Juan Bosch (politician)
Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño was a Dominican politician, short story writer, essayist and the first democratically elected president of the Dominican Republic for a brief time in 1963. He had been the leader of the Dominican opposition in exile to the dictatorial regime of Rafael Trujillo for over 25 years. To this day he is remembered as an honest politician and regarded as one of the most prominent writers in Dominican literature, he founded both the Dominican Revolutionary Party in 1939 and the Dominican Liberation Party in 1973. He was born to a Puerto Rican mother of Galician descent. In 1934, he had two children with her: Leon and Carolina. During Trujillo's dictatorship, Bosch was jailed for his political ideas, being released after several months. In 1938, Bosch managed settling in Puerto Rico. By 1939 Bosch had gone to Cuba, where he directed an edition of the completed works of Eugenio María de Hostos, something that defined his patriotic and humanist ideals. In July, with other Dominican expatriates, he founded the Partido Revolucionario Dominicano, which stood out as the most active front against Trujillo outside the Dominican Republic.
Bosch sympathised with leftist ideas, but he always denied any communist affiliation. He collaborated with the Cuban Revolutionary Party and had an important role in the making of the Constitution, promulgated in 1940. Bosch married for the second time, this time a Cuban, Carmen Quidiello, with whom he had two more children and Barbara. At the same time, his literary career was ascending, gaining important acknowledgments like the Hernandez Catá Prize in Havana for short stories written by a Latin American author, his works had a deep social content, among them "La Noche Buena de Encarnación Mendoza", "Luis Pié", "The Masters" and "The Indian Manuel Sicuri", all of them described by critics as masterpieces of the sort. Bosch was one of the main organizers of the abortive Cayo Confites expedition of 1947, in which a military force backed by the Caribbean Legion unsuccessfully attempted to invade the Dominican Republic from Cuba. Bosch fled to Venezuela after the expedition's failure, where he continued his anti-Trujillo campaign.
In Cuba, where he returned by requirement of his friends in the Authentic Revolutionary Party, he played a notorious part in the political life of Havana, being recognized as a promoter of social legislation and author of the speech pronounced by President Carlos Prío Socarrás when the body of José Martí was transferred to Santiago de Cuba. When Fulgencio Batista led a coup d'etat against Prío Socarrás and took over the presidency in 1952, Bosch was jailed by Batista's forces. After being liberated, he left Cuba and headed to Costa Rica, where he dedicated his time to pedagogical tasks, to his activities as leader of the PRD. Molasses tycoon Jacob Merrill Kaplan earned his fortune through operations in Cuba and the Dominican Republic; the J. M. Kaplan Fund was found in a 1964 Congressional investigation to be a conduit for funneling CIA money to Latin America, including through the Institute of International Labor Research headed by Norman Thomas, six-time Presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America.
These funds were used in Latin America by figures like José Figueres Ferrer, Sacha Volman, Juan Bosch. The CIA gave Figures money to publish a political journal, to found a left-wing school for Latin American opposition leaders. Funds passed from a shell foundation to the Kaplan Fund, next to the IILR, to Figures and Bosch. Sacha Volman, treasurer of the IILR, was a CIA agent. In 1959 the Cuban Revolution took place, led by Fidel Castro, causing a major political and social upheaval in the Caribbean island. Cord Meyer, a CIA official, was chief of International Organizations Division. IOD was a CIA sponsored front for manipulating international groups, it served as part of the covert arsenal to engineer a world government. He used the contacts with Bosch and Figueres for a new purpose - as the United States moved to rally the hemisphere against Cuba's Fidel Castro, Rafael Trujillo, the strongman caudillo that ran the Dominican Republic for 30 years had become expendable; the United States needed to demonstrate.
Bosch perceived the process that had begun from those events, wrote a letter to Trujillo, dated February 27, 1961. He told Trujillo that his political role, in historical terms, had concluded in the Dominican Republic. For over a year, the CIA had been in contact with dissidents inside the Dominican Republic who argued that assassination was the only certain way to remove Trujillo. According to Chester Bowles, the Undersecretary of State, internal Department of State discussions in 1961 on the topic were vigorous. Richard N. Goodwin, Assistant Special Counsel to the President, who had direct contacts with the rebel alliance, argued for intervention against Trujillo. Quoting Bowles directly: The next morning I learned that in spite of the clear decision against having the dissident group request our assistance Dick Goodwin following the meeting sent a cable to CIA people in the Dominican Republic without checking with State or CIA; the cable directed the CIA people in the Dominican Republic to get this request at any cost.
When Allen Dulles found this out the next morning, he withdrew the order. We discovered it had been carried out. In May 1961, the ruler of the Dominican Republic, Rafael Trujillo was murdered with weapons supplied by the CIA. An internal CIA m
United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916–24)
The first United States occupation of the Dominican Republic lasted from 1916 to 1924. It was one of the many interventions in Latin America undertaken by the military forces of the United States in the 20th century. On the 13 May 1916, Rear Admiral William B. Caperton forced the Dominican Republic's Secretary of War Desiderio Arias, who had seized power from Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra, to leave Santo Domingo by threatening the city with naval bombardment; the piecemeal invasion resulted in the US Navy occupying all key positions in government and controlling the army and police. The first landing took place on the 5 May 1916, when "two companies of marines landed from the USS Prairie at Santo Domingo." Their goal was to offer protection to the U. S. Legation and the U. S. Consulate, to occupy the Fort San Geronimo. Within hours, these companies were reinforced with "seven additional companies." On the 6 May American forces from the USS Castine landed to offer protection to the Haitian Legation, a country under similar military occupation from the U.
S. Two days after the first landing, constitutional President, Juan Isidro Jimenes resigned. Admiral Caperton's forces occupied Santo Domingo on the 15 May 1916. Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton's Marine units took the key port cities of Puerto Plata and Monte Cristi on the 1 June and enforced a blockade; the marines were able to occupy Monte Cristi without meeting any resistance. However, when the marines attacked Puerto Plata they were forced to fight their way into the city under heavy but inaccurate fire from about 500 pro-Arias irregulars. During this landing the Marines sustained several casualties, this included the death of Captain Herbert J. Hirshinger, who the first marine killed in combat in the campaign. After marching inland for twenty-four hours a unit marines encountered a Dominican force defending Las Trencheras, two fortified ridges the Dominicans had long thought to be invulnerable, since a Spanish army had been defeated in that exact location in 1864. At 08:00 hours on the 27 June Pendleton ordered his artillery to pound the ridge-line.
Machine guns offered covering fire. A bayonet charge by the marines cleared the first ridge and accurate rifle fire removed the rebels from atop the second; the first major engagement occurred on the 27 June, at Las Trencheras, two ridges, fortified by the Dominicans and long thought to be invulnerable, since a Spanish army had been defeated there in 1864. There the Dominican troops had dug trenches on two hills, one behind the other, blocking the road to Santiago; the field guns of Captain Chandler Campbell's 13th Company, along with a machine gun platoon, took position on a hill commanding the enemy trenches and opened fire at 08:00 hours. Under the cover of this fire, the marines launched a bayonet charge on the defenders' first line of defence, covered until the last possible moment by the artillery barrage; the Dominicans soldiers fled to their trenches on the second hill. They rallied there then broke and ran again as the American field guns resumed their shelling of the hill. Within 45 minutes from the opening artillery shots, the Marines, at a cost to themselves of one killed and four wounded, had overrun the enemy positions.
They found no dead or weapons in the trenches but discovered five rebel bodies in the nearby woods. This engagement set the pattern for most Marine contacts with hostile forces in the Dominican Republic. Against Marine superiority in artillery, machine guns, small-unit manoeuvre, individual training and marksmanship, no Dominican force could hold its ground. Two days after the Battle of Guayacanas, on the 3 July the marines moved onto Arias' stronghold in Santiago de los Caballeros. However, "A military encounter was avoided when Arias arrived at an agreement with Capteron to cease resistance." Three days after Arias left the country, the rest of the occupation forces landed and took control of the country within two months, on the 29 November the United States imposed a military government under Captain Harry Shepard Knapp, Commander of the Cruiser Force aboard his flagship, USS Olympia. Marines claimed to have restored order throughout most of the republic, with the exception of the eastern region, but resistance continued widespread in both and indirect forms in every place.
The US occupation administration, measured its success through these standards: the country's budget was balanced, its debt was diminished, economic growth directed now toward the US. Most Dominicans, however resented the loss of their sovereignty to foreigners, few of whom spoke Spanish or displayed much real concern for the welfare of the republic. A guerrilla movement, known as the gavilleros, with leaders such as General Ramón Natera, enjoyed considerable support from the population in the eastern provinces of El Seibo and San Pedro de Macorís. Having knowledge of the local terrain, they fought from 1917 to 1921 against the United States occupation; the fighting in the countryside ended in a stalemate, the guerrillas agreed to a conditional surrender. After World War I, public opinion in the United States began to run against the occupation. Warren G. Harding, who succeeded Wilson in March 1921, had campaigned against the occupations of both Haiti and the Dominican Republic. In June 1921, United States
United States Secretary of War
The Secretary of War was a member of the United States President's Cabinet, beginning with George Washington's administration. A similar position, called either "Secretary at War" or "Secretary of War", had been appointed to serve the Congress of the Confederation under the Articles of Confederation between 1781 and 1789. Benjamin Lincoln and Henry Knox held the position; when Washington was inaugurated as the first president under the Constitution, he appointed Knox to continue serving as Secretary of War. The Secretary of War was the head of the War Department. At first, he was responsible including naval affairs. In 1798, the Secretary of the Navy was created by statute, the scope of responsibility for this office was reduced to the affairs of the United States Army. From 1886 onward, the Secretary of War was in the line of succession to the presidency, after the Vice President of the United States, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President pro tem of the Senate and the Secretary of State.
In 1947, with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of War was replaced by the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Air Force, along with the Secretary of the Navy, have since 1949 been non-Cabinet subordinates under the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Army's office is considered the direct successor to the Secretary of War's office although the Secretary of Defense took the Secretary of War's position in the Cabinet, the line of succession to the presidency; the office of Secretary at War was modelled upon Great Britain's Secretary at War, William Barrington, 2nd Viscount Barrington, at the time of the American Revolution. The office of Secretary at War was meant to replace both the Commander-in-Chief and the Board of War, like the President of the Board, the Secretary wore no special insignia; the Inspector General, Quartermaster General, Commissary General, Adjutant General served on the Secretary's staff. However, the Army itself under Secretary Henry Knox only consisted of 700 men.
Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Confederate States Secretary of War Bell, William Gardner. Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff 1775-2005: Portraits and Biographical Sketches. Washington, D. C.: United States Army Center of Military History. Grossman, Mark. Encyclopedia of the United States Cabinet 1789-2010. Armenia, New York: Greyhouse Publishing. King, Archibald. Command of the Army. Military Affairs. Charlottesville, Virginia: The Judge Advocate General's School, U. S. Army
Military light utility vehicle
Military light utility vehicle, or within military context or parlance just Light Utility Vehicle, is a term sometimes used for the lightest weight class military vehicle category. In popular terms, what is intended is a jeep-like four-wheel drive vehicle for military use, they are by definition lighter than other military trucks and vehicles, inherently compact and unarmored, with short body overhangs for nimble all-terrain mobility, around 4 passenger capacity. Worldwide, since the earliest large scale mechanisation of the military, hundreds of different light vehicles have been used for military utility service, ranging from available commercial products, just repainted in military colors, to purpose-designed tactical vehicles, that where specially developed for military applications and operation in forward areas. Light utility vehicles are general or multi-purpose – used to carry troops, weapons, evacuate wounded soldiers and many other diverse roles. Originated in the first half of the twentieth century, when modernisation of armies meant replacing horses and other draft animals through mechanisation, as well as increasing mobility of the infantry, to gain an essential tactical advantage, the nature and operating circumstances for the military's lightest utility vehicles have since changed.
In 21st century missions, small arms fire and improvised explosive devices continuously pose dangerous threats to mobile infantry, the military's lightest utility vehicles have become heavier and larger, as a result of addition of armor, for the purpose of crew protection. Designs for modern light military vehicle platforms have to balance manoeuvrability, weapons capability and transportability – all of high importance to ground troops in operations. Civilian adaptations of the Willys MB Jeep and Land Rover were the first sport utility vehicles, some SUVs such as the Chevy Blazer have been used as military light utility vehicles; the importance of this kind of military vehicle was summed up by General Eisenhower, who wrote that most senior officers regarded the jeep as one of the six most vital U. S. vehicles in World War II. Moreover, general George Marshall called the jeep “America’s greatest contribution to modern warfare.” Similar vehicles are among the most common military vehicles in armies of most nations.
In 1939 the U. S. Army began standardizing its general-purpose trucks by limiting procurement to five chassis payload classes, from 1⁄2-ton to 7 1⁄2-ton, but the army was "to use commercial trucks with only a few modifications such as brush guards and towing pintles.." However, in 1940 the categories were revised. A new, lightest chassis, quarter-ton class was introduced, at the bottom of the range, the 1⁄2-ton category was supplanted by a 3⁄4-ton chassis — both were classified as light trucks; the Willys MB Jeep of World War II used by the U. S. Army is the most known vehicle of this class. Over 640,000 Jeeps were built for World War II, they inspired many vehicles similar in layout, or function. Besides the jeep, the U. S. produced some 330,000 half- and three quarter-ton Dodge WC series trucks, in a wide range of variants. Together, the Willys and Ford jeeps, Dodge's WC-series trucks made up nearly all of the WW II U. S. light vehicle output of a million units. In World War II, Germany used the Volkswagen Kübelwagen for a similar role.
It only had rear-wheel drive, but could take advantage of light weight, a flat, smooth underbody, rear axle portal geared hubs, a rear-mounted engine for mobility. Early American dune buggies were based on the Volkswagen, the Desert Storm-era Desert Patrol Vehicle evolved from the dune buggy configuration for combat use; the Volkswagen Schwimmwagen featured a bathtub-like unitary propulsion screw. The Jeep was adapted as the Ford GPA "Seep", but was never as successful as the Schwimmwagen, which became the most mass-produced amphibious car in history. Contrary to the regular German Kübelwagen, the Schwimmwagen was equipped with four-wheel drive, with its super-smooth underbody and portal geared hubs front and rear, arguably the most capable light German off-roader in World War II; the Soviet Union produced the GAZ-64 based on the US jeep design, succeeded by the GAZ-67 and GAZ-67B, until ca. 1953. The U. S. revised its jeep into the Willys M38 and M38A1, used in the Korean War. It was followed in 1960 by the M151 jeep, designed with Ford.
By the mid-1980s, this role would be taken over by the larger and heavier Humvee, which would be used as a combat vehicle in Iraq. The United States purchased Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicles based on commercially available light trucks. U. S. forces are defining the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle which would be designed to be armored from the outset, with the smallest 4-person payload capacity class corresponding to the traditional jeep role. In 1948, the British Land Rover was developed. Intended to be a civilian and agricultural successor to the Willys Jeep the Land Rover was brought into military service in 1949, becoming the standard Light Utility Vehicle for the British Army and many armed forces of the Commonwealth; the original Land Rover design evolved into the modern-day Land Rover Defender, still in military service throughout the world. About 1953 Russia replaced its GAZ-67B by the GAZ-69, until that series was replaced by the UAZ-469 commander jeep, introduced in 1971. In the 1960s, China's Beijing Automob
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th president of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923. A member of the Republican Party, he was one of the most popular U. S. presidents to that point. After his death a number of scandals, such as Teapot Dome, came to light, as did his extramarital affair with Nan Britton, he is rated as one of the worst presidents in historical rankings. Harding lived in rural Ohio all his life, except; as a young man, he built it into a successful newspaper. In 1899, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate, he was defeated for governor in 1910, but was elected to the United States Senate in 1914. He ran for the Republican nomination for president in 1920, he was considered a long shot until after the convention began; the leading candidates could not gain the needed majority, the convention deadlocked. Harding's support grew until he was nominated on the tenth ballot, he conducted a front porch campaign, remaining for the most part in Marion and allowing the people to come to him, running on a theme of a return to normalcy of the pre-World War I period.
He won in a landslide over Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs and became the first sitting senator to be elected president. Harding appointed a number of well-regarded figures to his cabinet, including Andrew Mellon at Treasury, Herbert Hoover at the Department of Commerce, Charles Evans Hughes at the State Department. A major foreign policy achievement came with the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, in which the world's major naval powers agreed on a naval limitations program that lasted a decade, his cabinet members Albert Fall and Harry Daugherty were each tried for corruption in office. Harding died of a heart attack in San Francisco while on a western tour, succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge. Harding was born on November 1865, in Blooming Grove, Ohio. Nicknamed "Winnie" as a small child, Harding was the eldest of eight children born to George Tryon Harding and Phoebe Elizabeth Harding. Phoebe was a state-licensed midwife. Tryon taught school near Mount Gilead, Ohio.
Through apprenticeship, study and a year of medical school, Tryon became a doctor and started a small practice. Some of Harding's mother's ancestors were Dutch, including the well-known Van Kirk family. Harding had ancestors from England and Scotland, it was rumored by a political opponent in Blooming Grove that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American. His great-great grandfather Amos Harding claimed that a thief, caught in the act by the family, started the rumor in an attempt at extortion or revenge. In 2015, genetic testing of Harding's descendants determined, with more than a 95% chance of accuracy, that he lacked sub-Saharan African forebears within four generations. In 1870, the Harding family, who were abolitionists, moved to Caledonia, where Tryon acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper. At The Argus, from the age of 11, learned the basics of the newspaper business. In late 1879, at the age of 14, Harding enrolled at his father's alma mater – Ohio Central College in Iberia – where he proved an adept student.
He and a friend put out a small newspaper, the Iberia Spectator, during their final year at Ohio Central, intended to appeal to both college and town. During his final year, the Harding family moved to Marion, about 6 miles from Caledonia, when he graduated in 1882, he joined them there. In Harding's youth, the majority of the population still lived in small towns, he would spend much of his life in Marion, a small city in rural Ohio, would become associated with it. When Harding rose to high office, he made clear his love of Marion and its way of life, telling of the many young Marionites who had left and enjoyed success elsewhere, while suggesting that the man, once the "pride of the school", who had remained behind and become a janitor, was "the happiest one of the lot". Upon graduating, Harding had stints as a teacher and as an insurance man, made a brief attempt at studying law, he raised $300 in partnership with others to purchase a failing newspaper, The Marion Star, weakest of the growing city's three papers, its only daily.
The 18-year-old Harding used the railroad pass that came with the paper to attend the 1884 Republican National Convention, where he hobnobbed with better-known journalists and supported the presidential nominee, former Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Harding returned from Chicago to find. During the election campaign, Harding worked for the Marion Democratic Mirror and was annoyed at having to praise the Democratic presidential nominee, New York Governor Grover Cleveland, who won the election. Afterward, with the financial aid of his father, the budding newspaperman redeemed the paper. Through the years of the 1880s, Harding built the Star; the city of Marion tended to vote Republican. Accordingly, Harding adopted a tempered editorial stance, declaring the daily Star nonpartisan and circulating a weekly edition, moderate Republican; this policy put the town's Republican weekly out of business. According to his biographer, Andrew Sinclair: The success of Harding with the Star was in the model of Horatio Alger.
He started with nothing, t
Joaquín Antonio Balaguer Ricardo was the President of the Dominican Republic who served three non-consecutive terms for that office from 1960 to 1962, 1966 to 1978, 1986 to 1996. His enigmatic, secretive personality inherited from the Trujillo era, as well as his desire to perpetuate himself in power through dubious elections and state terrorism, earned him the nickname of caudillo, his regime of terror damaged 11,000 victims who were either tortured or forcibly disappeared and killed. Balaguer was born on 1 September 1906 in Villa Bisonó, Santiago Province in the northwestern corner of the Dominican Republic, his father was Joaquín Jesús Balaguer Lespier, a Puerto Rican native of Catalan and French ancestry, his mother was Carmen Celia Ricardo Heureaux, daughter of Manuel de Jesus Ricardo and Rosa Amelia Heureaux, a half-cousin of President Ulises Heureaux. Balaguer was the only son in a family of several daughters. From a early age, Balaguer felt an attraction to literature, composing verses that were published in local magazines when he was young.
After graduating from school, Balaguer earned a law degree from the University of Santo Domingo and studied for a brief period at the University of Paris I Pantheon-Sorbonne As a youth, Balaguer wrote of the awe with which he was struck by his father’s fellow countryman, the Harvard graduate and political leader from Puerto Rico, Pedro Albizu. Despite the profound differences regarding their ethical and world visions, Albizu’s fiery and charismatic rhetoric captured Balaguer’s imagination and his recollection of this occasion was a harbinger of his passion for politics and intellectual debate. Balaguer's political career began in 1930. In years, he served as Secretary of the Dominican Legation in Madrid, Undersecretary of the Presidency, Undersecretary of Foreign Relations, Extraordinary Ambassador to Colombia and Ecuador, Ambassador to Mexico, Secretary of Education, Secretary of State of Foreign Relations; when Trujillo arranged to have his brother Héctor re-elected to the presidency in 1957, he chose Balaguer as vice-president.
Three years when pressure from the Organization of American States convinced the dictator that it was inappropriate to have a member of his family as president, Trujillo forced his brother to resign, Balaguer succeeded to the post. The situation was altered, when Trujillo was assassinated in May 1961. Trujillo's son, Ramfis inherited power with Balaguer as his puppet, they took steps to liberalize the regime, granting some civil liberties and easing Trujillo's tight censorship of the press. Meanwhile, he revoked the nonaggression pact made with Cuba in January 1961; these measures did not go nearly far enough for a populace who had no memory of the instability and poverty that preceded Trujillo, wanted more freedom and a more equitable distribution of wealth. At the same time, Ramfis' reforms went too far for the hard-line trujillistas led by his own uncles, Héctor and José Arismendi Trujillo; as the OAS continued economic sanctions imposed for Trujillo's attempted murder of Venezuelan President Romulo Betancourt, Ramfis warned that the country could descend into civil war between left and right.
Although official and unofficial repression of the opposition parties continued, Balaguer publicly condemned this repression and in September he pledged to form a coalition government. Hector and Jose Trujillo left the country in October but the opposition parties demanded Ramfis withdraw from the government as well. At the end of October, Ramfis announced that he would resign if the OAS agreed to lift the economic sanctions; the OAS agreed on November 14 but Ramfis’ uncles returned to the country the following day, hoping to lead a military coup. Ramfis resigned and went into exile on November 17 and rumours circulated that Air Force general Fernando Arturo Sánchez Otero would support pro-Castro revolutionaries; the United States now sent a small fleet of 1,800 marines to patrol Dominican waters. The US consul informed Balaguer that these forces stood ready to intervene at his request, would be supported by forces from Venezuela and Colombia. Air Force general Pedro Rafael Ramón Rodríguez Echavarría announced his support for Balaguer and bombed pro-Trujillo forces.
The Trujillo brothers again fled the country on November 20 and Echavarría became Secretary of Armed Forces. The Union Civica Nacional called a national strike and demanded the formation of a provisional government under their leader, Viriato Fiallo, with elections to be delayed until 1964; the military were vehemently against the UCN taking power and Echaverría proposed a continuation of the Balaguer regime until the elections. The American consul mediated between the two sides and in January 1962 final agreement led to the creation of a seven-member Council of State, led by Balaguer but including members of the UCN, to replace both the Dominican Congress and the President and his cabinet until the election; the OAS lifted sanctions against the country upon the formation of the council. However, popular unrest against Balaguer continued and many saw Echaverría as positioning himself to seize power. Military forces opened fire on demonstrators on 14 January. On 16 January, Balaguer resigned and Echaverría staged a military coup d'état and arrested the other member of the council.
With the US supporting
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. The 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people. Born in a farmhouse in Stonewall, Johnson was a high school teacher and worked as a congressional aide before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1937, he won election to the Senate in 1948 and was appointed to the position of Senate Majority Whip in 1951. He became the Senate Minority Leader in 1953 and the Senate Majority Leader in 1955, he became known for his domineering personality and the "Johnson treatment", his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation. Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election.
Although unsuccessful, he accepted the invitation of then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate, they went on to win a close election over the Republican ticket of Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated and Johnson succeeded him as president; the following year, Johnson won in a landslide. With 61.1 percent of the popular vote, Johnson won the largest share of the popular vote of any candidate since the uncontested 1820 election. In domestic policy, Johnson designed the "Great Society" legislation to expand civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicaid, aid to education, the arts and rural development, public services and his "War on Poverty". Assisted in part by a growing economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration. Civil rights bills that he signed into law banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace and housing.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed, encouraging greater emigration from regions other than Europe. Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism after the New Deal era. In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use military force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war; the number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 525,000 in 1967, many in combat roles. American casualties soared and the peace process stagnated. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry anti-war movement based chiefly among draft-age students on university campuses. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots began in major cities in 1965 and crime rates soared, as his opponents raised demands for "law and order" policies.
While Johnson began his presidency with widespread approval, support for him declined as the public became frustrated with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized. Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, where he died of a heart attack at age 64, on January 22, 1973. Johnson is ranked favorably by many historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws that affected civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, Social Security, although he has drawn substantial criticism for his escalation of the Vietnam War. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River, he was the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Rebekah Baines. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, three sisters.
The nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJ's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry, he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana. Baines, the grandfather of Johnson's mother, was the president of Baylor University during the American Civil War. Johnson's grandfather, Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. was raised as a Baptist and for a time was a member of the Christian Church. In his years the grandfather became a Christadelphian; as a politician, Johnson was influenced in his positive attitude toward Jews by the religious beliefs that his family his grandfather, had shared with him. Johnson's favorite Bible verse came from the King James Version of Isaiah 1:18. "Come now, let us reason together..." In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth, elected president of his 11th-grade class.
He graduated in 1924 from Johnson City High School, where he participated in public speaking and baseball. At age 15, Johnson was the youngest member of his class. Pressured by his parents to attend college, he en