigs of laurel. Above the eagle are the words UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS or UNITED STATES NAVY presented as an arch. Above the laurel are the words FOR SERVICE presented horizontally; the eagle is the American bald eagle and represents the United States, the anchor alludes to Marine Corps or Navy service, the laurel is symbolic of victory and achievement. Subsequent awards of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal were denoted by award numerals. After 1921, multiple awards were denoted by bronze service stars; the Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for navy personnel who were on duty with and attached to a Marine Corps unit that participated in combat. The Wake Island Device is authorized for any personnel who were awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal as part of the defense of Wake Island during the opening days of World War II.
Under the "deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded" clause, both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been awarded for classified operations with proper adjudication by the Secretary of the Navy Special Awards Board. The MCEM and NEM "can be authorized and awarded to individuals or units who have participated in classified operations not in connection with larger operations in which the public is aware.” The SECNAV INSTRUCTION 1650.1H - NAVY AND MARINE CORPS AWARDS MANUAL details the process via the Special Awards Board for issuing classified awards. Anecdotal reports from former service members cite a wide variety of classified operations for which the MCEM and NEM have been awarded, ranging from Marine Corps units clandestinely deployed in Africa, to helicopter gun-crews or force protection units assisting SEAL-DEVGRU or DeltaForce teams worldwide, classified submarine movements during the Cold War. In cases where the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal or Navy Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for classified operations, the name of the operation is omitted from public documentation including from the individual service member’s DD214 personnel record with only the name of the award and issue date provided.
Both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been fraudulently worn by military service members convicted under the UCMJ and civilians fraudulently claiming to have been awarded the MCEM or NEM along with other medals such as the Purple Heart. It has been reported that L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology, fraudulently claimed being awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal. Awards and decorations of the United States military
Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal
The Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal is a campaign medal of the United States Navy, authorized by an act of the United States Congress on 8 November 1929. The Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was awarded for service during operations in Nicaragua from 1926 to 1933, during the Nicaraguan civil war and the subsequent occupation. An earlier campaign medal, the Nicaraguan Campaign Medal, was awarded for service in Nicaragua 1912; the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was created by General Orders 197 of the Navy Department and approved by Congress to recognize participation by Navy and Marine Corps personnel in naval operations at Nicaragua between the dates of 27 August 1926 and 2 January 1933. The Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal appeared as a medal suspended from a red ribbon with several white stripes; the medal displayed a woman, defending two other figures with a cloak. The medal bore the words Second Nicaraguan Campaign with the dates 1926 – 1930 displayed on the medal’s edges. To be awarded the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal, a service member must have either served ashore during the specified period or on a United States ship, or as an embarked Marine, in the waters or land territory of Nicaragua during the aforementioned dates.
The Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal was considered a separate award from the first version of the medal and Navy regulations permitted the receipt and wear of both medals, if so authorized. Rear Admiral W. H. H. Southerland, in overall command of both Nicaraguan campaigns, was the first recipient of both versions of the Nicaraguan Campaign Medal. No ribbon attachments or devices were authorized; the crews of the following ships were awarded the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal for service during the noted periods of time
Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are the medals, service ribbons, specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U. S. Armed Forces; such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career. While each service has its own order of precedence, the following general rules apply to all services: U. S. military personal decorations U. S. military unit awards U. S. non-military personal decorations Presidential awards National Medals DoD and JCS Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Superior Service awards Agency-specific Meritorious Service awards Agency-specific Commendation awards Agency-specific Achievement awards Civilian unit awards Civilian service awards U. S. non-military unit awards U. S. military campaign and service medals U. S. military service and training awards U. S. Merchant Marine awards and non-military service awards Foreign military personal decorations Foreign military unit awards Non-U.
S. Service awards Foreign military service awards Marksmanship awards Awards of U. S. military societies and other organizations6a 6b State awards of the National Guard Notes on branch-specific exceptions to the above: 1a In the Army, unit awards are worn as a separate grouping, on the right side of the uniform and without frames, are worn in the order of precedence from the wearer’s right to left. 1b In the Navy, unit award ribbons are only worn on the right side of the uniform, when wearing full medals on the left side. Arrange ribbons in order of precedence in rows from top down, inboard to outboard. For U. S. Navy, the USPHS unit awards are considered unit awards. However, if Navy personnel are awarded USPHS personal decorations the USPHS order of precedence would apply. 2 Some awards, despite being ribbon-only, are higher in precedence. The Navy & Coast Guard Combat Action Ribbons and the Coast Guard's Commandant's Letter of Commendation Ribbon are included with personal decorations, while two Air Force ribbon-only awards and the Coast Guard Enlisted Person of the Year Ribbon are considered in the same category as service medals.
3a Marksmanship Awards in the Air Force are considered training awards. 3b The Army and Marine Corps issue Marksmanship Qualification Badges instead of Marksmanship awards. 4 For Navy, Merchant Marine awards are considered U. S. non-military awards. 5 The obsolete Philippine Commonwealth service awards, when still listed in the order of precedence, come before the United Nations medals or before the Merchant Marine awards. 6a For Navy and ribbons from military societies, such as the Army and Navy Union of the United States, worn in the order earned may be worn after marksmanship awards. Medals and badges issued by these societies may be worn only while attending meetings or conventions or while participating in parades or other ceremonies as a member of these organizations. 6b For Army, no allowance of military society medals or ribbons is prescribed. More badges of the Army and Navy Union of the United States of America are authorized for such active duty ANU members without further restriction.
Badges of other civic and quasi-military societies of the United States, international organizations of a military nature may be worn with restrictions. These include badges of organizations composed of members who served in a U. S. force during the Revolutionary War. The badges are worn only while the wearer is attending meetings or functions of such organizations, or on occasions of ceremony. Personnel will not wear these badges to and from such events. Notes: Precedence of particular awards will vary among the different branches of service. All awards and decorations may be awarded to any service member unless otherwise designated by name or notation. Note: ^ The precedence of the Purple Heart was before the Good Conduct Medals until changed to its current precedence in 1985. Inter-service Air Force Army Coast Guard Navy and Marine CorpsTo denote additional achievements or multiple awards of the same decoration, the United States military maintains a number of award devices which are pinned to service ribbons and medals.
Awards and decorations of the National Guard Awards and decorations of the state defense forces U. S. military personnel having received these awards have either been discharged or retired for a substantial length of time and/or are deceased. The following decorations were designed for issuance with an approved medal, but were either never approved for presentation or were discontinued bef
The NC-4 Medal is a military decoration, authorized by the United States Congress in 1929 to commemorate the 1919 trans-Atlantic crossing by the members of the NC-4 mission. Awarded as a non-wearable table medal, in 1935 a wearable version of the medal was subsequently authorized. A commemorative medal, the NC-4 Medal was a one-time award, does not appear on U. S. Navy award precedence charts. In 1919, the United States Navy decided to plan a mission to complete the first trans-Atlantic crossing by aircraft; this mission would demonstrate the capabilities of the Navy Curtis seaplane. The mission began with three identical aircraft, NC-1, NC-3, NC-4 departing from Naval Air Station Rockaway on May 8, 1919. On May 15 the aircraft arrived at Trepassey, having made intermediate stops along the way. There they met their "base ship" the USS Aroostook converted from minelayer to seaplane tender. After repairs and refitting, the NC's took off for the Azores on 16 May. During this longest leg of the journey, the planes were guided by a picket of twenty-two U.
S. Navy ships spaced 50 miles apart; the ships, brightly illuminated, kept the aircraft on course through the night. After flying all night, NC-4 was the sole aircraft to arrive in the Azores. After an elapsed flying time of 15 hours, 18 minutes, NC-4 arrived at the town of Horta on Faial Island in the Azores on May 17, 1919; the crew had flown about 1,200 miles. During the flight bad weather had forced the NC-1 and NC-3 to land in the open sea, with the NC-4 being the only aircraft to complete the flight. Following the 1928 Congressional Gold Medal awarded to Charles Lindbergh for the first solo trans-Atlantic flight, Representative James Russell Leech of Pennsylvania sought to recognize the NC-4 crew. In 1929, he introduced legislation to honoring the accomplishment of the NC-4 crew, for the first trans-Atlantic flight; the United States Congress passed Public Law 70-714 on February 9, 1929. This created the legal authorization to award medals to the members of the NC-4 crew; the law read: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President be, is hereby, authorized to award, in the name of Congress, gold medals of appropriate design to Commander John H. Towers for conceiving and commanding the first trans-Atlantic flight.
Read, United States Navy, commanding officer NC-4. Rodd, United States Navy, radio operator; the original medal was presented as table medal. This medal was presented to Lieutenant Commander Read, the other five members of the NC-4 crew. A medal was awarded to Commander Towers, commander of NC-3, which did not complete the flight. While he may have served as NC-3's commander, he was in command of the mission as commander of Seaplane Division One. On April 29, 1935, Congress passed Public Law 74-43 which allowed personnel of the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps to wear miniature versions of medals not intended for wear; this meant that awards like the NC-4 Medal could now be worn, at the discretion of the Secretary of the Navy, on the military uniform, borne by an appropriate suspension ribbon or worn as a service ribbon in less formal occasions. The obverse of the medal bears the stylized image of a seagull, flying above ocean waves, surrounded by the words FIRST TRANSATLANTIC FLIGHT UNITED STATES NAVY MAY 1919 in relief along the outer edges of the medal.
On the reverse, in the center of the medal surrounded by a circle is the inscription NC-4, with NEWFOUNDLAND above it and PORTUGAL below. In the lower half of the medal, in two arcs, is the inscription PRESENTED · BY · THE · PRESIDENT · OF · THE · UNITED · STATES · IN · THE · NAME · OF · CONGRESS. In the corresponding position in the top half of the medal, the names of the recipients: J. H. TOWERS · A. C. READ · E. F. STONE · W. HINTON · H. C. RODD · J. L. BREESE · E. RHODES, it is rare that a Congressional Gold Medal be made for wear on clothing. The NC-4 Medal appeared in older U. S. Navy precedence charts after the Peary Polar Expedition Medal and before the Byrd Antarctic Expedition Medal; the awardee, appointed to Vice Admiral, John Towers, was photographed several times as Rear Admiral and Vice Admiral wearing the NC-4 Medal and ribbon ahead of all his other awards. Following the various retirements and release from military service of the original recipients, the NC-4 Medal became obsolete and does not appear on any current military award precedence charts.
The original NC-4 Medal was presented by President Herbert Hoover in May, 1930. The recipients were: Commander John H. Towers, USN Lieutenant Commander Albert C. Read, USN Lieutenant Elmer F. Stone, USCG Lieutenant Walter Hinton, USN Ensign Herbert C. Rodd, USN Lieutenant James L. Breese Jr. USNR Chief Machinist's Mate Eugene S. Rhoads, USNThe last name of Eugene Rhoads was misspelled as Rhodes on both the award citation and the medal. Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, June 1919, first non-stop crossing List of Congressional Gold Medal recipients Photograph of Chief Eugene Rhoads and Rear Admiral A. C. Read wearing the NC-4 Medal ribbon bar. National Naval Aviation Museum NC-4 Memorabilia Exhibit National Naval Aviation Museum
Navy Expeditionary Medal
The Navy Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Navy, established in August 1936. The General Orders of the Department of the Navy which established the medal states, "The medal will be awarded, to the officers and enlisted men of the Navy who shall have landed on foreign territory and engaged in operations against armed opposition, or operated under circumstances which, after full consideration, shall be deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded; the Navy Expeditionary Medal is retroactively authorized to February 12, 1874." The medal was designed by A. A. Weinman and features a sailor beaching a craft carrying Marines, an officer, a US flag with the word "Expeditions" above. On the reverse of both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, in the center of the bronze medallion an eagle is shown alight upon an anchor; the eagle is grasping sprigs of laurel. Above the eagle are the words UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS or UNITED STATES NAVY presented as an arch.
Above the laurel are the words FOR SERVICE presented horizontally. The eagle is the American bald eagle and represents the United States, the anchor alludes to Marine Corps or Navy service, the laurel is symbolic of victory and achievement; the medal is one of the few Navy awards, not concurrently bestowed to the United States Marine Corps, as Marine Corps personnel are eligible for the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal as an equivalent award. In addition, since 1961, some Navy commands have permitted service members to choose between the Navy Expeditionary Medal and the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for participation in certain operations. Both awards may not be bestowed for the same action. Additional awards of the Navy Expeditionary Medal are denoted by service stars; the Wake Island Device is authorized for those service members who were awarded the Navy Expeditionary Medal through the defense of Wake Island. As the vast majority of the defenders of Wake Island were U. S. Marines, the Navy Expeditionary Medal with the Wake Island device is one of the rarest awards in the U.
S. military history. Under the “deemed to merit special recognition and for which service no campaign medal has been awarded“ clause, both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been awarded for classified operations with proper adjudication by the Secretary of the Navy Special Awards Board; the MCEM and NEM "can be authorized and awarded to individuals or units who have participated in classified operations not in connection with larger operations in which the public is aware.” The SECNAV INSTRUCTION 1650.1H - NAVY AND MARINE CORPS AWARDS MANUAL details the process via the Special Awards Board for issuing classified awards. Anecdotal reports from former service members cite a wide variety of classified operations for which the MCEM and NEM have been awarded, ranging from Marine Corps units clandestinely deployed in Africa, to helicopter gun-crews or force protection units assisting SEAL-DEVGRU or Delta Force teams worldwide, classified submarine operations during the Cold War.
In cases where the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal or Navy Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for classified operations, the name of the operation is omitted from public documentation including from the individual service member’s DD214 personnel record with only the name of the award and issue date provided. Both the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal have been fraudulently worn by military service members convicted under the UCMJ and civilians fraudulently claiming to have been awarded the MCEM or NEM along with other medals such as the Purple Heart, it has been reported that L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology, fraudulently claimed being awarded the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal; the issuance of military awards is available via a public records search and from lists of authorized recipients available online. In recent years, a number of television news crews have confronted people fraudulently wearing military awards and “Stolen Valor” websites publicly shame those who fraudulently wear or claim military awards and will notify federal law enforcement when they believe the activity rises to the level of a crime such as fraud for profit-or-gain, falsely receiving veterans services, falsifying a federal document such as the DD214, or violation of the Stolen Valor Act