A refracting telescope is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image. The refracting telescope design was used in spy glasses and astronomical telescopes but is used for long focus camera lenses. Although large refracting telescopes were popular in the second half of the 19th century, for most research purposes the refracting telescope has been superseded by the reflecting telescope which allows larger apertures. A refractor's magnification is calculated by dividing the focal length of the objective lens by that of the eyepiece. Refractors were the earliest type of optical telescope; the first practical refracting telescopes appeared in the Netherlands about 1608, were credited to three individuals, Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen, spectacle-makers in Middelburg, Jacob Metius of Alkmaar. Galileo Galilei, happening to be in Venice in about the month of May 1609, heard of the invention and constructed a version of his own. Galileo communicated the details of his invention to the public, presented the instrument itself to the Doge Leonardo Donato, sitting in full council.
All refracting telescopes use the same principles. The combination of an objective lens 1 and some type of eyepiece 2 is used to gather more light than the human eye is able to collect on its own, focus it 5, present the viewer with a brighter and magnified virtual image 6; the objective in a refracting telescope bends light. This refraction causes parallel light rays to converge at a focal point; the telescope converts a bundle of parallel rays to make an angle α, with the optical axis to a second parallel bundle with angle β. The ratio β/α is called the angular magnification, it equals the ratio between the retinal image sizes obtained without the telescope. Refracting telescopes can come in many different configurations to correct for image orientation and types of aberration; because the image was formed by the bending of light, or refraction, these telescopes are called refracting telescopes or refractors. The design Galileo Galilei used in 1609 is called a Galilean telescope, it used a divergent eyepiece lens.
A Galilean telescope, because the design has no intermediary focus, results in a non-inverted and upright image. Galileo's best telescope magnified objects about 30 times; because of flaws in its design, such as the shape of the lens and the narrow field of view, the images were blurry and distorted. Despite these flaws, the telescope was still good enough for Galileo to explore the sky; the Galilean telescope could view the phases of Venus, was able to see craters on the Moon and four moons orbiting Jupiter. Parallel rays of light from a distant object would be brought to a focus in the focal plane of the objective lens; the eyepiece lens renders them parallel once more. Non-parallel rays of light from the object traveling at an angle α1 to the optical axis travel at a larger angle after they passed through the eyepiece; this leads to an increase in the apparent angular size and is responsible for the perceived magnification. The final image is a virtual image, is the same way up as the object.
The Keplerian telescope, invented by Johannes Kepler in 1611, is an improvement on Galileo's design. It uses a convex lens as the eyepiece instead of Galileo's concave one; the advantage of this arrangement is that the rays of light emerging from the eyepiece are converging. This allows for a much wider field of view and greater eye relief, but the image for the viewer is inverted. Higher magnifications can be reached with this design, but to overcome aberrations the simple objective lens needs to have a high f-ratio; the design allows for use of a micrometer at the focal plane. The achromatic refracting lens was invented in 1733 by an English barrister named Chester Moore Hall, although it was independently invented and patented by John Dollond around 1758; the design overcame the need for long focal lengths in refracting telescopes by using an objective made of two pieces of glass with different dispersion,'crown' and'flint glass', to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration.
Each side of each piece is ground and polished, the two pieces are assembled together. Achromatic lenses are corrected to bring two wavelengths into focus in the same plane; the era of the'great refractors' in the 19th century saw large achromatic lenses culminating with the largest achromatic refractor built, the Great Paris Exhibition Telescope of 1900. Apochromatic refractors have objectives built with extra-low dispersion materials, they are designed to bring three wavelengths into focus in the same plane. The residual color error can be up than that of an achromatic lens; such telescopes contain elements of fluorite or special, extra-low dispersion glass in the objective and produce a crisp image, free of chromatic aberration. Due to the special materials needed in the fabrication, apochromatic refractors are more expensive than telescopes of other types with a comparable aperture. Refractors suffer from residual spherical aberration; this affects shorter focal ratios more than longer ones.
Canada Science and Technology Museum
The Canada Science and Technology Museum is located in Ottawa, Canada, on St. Laurent Boulevard, to the south of the Queensway; the role of the museum is to help the public to understand the technological and scientific history of Canada and the ongoing relationships between science and Canadian society. The National Museum of Science and Technology was established in 1967 as a Centennial project by the Canadian Government. In October 1966 the government appointed David McCurdy Baird as the first director of the museum, he found and arranged the purchase of a large former bakery on St. Laurent Boulevard with truck bays and high ceilings; the government had an aeronautical collection and a collection of railroad artifacts, within a few months these were installed in the building. A collection of farm equipment from Massey Ferguson arrived soon after. In 2001, the museum began looking for a new location to move to, citing a lack of space and accessibility; the desire for more scenic surroundings was a factor, as the museum is surrounded by warehouses and strip malls.
Four locations were considered: the western section of LeBreton Flats, on the Rockcliffe Parkway next to the Canada Aviation and Space Museum, in Jacques Cartier Park on Rue Laurier, a site on Rue Montcalm. In 2006, Conservative cabinet minister and MP for Pontiac Lawrence Cannon put his support behind the Jacques Cartier Park option. During routine maintenance on a leaky roof in September 2014, workers discovered that the roof was in danger of collapse and that mould was spreading from the building's south wall; the museum closed to visitors, the staff offered to lend out some of the exhibits to other museums while renovation and repairs were made to the building. Most of the original building was demolished, leaving only the "crazy kitchen" and the hall of trains. $80 million was spent to create a modern replacement on the same site. The museum reopened on November 17, 2017; the main museum building on St Laurent Boulevard houses a number of permanent displays, as well as temporary exhibits of the museum's collection and visiting exhibitions.
The most famous of these exhibitions is the crazy kitchen, a room, built on a tilted surface, thus causing gravity to pull visitors towards the wall, but has all its furniture nailed to the floor so they won't fall, thus creating the illusion that the room is on an ordinary, flat surface. This competing information confuses visitors' brains. Artifact Alley, which runs diagonally across the building, displays about 700 historical objects at any one time; the Ingenium storage facility, located at 1867 St. Laurent Blvd, it includes more than over 268,000 artifacts, such as a prototype for the Bombardier Innovia ART 100, a driverless rail car, an Iron Lung once used at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, the FIU-301, the Ontario Provincial Police's first Unmanned Aerial vehicle; the museum is operated by Ingenium, a Crown corporation that reports to the Department of Canadian Heritage, responsible for preserving and protecting Canada's scientific and technical heritage. The Corporation has a staff of about 275 and is responsible for three museums: the Canada Science and Technology Museum, the Canada Agriculture and Food Museum and the Canada Aviation and Space Museum.
The museum is affiliated with: Canadian Museums Association, Canadian Heritage Information Network, Virtual Museum of Canada. Canadian university scientific research organizations Canadian industrial research and development organizations Technological and industrial history of Canada Natural scientific research in Canada Canada lunar sample displays Invention in Canada Official website CSTM Origins: A History of the Canada Science and Technology Museum Canada Science and Technology Museum at Google Cultural Institute
National Research Council (Canada)
The National Research Council is the primary national research and technology organization of the Government of Canada, in science and technology research and development. The Minister of Innovation and Economic Development is responsible for the National Research Council; the transformation of the NRC into an RTO that focuses on "business-led research" was part of the federal government's Economic Action Plan. On 7 May 2013, the NRC launched its new "business approach" in which it offered four business lines: strategic research and development, technical services, management of science and technology infrastructure and NRC-Industrial Research Assistance Program. With these services, NRC intended to shorten the gap between early stage research and development and commercialization. At one point, NRC had over 30 approved programs; the tenure of John McDougall as President of the NRC was marked by a number of controversies. His presidency was characterised by a dramatic drop in publications and patents, by significant cuts in scientific staff, by a 23-month period during which NRC management was aware that the organization was contaminating the water table in a small Ontario community but did not inform that community's inhabitants.
John McDougall's departure – signalled by a sudden, three-line email to employees in March 2016 announced that he was going on personal leave. During this time Maria Aubrey, Vice President of NRC, filled the role as Acting President. Effective August 24, 2016, Iain Stewart became the new President of the NRC; the details regarding McDougall's personal leave were not publicly disclosed. NRC is a Government of Canada organization, its mandate is set out in the National Research Council Act. Under the Act, NRC is responsible for: Undertaking, assisting or promoting scientific and industrial research in fields of importance to Canada. In 2011, President John McDougall, began to oversee a change in research focus away from basic research and towards industry-relevant research; this included the development of multiple programs which shifted the research budget out of existing projects and into a number of focused programs. Approved programs are: Advanced photonic components for communications technology Aeronautics for the 21st century Aeronautical product development technologies Air defence systems Algal carbon conversion flagship Arctic Program Bioenergy systems for viable stationary applications Biologics program Building regulations for market access Canadian wheat improvement flagship Civilian unmanned aircraft systems Critical concrete infrastructure Energy storage for grid security and modernization Gallium nitride electronics Health Technologies High efficiency mining High performance buildings Industrial biomaterials Learning and performance support systems Light weighting of ground transportation vehicles Marine Vehicles Mid-rise wood buildings Marine infrastructure and Water Resources Measurement science for emerging technologies Metrology for industry and society Mining materials wear and corrosion Multimedia analytic tools for security National Institute for Nanotechnology Natural health products program Printable electronics flagship Quantum photonic sensing and security Reducing aviation icing risk Scientific support for the national measurement system Security materials technology Therapeutics beyond brain barriers program Vaccines program Working and travelling on aircraft The goal of the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Program was to develop of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions from the oil sands.
It contained plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, in partnership between the NRC ] and Pond Biofuels. In 2008 researchers from five I-CAN organizations were developing a Carbon Algae Recycling System to "feed waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 from industrial exhaust stacks to micro-algae growing in artificial ponds"; the "Algal Carbon Conversion", is related to prior interests of Mr. McDougall, as he headed Innoventures, a company involved in lobbying for the development of an algae system to recycle carbon emissions; the Algal Carbon Conversion Pilot Project, with plans for a $19 million facility to be constructed in Alberta, is a partnership between the NRC and industry partners, Canadian Natural Resources Limited and Pond Biofuels. The NRC was not involved in this area of research prior to the arrival of Mr. McDougall; the Canadian Wheat Improvement Program is a "strategic collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the University of Saskatchewan’s Crop Development Centre and the province of Saskatchewan".
With a budget of $97 million, the Canadian Wheat Alliance will be conducting research on improving the yield of Canadian wheat crops and on the most efficient use of chemical fertilizers. Working with breeders and scientists at the Crop Development Centre and at AAFC, they will be integrating long term research with genetic improvement of wheat; the GaN Electronics program supports partner research and development activities with a goal of ensuring that GaN technology will cre
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts. An early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free "Romanesque" manner was Henry Hobson Richardson. In the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. Romanesque Revival is sometimes referred to as the "Norman style" or "Lombard style" in works published during the 19th century after variations of historic Romanesque that were developed by the Normans and Lombards, respectively. Like its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was used for churches, for synagogues such as the New Synagogue of Strasbourg built in 1898, the Congregation Emanu-El of New York built in 1929.
The style was quite popular for university campuses in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States and Canada. See also: Romanesque Revival architecture in the United KingdomThe development of the Norman revival style took place over a long time in the British Isles starting with Inigo Jones's refenestration of the White Tower of the Tower of London in 1637–38 and work at Windsor Castle by Hugh May for Charles II, but this was little more than restoration work. In the 18th century, the use of round arched windows was thought of as being Saxon rather than Norman, examples of buildings with round arched windows include Shirburn Castle in Oxfordshire, Wentworth in Yorkshire, Enmore Castle in Somerset. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl's castle at Inverary, started in 1744, castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Oxenfoord and Seton Palace, 1792. In England James Wyatt used round arched windows at Sandleford Priory, Berkshire, in 1780–89 and the Duke of Norfolk started to rebuild Arundel Castle, while Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire was built by Robert Smirke between 1812 and 1820.
At this point, the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817, Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation, it was now realised that'round-arch architecture' was Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon. The start of an "archaeologically correct" Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper, his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837; the style did not catch on for domestic buildings, though many country houses and mock castles were built in the Castle Gothic or Castellated style during the Victorian period, a mixed Gothic style. However, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, who developed Romanesque Revival church architecture.
Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47, St Agatha’s Llanymynech, 1845, he copied the tower of St. Salvator's Cathedral, Bruges. Other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, the porch to Langedwyn Church, he was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, saving on the expense of stonework. Penson’s last church in the Romanesque Revival style was Rhosllannerchrugog, Wrexham 1852The Romanesque adopted by Penson contrasts with the Italianate Romanesque of other architects such as Thomas Henry Wyatt, who designed Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas Church, in this style at Wilton, built between 1841 and 1844 for the Dowager Countess of Pembroke and her son, Lord Herbert of Lea. During the 19th century, the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations. Whereas high churches and Anglo-Catholic, which were influenced by the Oxford Movement, were built in Gothic Revival architecture, low churches and broad churches of the period were built in the Romanesque Revival style.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches and chapels. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, who designed the Mint Lane Baptist Chapel in Lincoln in a debased Italianate Romanesque revival style in 1870. After about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canada's provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto and the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria, are Romanesque Revival in style. University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style; the building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the final d
National Research Council Time Signal
The National Research Council Time Signal is Canada's longest running radio program. Heard every day since November 5, 1939, shortly before 13:00 Eastern Time across the CBC Radio One network, it lasts between 15 and 60 seconds, ending at 13:00. During standard time, the signal is at 13:00 Eastern Standard Time and during Daylight Saving Time, the signal is at 13:00 Eastern Daylight Saving Time; the signal is heard on some stations of the Ici Radio-Canada Première network at 12:00 ET daily in Ontario and the Maritime provinces. The signal consists of a series of 300 ms "pips" of an 800 Hz sine wave tone, each one starting at the top of each UTC second, up to ten seconds before the hour, followed by silence, a one second-long 800 Hz tone to mark the top of the hour; the CBC time signal is delayed by about 300 ms with respect to the CHU time signal, because each CBC radio station receives the actual time signal from Ottawa by satellite. The spoken header, as announced by a local on-air talent at each station, is of the style, In different time zones, the local time and time zone is used instead.
This header is spoken over the initial pips. As of May 2011, the length of the silence has been reduced to six seconds, with a soft click at the beginning of each second during the silence. At the top of many other hours, at the discretion of each station, a one-second tone is sounded, but the hour itself is not announced. NRC runs two telephone numbers. Voice announcements of Eastern Time are made every 10 seconds, followed by a tone indicating the exact time; this service is available to the general public by dialing +1 745-1576 for English service and +1 745-9426 for French service. The call is automatically cut off after three announcements. Long-distance charges may apply for those calling from outside the Ottawa/Gatineau area, depending on provider; the English message, voiced by former CBC Radio announcer Harry Mannis, is in the following format, repeated every ten seconds: The French service uses the voice of Radio-Canada news anchor Simon Durivage, with the following message format: This is followed by a single 800 Hz beep lasting 0.3 seconds.
The word "exactly" replaces "and x seconds"/"et y seconds" at the top of the minute. Additionally, there is an 800 Hz "tick" every second in the background. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, a modified version of the NRC Telephone Talking Clock was transmitted over television channel CPAC while the House of Commons was not sitting; the announcements alternated between English and French, cycled through all six of Canada's time zones, as well as UTC. The NRC offers time synchronization over the Internet using Network Time Protocol. Computers and other devices with NTP clients can use these servers to ensure that they have the correct time; the NTP stratum-2 servers are located at these addresses: time.nrc.ca time.chu.nrc.ca Greenwich Time Signal - BBC Radio hourly time indicator CHU NRC short wave station broadcasts NRC public NTP service
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
David Ewart, ISO was a Canadian architect who served as Chief Dominion Architect from 1896 to 1914. As chief government architect he was responsible for many of the federal buildings constructed in this period, he broke with the Neo-Gothic style adopted by his predecessors Thomas Seaton Scott and Thomas Fuller. Ewart was married to Jeanne Marie Doyen until her death in 1885 and with Annie Sigsworth Simpson from 1887 to his death in 1921."David Ewart". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016. His son John Albert Ewart was an acclaimed Ottawa architect; as federal architect he oversaw the design and construction of several buildings at the Central Experimental Farm including the Dominion Observatory, Carling Avenue in 1902. He oversaw the design and construction of numerous post offices, he oversaw the construction of numerous armouries across Canada. His son John Albert Ewart was a prominent Ottawa architect. In 1903, he was awarded the Imperial Service Order. David Ewart, Chief Dominion Architect 1896-1914 Canada`s Historic Sites "David Ewart".
Dictionary of Canadian Biography. University of Toronto Press. 1979–2016