Domino effect

A domino effect or chain reaction is the cumulative effect produced when one event sets off a chain of similar events. The term is best known as a mechanical effect and is used as an analogy to a falling row of dominoes, it refers to a linked sequence of events where the time between successive events is small. It can be used or metaphorically; the term domino effect is used both to imply that an event is inevitable or likely, conversely to imply that an event is impossible or unlikely. The domino effect can be visualized by placing a row of dominoes upright, separated by a small distance. Upon pushing the first domino, the next domino in line will be knocked over, so on, thus firing a linear chain in which each domino's fall is triggered by the domino preceding it; the effect is the same regardless of the length of the chain. The energy used in this chain reaction is the potential energy of the dominoes due to them being in a metastable state; the domino effect is exploited in Rube Goldberg machines.

Domino Day – world record attempt for the highest number of toppling domino stones. Ripple effect Rube Goldberg machineRelevant physical theory: Butterfly effect Cascading failure Causality Chain reaction Snowball effectMathematical theory Mathematical inductionPolitical theory Domino theorySocial Chinese whispers Behavioral contagion Copycat crime Impact Mechanics, W. J. Stronge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-521-60289-0, ISBN 978-0-521-60289-1

Scales Mound, Illinois

Scales Mound is a village in Jo Daviess County, United States. The population was 376 at the 2010 census, down from 401 in 2000; the original town of Scales Mound was located at the base of an erosional remnant similar to Charles Mound, about a mile southwest of the present-day village. In 1830 Samuel Scales purchased the original village site from John Sole and built a tavern at the base of the mound along Sucker Trail, a major east-west corridor; the land that the present-day village of Scales Mound is on was purchased from the U. S. government in 1848 by a man named Dunning. Little is known about the use of the land until the 1850s. In 1851 the Illinois Central Railroad was established and it would become a major factor in the settlement of much of rural Illinois, including Scales Mound. In September 1853, anticipating the arrival of the railroad, the village of Scales Mound was platted by Josiah Conlee and B. B. Provost. During the summer of 1854 track crews from ICRR laid out 20 miles of track between Scales Mound and Apple River and trains were running the line the day after completion.

With the arrival of the railroad, Scales Mound's first building was constructed in the late fall 1854. As of the census of 2000, there were 401 people, 164 households, 108 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,709.5 people per square mile. There were 188 housing units at an average density of 801.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 98.25% White, 0.25% Asian, 1.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.49% of the population. There were 164 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.1% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.08. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $35,294, the median income for a family was $37,386. Males had a median income of $26,875 versus $20,288 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,992. About 6.1% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 15.3% of those age 65 or over. Scales Mound lies at the northwestern tip of Illinois in Jo Daviess County, part of the Driftless Area. Scales Mound is located at 42°28′41″N 90°15′2″W near the highest point in Illinois, Charles Mound, on the Stagecoach Trail, it has Stagecoach Trail days. According to the 2010 census, Scales Mound has a total area of all land. Scales Mound is located in a region of the U. S. Midwest known as the Driftless Area, so called because it escaped glaciation during the last ice age. Covering parts of Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa, the Illinois region is limited to Jo Daviess County and small parts of Whiteside and Carroll County in northwest Illinois.

The topography of the area is characterized by hilly wooded ridges. Common features found in the Scales Mound area include canyons, bluffs and palisades. Near Charles Mound, the highest point in Illinois at 1235 feet, Scales Mound is said to be "At the Top of Illinois". Scales Mound has one K-12 school, its mascot is the Hornets. Scales Mound Historic District Village of Scales Mound Jo Daviess County Scales Mound Fire Protection District Scales Mound School Scales Mound at City Data

Development management in the United Kingdom

Development Management known as planning control, or development control, is the element of the United Kingdom's system of town and country planning through which local government or the Secretary of State, regulates land use and new building, i.e. development. It relies on a "plan-led system" whereby development plans are produced, involving various stages of public consultation prior to being adopted. Subsequently, development that requires planning permission, granted or refused with reference to the development plan as the starting point other material considerations are taken into account; the term "development management" is abbreviated to DM. There are 421 local planning authorities in the United Kingdom, they are the local borough or district council or a unitary authority. Development involving mining, minerals or waste disposal matters is dealt with by county councils in non-metropolitan areas. Within national parks, it is the national park authority; when the UK's systems of town and country planning were established by the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 and, in Scotland, the Town and Country Planning Act 1947, it was expected that the great majority of new built development would be undertaken by the public sector: Local authorities, New Town Development Corporations, the then-new National Health Service, for example.

In those cases the commissioning body would grant itself planning permission for the proposals concerned. However, a separate system to grant or withhold planning permission for the small amount of development which would be undertaken by the private sector was required; this was the origin of the modern system of planning control. In fact this expectation was mistaken as, by the mid 1950s, the rate of private sector development was vastly exceeding that of the public sector. In modern times, including that by government departments and local authorities requires planning permission, is subject to the same process of scrutiny as any private developer. An increasing range of developments are permitted development - a form of planning permission granted nationally or locally by Order in advance. In recent years, planning has become a key means of delivering a number of the government's objectives relating to climate change, reducing carbon emissions, access to housing and improving the supply of housing, enhancing biodiversity and a number of other emerging priorities.

Although these are addressed via the process of formulating local planning policies for the area of each LPA on a local basis, as far as the public are concerned it is development control and the process of determining planning applications, the most evident part of the planning system as a whole. Note that within the United Kingdom, any significant development may require a variety of different consents from different agencies before commencement, such as approval of construction materials and methods under the relevant Building Regulations); the term "development control" is out of favour and development management is preferred as it implies a more cooperative process, though in reality the difference is sometimes difficult to distinguish. There is after all a limit to the level of cooperation possible; the UK is distinguished from most countries in that the lawful occupier of any land or buildings will not only have title to their land, but requires planning title for any buildings on the land, or uses to which the land and buildings are put.

Planning title was granted for all pre-existing buildings and uses in 1948. Since that date planning permission has been required for all new development. A grant of planning permission relates to the building concerned. With a few rare exceptions it is not specific to the person, organisation or firm who obtained the permission."Development" in UK planning law is defined as the carrying out of any building, mining or other operations in, on, over or under land, or the making of any material change in the use of any buildings or other land. Certain types of development are excluded from the definition of development, such as routine building maintenance and repair. Many categories of minor development are classified by legislation as "permitted development"; these are in effect granted an automatic planning permission by law, rather than requiring any specific application for planning permission. Another way of looking at it is that Permitted Development is a form of nationally approved planning permission.

Although still defined as "development" these works avoid a need to engage with the planning system and can be undertaken by land owners as a right. More recent changes to PD rules require some element of contact with the LPA before implementation - for example prior notification. Uses of land and buildings are classified into "use classes" and any change from one use class to another use class is automatically a "material change of use" amounting to development; some small scale changes between use classes are "permitted development" and hence do not require planning permission, subject to any site specific restrictions. Certain types of use or activity do not fall into a specific use class and are termed "sui generis". Any change of use to or from "sui generis