Saint Judicael or Judicaël spelled Judhael, was the king of Domnonée and high king of the Bretons in the mid-7th century. According to Gregory of Tours, the Bretons were divided into various regna during the sixth century, of which Domnonia and Gwened are the best known, they pledged themselves to Childebert I in exchange for legitimacy. They acknowledged the suzerainty of Clovis I, they attempted to escape Frankish rule during the time of Chilperic I, who subdued Waroch II and at least the eastern realms of the region. Guntram, Chilperic's brother, retained his lordship over Waroch and the Brittani formed a Frankish tributary-vassal state through the reign of Dagobert I. In the Chronicle of Fredegar, a Judicael son of Hoel III was named as King of the Bretons at this time, it is likely that he was the Domnonian King Judicael of Breton tradition. This would indicate that Domnonia had at the time swallowed up Broweroch and Judicael had become a High King; this is the reason for his dealings with Dagobert and Eligius.
In 635, Dagobert ordered Judicael to come to his palace at Clichy and renew fealty to the king, otherwise threatening to invade. The Breton king complied and arrived with gifts, but insulted Dagobert by refusing to eat at the royal table. Around 640, he retired to the monastery of Saint John at Gwazel, not far from the monastery of Paimpont that he had founded. After his death, he was buried beside his abbot, Saint Méen, declared a saint, he was succeeded by his son Alain II, known as Alan Hir. He is said to have fathered Saints Winnoc. Chardonnet, Joseph. Livre d'or des saints de Bretagne. Rennes: Armor-Éditeur, 1977. See esp. pp. 139–42. Smith, Julia M. H.. Province and Empire: Brittany and the Carolingians. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 5–. ISBN 978-0-521-03030-4; the History Files: Princes of Domnonia The History Files: Map of historical Brittany
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader. The term hagiography may be used to refer to the biography of a saint or developed spiritual being in any of the world's spiritual traditions. Christian hagiographies focus on the lives, notably the miracles, ascribed to men and women canonized by the Roman Catholic church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Church of the East. Other religious traditions such as Buddhism, Islam and Jainism create and maintain hagiographical texts concerning saints and other individuals believed to be imbued with sacred power. Hagiographic works those of the Middle Ages, can incorporate a record of institutional and local history, evidence of popular cults and traditions. However, when referring to modern, non-ecclesiastical works, the term hagiography is used as a pejorative reference to biographies and histories whose authors are perceived to be uncritical of or reverential to their subject. Hagiography constituted an important literary genre in the early Christian church, providing some informational history along with the more inspirational stories and legends.
A hagiographic account of an individual saint can consist of a biography, a description of the saint's deeds or miracles, an account of the saint's martyrdom, or be a combination of these. The genre of lives of the saints first came into being in the Roman Empire as legends about Christian martyrs were recorded; the dates of their deaths formed the basis of martyrologies. In the 4th century, there were three main types of catalogs of lives of the saints: annual calendar catalogue, or menaion, biographies of the saints to be read at sermons. In Western Europe hagiography was one of the more important vehicles for the study of inspirational history during the Middle Ages; the Golden Legend of Jacob de Voragine compiled a great deal of medieval hagiographic material, with a strong emphasis on miracle tales. Lives were written to promote the cult of local or national states, in particular to develop pilgrimages to visit relics; the bronze Gniezno Doors of Gniezno Cathedral in Poland are the only Romanesque doors in Europe to feature the life of a saint.
The life of Saint Adalbert of Prague, buried in the cathedral, is shown in 18 scenes based on a lost illuminated copy of one of his Lives. The Bollandist Society continues the study, academic assembly and publication of materials relating to the lives of Christian saints. Many of the important hagiographical texts composed in medieval England were written in the vernacular dialect Anglo-Norman. With the introduction of Latin literature into England in the 7th and 8th centuries the genre of the life of the saint grew popular; when one contrasts it to the popular heroic poem, such as Beowulf, one finds that they share certain common features. In Beowulf, the titular character battles against Grendel and his mother, while the saint, such as Athanasius' Anthony or the character of Guthlac, battles against figures no less substantial in a spiritual sense. Both genres focus on the hero-warrior figure, but with the distinction that the saint is of a spiritual sort. Imitation of the life of Christ was the benchmark against which saints were measured, imitation of the lives of saints was the benchmark against which the general population measured itself.
In Anglo-Saxon and medieval England, hagiography became a literary genre par excellence for the teaching of a illiterate audience. Hagiography provided priests and theologians with classical handbooks in a form that allowed them the rhetorical tools necessary to present their faith through the example of the saints' lives. Of all the English hagiographers no one was more prolific nor so aware of the importance of the genre as Abbot Ælfric of Eynsham, his work Lives of the Saints contains set of sermons on saints' days observed by the English Church. The text comprises two prefaces, one in Latin and one in Old English, 39 lives beginning on December 25 with the nativity of Christ and ending with three texts to which no saints' days are attached; the text spans the entire year and describes the lives of many saints, both English and continental, hearkens back to some of the earliest saints of the early church. There are two known instances; these are the Cornish-language works Beunans Meriasek and Beunans Ke, about the lives of Saints Meriasek and Kea, respectively.
Other examples of hagiographies from England include: the Chronicle by Hugh Candidus the Secgan Manuscript the list of John Leyland the book Life by Saint Cadog Ireland is notable in its rich hagiographical tradition, for the large amount of material, produced during the Middle Ages. Irish hagiographers wrote in Latin while some of the saint's lives were written in the hagiographer's native vernacular Irish. Of particular note are the lives of St. Patrick, St. Columba /Colm and St. Brigit/Brigid—Ireland's three patron saints. Additionally, several Irish calendars relating to the feastd
Dol-de-Bretagne, cited in most historical records under its Breton name of Dol, is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine département in Brittany in northwestern France. In 549, the Welsh Saint Teilo was documented as coming to Dol where he joined Samson of Dol, the fruit groves which they planted remain and are known as the groves of Teilo and Samson. Legend has it that while there he was assigned by King Budic II to subdue a belligerent winged dragon, which he was said to have tamed and tied to a rock in the sea off Brittany, he is reported to have stayed in Dol for seven years and seven months so must have left in 556 or 557. Dol-de-Bretagne is reputed to be the origin of the royal House of Stewart who became the monarchs of Scotland and England and Ireland; the Stewart monarchs descend from Alan the Seneschal of the Bishop of Dol. His son, Flaad Fitzalan and his son Alan, arrived in Britain at the request of Henry I, King of England. Flaad's grandson, Walter Fitzalan, was appointed the 1st Steward of Scotland by David I of Scotland.
Malcolm IV of Scotland confirmed the honour bestowed by David and made the office of Steward of Scotland hereditary in Walter's family. In the fourteenth century, Walter Stewart, a descendant of Walter Fitzalan, married Marjorie Bruce, daughter of King Robert I of Scotland, their son became King Robert II, their descendants the royal House of Stewart. Dol figured prominently in the evolution of the Duchy of Brittany. Nominoe, the ruler of Brittany attempted to establish a Patriarch for the Breton church in a move to give it autonomy, thereby strengthen his rule and further secure his independence from the Carolingian Empire, it took centuries for Rome to recognize the Archbishop of Dol. However, after the formation of the Duchy of Brittany in 939, the Archbishop of Dol wielded great political power and was at one time Regent to a young Duke of Brittany. Dol Cathedral is a significant building in an eclectic mix of styles; the diocese was suppressed in 1801. The town was unsuccessfully besieged by William the Conqueror, taken by Henry II of England in 1164.
In June 1173 Hugh de Kevelioc, 5th Earl of Chester, laid siege to Dol-de-Bretagne and captured the settlement as part of the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry. Henry, supported by an army of 20,000 mercenaries retook Dol-de-Bretagne the same year; the town was again taken by Guy of Thouars in 1204. Located near the town is Cricket Club Des Ormes, which in 2003 set a world record for the longest cricket match; the club played for 13 minutes. The record has been beaten a number of times since. Inhabitants of Dol-de-Bretagne are called Dolois in French. Dol is home to a number including a 12th-century house. Dol is one of the settings for a lai by Marie de France. Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department List of megalithic sites André César Vermare Sculptor of war memorial in cathedral. INSEE Official website Cultural Heritage
Early Middle Ages
Historians regard the Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE. They marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history; the alternative term "Late Antiquity" emphasizes elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the earlier medieval period. As such the concept overlaps with Late Antiquity, following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, precedes the High Middle Ages; the period saw a continuation of trends evident since late classical antiquity, including population decline in urban centres, a decline of trade, a small rise in global warming and increased migration. In the 19th century the Early Middle Ages were labelled the "Dark Ages", a characterization based on the relative scarcity of literary and cultural output from this time. However, the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, continued to survive, though in the 7th century the Rashidun Caliphate and the Umayyad Caliphate conquered swathes of Roman territory.
Many of the listed trends reversed in the period. In 800 the title of "Emperor" was revived in Western Europe with Charlemagne, whose Carolingian Empire affected European social structure and history. Europe experienced a return to systematic agriculture in the form of the feudal system, which adopted such innovations as three-field planting and the heavy plough. Barbarian migration stabilized in much of Europe, although the Viking expansion affected Northern Europe. Starting in the 2nd century, various indicators of Roman civilization began to decline, including urbanization, seaborne commerce, population. Archaeologists have identified only 40 per cent as many Mediterranean shipwrecks from the 3rd century as from the first. Estimates of the population of the Roman Empire during the period from 150 to 400 suggest a fall from 65 million to 50 million, a decline of more than 20 per cent; some scholars have connected this de-population to the Dark Ages Cold Period, when a decrease in global temperatures impaired agricultural yields.
Early in the 3rd century Germanic peoples migrated south from Scandinavia and reached the Black Sea, creating formidable confederations which opposed the local Sarmatians. In Dacia and on the steppes north of the Black Sea the Goths, a Germanic people, established at least two kingdoms: Therving and Greuthung; the arrival of the Huns in 372–375 ended the history of these kingdoms. The Huns, a confederation of central Asian tribes, founded an empire, they had mastered the difficult art of shooting composite recurve bows from horseback. The Goths sought refuge in Roman territory; however many bribed the Danube border-guards into allowing them to bring their weapons. The discipline and organization of a Roman legion made it a superb fighting unit; the Romans preferred infantry to cavalry because infantry could be trained to retain the formation in combat, while cavalry tended to scatter when faced with opposition. While a barbarian army could be raised and inspired by the promise of plunder, the legions required a central government and taxation to pay for salaries, constant training and food.
The decline in agricultural and economic activity reduced the empire's taxable income and thus its ability to maintain a professional army to defend itself from external threats. In the Gothic War, the Goths revolted and confronted the main Roman army in the Battle of Adrianople. By this time, the distinction in the Roman army between Roman regulars and barbarian auxiliaries had broken down, the Roman army comprised barbarians and soldiers recruited for a single campaign; the general decline in discipline led to the use of smaller shields and lighter weaponry. Not wanting to share the glory, Eastern Emperor Valens ordered an attack on the Therving infantry under Fritigern without waiting for Western Emperor Gratian, on the way with reinforcements. While the Romans were engaged, the Greuthung cavalry arrived. Only one-third of the Roman army managed to escape; this represented the most shattering defeat that the Romans had suffered since the Battle of Cannae, according to the Roman military writer Ammianus Marcellinus.
The core army of the Eastern Roman Empire was destroyed, Valens was killed, the Goths were freed to lay waste to the Balkans, including the armories along the Danube. As Edward Gibbon comments, "The Romans, who so coolly and so concisely mention the acts of justice which were exercised by the legions, reserve their compassion and their eloquence for their own sufferings, when the provinces were invaded and desolated by the arms of the successful Barbarians."The empire lacked the resources, the will, to reconstruct the professional mobile army destroyed at Adrianople, so it had to rely on barbarian armies to fight for it. The Eastern Roman Empire succeeded in buying off the Goths with tribute; the Western Roman Empire proved less fortunate. Stilicho, the western empire's half-Vandal military commander, stripped the Rhine frontier of troops to fend off invasions of Italy by the Visigoths in 402–03 and by other Goths in 406–07. Fleeing before the advance of the Huns, the Vandals and Alans launched an attack across the frozen Rhine near Mainz.
There soon followed the bands of the Alamanni. In the fit of anti-barbarian hysteria which followed, the Western Roman Emperor Honorius had Stilicho summarily beheaded. Stilicho submitted his neck, "with a firmness not unworthy of t
Ancient Celtic religion
Ancient Celtic religion known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts between 500 BC and 500 AD, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age. Little is known with any certainty about the subject, apart from documented names that are thought to be of deities, the only detailed contemporary accounts are by hostile and not-well-informed Roman writers. Celtic paganism was one of a larger group of Iron Age polytheistic religions of the Indo-European family, it comprised a large degree of variation both geographically and chronologically, although "behind this variety, broad structural similarities can be detected" allowing there to be "a basic religious homogeneity" among the Celtic peoples. The Celtic pantheon consists of numerous recorded theonyms, both from Greco-Roman ethnography and from epigraphy. Among the most prominent ones are Teutatis and Lugus.
Figures from medieval Irish mythology have been interpreted as iterations of earlier pre-Christian Insular deities in the study of comparative mythology. According to Greek and Roman accounts, in Gaul and Ireland, there was a priestly caste of "magico-religious specialists" known as the druids, although little is known about them. Following the Roman Empire's conquest of Gaul and southern Britannia, Celtic religious practices began to display elements of Romanisation, resulting in a syncretic Gallo-Roman culture with its own religious traditions with its own large set of deities, such as Cernunnos, Telesphorus, etc. In Roman Britain this lost at least some ground to Christianity by the time the Romans left in 410, in the next century began to be replaced by the pagan Anglo-Saxon religion over much of the country. Christianity had resumed missionary activity by the 5th and the 6th centuries in Ireland, the Celtic population was Christianized supplanting the earlier religious traditions. However, polytheistic traditions left a legacy in many of the Celtic nations, influenced mythology, served as the basis for a new religious movement, Celtic Neopaganism, in the 20th century.
Comparatively little is known about Celtic paganism because the evidence for it is fragmentary, due to the fact that the Celts who practiced it wrote nothing down about their religion. Therefore, all we have to study their religion from is the literature from the early Christian period, commentaries from classical Greek and Roman scholars, archaeological evidence; the archaeologist Barry Cunliffe summarised the sources for Celtic religion as "fertile chaos", borrowing the term from the Irish scholar Proinsias MacCana. Cunliffe went on to note that "there is more, evidence for Celtic religion than for any other example of Celtic life; the only problem is to assemble it in a systematic form which does not too oversimplify the intricate texture of its detail." The archaeological evidence does not contain the bias inherent in the literary sources. Nonetheless, the interpretation of this evidence can be colored by the 21st century mindset. Various archaeological discoveries have aided understanding of the religion of the Celts.
Most surviving Celtic art is not figurative. Surviving figurative monumental sculpture comes entirely from Romano-Celtic contexts, broadly follows provincial Roman styles, though figures who are deities wear torcs, there may be inscriptions in Roman letters with what appear to be Romanized Celtic names; the Pillar of the Boatmen from Paris, with many deity figures, is the most comprehensive example, datable by a dedication to the Emperor Tiberius. Monumental stone sculptures from before conquest by the Romans are much more rare, it is far from clear that deities are represented; the most significant are the Warrior of Hirschlanden and "Glauberg Prince", the Mšecké Žehrovice Head, sanctuaries of some sort at the southern French oppida of Roquepertuse and Entremont. There are a number of Celtiberian standing "warrior" figures, several other stone heads from various areas. In general early monumental sculpture is found in areas with higher levels of contact with the classical world, through trade.
It is possible. Small heads are more common surviving as ornament in metalwork, there are animals and birds that may have a religious significance, as on the Basse Yutz Flagons; the Strettweg Cult Wagon is associated with libations or sacrifices, pairs of metal "spoons" used for divination have been found. Celtic coinage, from the late 4th century BC until conquest copies Greek and Roman examples, sometimes closely, but the heads and horses that are the most popular motifs may have a local religious significance. There are the coins of the Roman provinces in the Celtic lands of Gaul, Raetia and Britannia,Most of the surviving monuments and their accompanying inscriptions belong to the Roman period and reflect a considerable degree of syncretism between Celtic and Roman gods. A notable example of this is the horned god, called Cernunnos.
Clovis was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks, Basina, a Thuringian princess. In 481, at the age of fifteen, Clovis succeeded his father. In what is now northern France northern Gaul, he took control of a rump state of the Western Roman Empire controlled by Syagrius at the Battle of Soissons, by the time of his death in either 511 or 513, he had conquered smaller Frankish kingdoms towards the northeast, the Alemanni to the east, Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania to the south. Clovis is important in the historiography of France as "the first king of what would become France". Clovis is significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496 at the behest of his wife, who would be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church.
Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508. The adoption by Clovis of Catholicism led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples, to religious unification across what is now modern-day France and Germany, three centuries to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire, his name is Germanic, composed of the elements hlod and wig, is the origin of the French given name Louis, borne by 18 kings of France. In Dutch, the most related modern language to Frankish, the name is rendered as Lodewijk, in Middle Dutch the form was Lodewijch. In modern German the name became Ludwig. Numerous small Frankish petty kingdoms existed during the 5th century; the Salian Franks were the first known Frankish tribe that settled with official Roman permission within the empire, first in Batavia in the Rhine-Maas delta, in 375 in Toxandria the current province of North Brabant in the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Limburg in current Belgium.
This put them in the north part of the Roman civitas Tungrorum, with Romanized population still dominant south of the military highway Boulogne-Cologne. Chlodio seems to have attacked westwards from this area to take control of the Roman populations in Tournai southwards to Artois, Cambrai controlling an area stretching to the Somme river. Childeric I, Clovis's father, was reputed to be a relative of Chlodio, was known as the king of the Franks that fought as an army within northern Gaul. In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul, to defeat the Visigoths in Orléans. Childeric was buried in Tournai. Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum; the Franks of Tournai came to dominate their neighbours aided by the association with Aegidius. The death of Flavius Aetius in 454 led to the decline of imperial power in the Gaul; the part of Gaul still under Roman control emerged as a kingdom under Aegidius' son.
The ruler of Tournai was succeeded by his sixteen-year-old son, Clovis. His band of warriors numbered no more than half a thousand. In 486 he began his efforts to expand the realm by allying himself with his relative, regulus of Cambrai and another Frankish regulus, Chalaric. Together the triumvirate met the Gallo-Roman commander at Soissons. During the battle Chalaric betrayed his comrades for refusing to take part in the fighting. Despite the betrayal, the Franks landed a decisive victory, forcing Syagrius to flee to the court of Alaric II; the battle is considered be the end of Western Roman rule outside of Italy. Following the battle, Clovis invaded the traitor Chararic's territory and was able to imprison him and his son. Prior to the battle, Clovis did not enjoy the support of the Gallo-Roman clergy, hence he proceeded to pillage the Roman territory, including the churches; the Bishop of Reims requested Clovis to return everything taken from the Church of Reims, the young king aspired to establish cordial relationships with the clergy and returned a valuable ewer taken from Reims.
Despite his position, some Roman cities refused to yield to the Franks, namely Verdun‒which surrendered after a brief siege‒and Paris, which stubbornly resisted a few years as many as five. He made Paris his capital and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine. Clovis came to the realisation that he wouldn't be able to rule Gaul without the help of the clergy and aimed to please the clergy by taking a Catholic wife, he integrated many of Syagrius' units into his own army. The Roman kingdom was under Clovis' control by 491, because in the same year Clovis moved against a small number of Thuringians in the eastern Gaul, near the Burgundian border. Around 493 AD, he secured an alliance with the Ostrogoths through the marriage of his sister Audofleda to their king, Theodoric the Great. In the same year, ne
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages. Celtic Christianity has been conceived of with differing levels of specificity: some writers have described a distinct Celtic Church uniting the Celtic peoples and distinguishing them from the Roman Church, while others classify it as a set of distinctive practices occurring in those areas. Varying scholars reject the former notion, but note that there were certain traditions and practices present in both the Irish and British churches that were not seen in the wider Christian world; such practices include: a distinctive system for determining the dating of Easter, a style of monastic tonsure, a unique system of penance, the popularity of going into "exile for Christ". Additionally, there were other practices that developed in certain parts of Britain and Ireland, that were not known to have spread beyond particular regions.
The term denotes the regional practices among the insular churches and their associates, rather than actual theological differences. The term "Celtic Church" is deprecated by many historians as it implies a unified and identifiable entity separate from that of mainstream Western Christendom. For this reason, many prefer the term "Insular Christianity"; as Patrick Wormald explained, "One of the common misconceptions is that there was a Roman Church to which the Celtic Church was nationally opposed."Popularized by German historian Lutz von Padberg, the term "Iroschottisch" is used to describe this supposed dichotomy between Irish-Scottish and Roman Christianity. As a whole, Celtic-speaking areas were part of Latin Christendom at a time when there was significant regional variation of liturgy and structure. Though, a general collective veneration of the Papacy was no less intense in Celtic-speaking areas. Nonetheless, distinctive traditions developed and spread to both Ireland and Britain in the 6th and 7th centuries.
Some elements may have been introduced to Ireland by the Briton St. Patrick, others from Ireland to Britain through the Irish mission system of Saint Columba. However, the histories of the Irish, Scots, Breton and Manx Churches diverge after the 8th century. Interest in the subject has led to a series of "Celtic Christian Revival" movements, which have shaped popular perceptions of the Celts and their religious practices - most notably, Celtomania. People have conceived of "Celtic Christianity" in different ways at different times. Writings on the topic say more about the time in which they originate than about the historical state of Christianity in the early medieval Celtic-speaking world, many notions are now discredited in modern academic discourse. One prominent feature ascribed to Celtic Christianity is that it is inherently distinct from – and opposed to – the Catholic Church. Other common claims include that Celtic Christianity denied the authority of the Pope, was less authoritarian than the Catholic Church, more spiritual, friendlier to women, more connected with nature, more comfortable dealing with Celtic polytheism.
One view, which gained substantial scholarly traction in the 19th century, was that there was a "Celtic Church", a organised Christian body or denomination uniting the Celtic peoples and separating them from the "Roman" church of continental Europe. Others have been content to speak of "Celtic Christianity" as consisting of certain traditions and beliefs intrinsic to the Celts. However, modern scholars have identified problems with all of these claims, find the term "Celtic Christianity" problematic in and of itself. Modern scholarship roundly rejects the idea of a "Celtic Church" due to the lack of substantiating evidence. Indeed, distinct Irish and British church traditions existed, each with their own practices, there was significant local variation within the individual Irish and British spheres. While there were some traditions known to have been common to both the Irish and British churches, these were few; these commonalities did not exist due to the "Celticity" of the regions, but due to other historical and geographical factors.
Additionally, the Christians of Ireland and Britain were not "anti-Roman". Caitlin Corning further notes that the "Irish and British were no more pro-women, pro-environment, or more spiritual than the rest of the Church."Corning writes that scholars have identified three major strands of thought that have influenced the popular conceptions of Celtic Christianity. The first arose in the English Reformation, when the Church of England declared itself separate from papal authority. Protestant writers of this time popularised the idea of an indigenous British Christianity that opposed the foreign "Roman" church and was purer in thought; the English church, they claimed, was not forming a new institution, but casting off the shackles of Rome and returning to its true roots as the indigenous national church of Britain. Ideas of Celtic Christianity were further influenced by the Romantic movement of the 18th century, in particular Romantic notions of the noble savage and the intrinsic qualities of the "Celtic race".
Romantics idealised the Celts as a primitive, bucolic people who were far more poetic and freer of rationalism than their neighbours. The Celts were seen as having an inner spiritual nature that shone through after their form of Christianity had been destroyed by the authoritarian and rational Rome. In the 20th and 21st centuries, ideas about "Celtic Christia