Karystos or Carystus is a small coastal town on the Greek island of Euboea. It lies 129 km south of Chalkis, from Athens it is accessible by ferry via Marmari from the port of Rafina. Its urban plan was out by the renowned Bavarian civil engineer Bierbach, in the middle of the 19th century. Karystos apparently remained inhabited throughout the early Middle Ages, as part of the theme of Hellas, it was seat of a bishop – a suffragan of Athens – at least since the reign of Leo VI the Wise. It was among the towns listed in the 1198 chrysobull of Alexios III Angelos, in 1205 it was captured, as with the rest of the island, by Jacques dAvesnes, and soon it became the seat of the southern third of Euboea under Ravano dalle Carceri. It is likely that it was at time, with the construction of the castle of Castel Rosso and the rise of piracy. The town remained an episcopal see under Latin rule, with the Greek bishop remaining in office, in 1276/7 it was reconquered by the Byzantines under Licario and held until 1296, when it was recovered by Boniface of Verona.
In 1318 it passed into Catalan hands as part of the dowry of Marulla of Verona for her marriage with Alfonso Fadrique. After the conquest of Euboea by the Ottoman Empire in 1470, the local Orthodox see was reactivated as part of the Metropolis of Euripos.635 km2, the reconstructed Venetian fortress of Bourtzi, built in the 13th century on the eastern beach of the town. The ruins of the Venetian castle named Castello Rosso built in 1030 and ancient marble quarries, the town hall, built at the end of the 19th century. A small museum hosted by the Yokaleion Cultural Centre, featuring collections of Hellenistic and Roman era sculptures, the Orthodox monasteries of Taxiarches, St. George and St. Mavra. The mountain area of Mt. Ochi, tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 1, Hellas und Thessalia. Vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, the Latins in the Levant, a History of Frankish Greece
Orchomenus, the setting for many early Greek myths, is best known as a rich archaeological site in Boeotia, that was inhabited from the Neolithic through the Hellenistic periods. Orchomenus is referenced as the Minyean Orchomenus in order to distinguish the city from the Arcadian Orchomenus, according to the founding myth of Orchomenos, its royal dynasty had been established by the Minyans, who had followed their eponymous leader Minyas from coastal Thessaly to settle the site. In the Bronze Age, during the fourteenth and thirteenth centuries, Orchomenos became a rich and important centre of civilisation in Mycenaean Greece, the palace with its frescoed walls and the great tholos tomb show the power of Orchomenos in Mycenaean times. A massive hydraulic undertaking drained the marshes of Lake Copaïs making it an agricultural area. Like many sites around the Aegean, Orchomenos was burned and its palace destroyed in ca.1200 BC, Orchomenos seems to have been one of the city-states that joined the Calaurian maritime League in the seventh century BC.
Although their rivals Thebes confirmed their supremacy by the end of the century reflected bu inscriptions, the Agrionia, a festival of the god Dionysus, involved the ritual pursuit of women by a man representing Dionysus. Orchomenos struck its coinage from the mid-sixth century, in 480–479 BC, the Orchomenians joined their neighbouring rivals the Thebans to turn back the invading forces of Xerxes in the Greco-Persian Wars. In mid-century, Orchomenos sheltered the oligarchic exiles who freed Boeotia from Athenian control, in the fourth century the traditional rivalry with Thebes made Orchomenos an ally of Agesilaus II and Sparta against Thebes, in 395 and again in 394 BC. The Theban revenge after their defeat of Sparta in the battle of Leuctra was delayed by the tolerant policies of Epaminondas, although the Phocians rebuilt the city in 355 BC, the Thebans destroyed it again in 349. The broad plain between Orchomenos and the acropolis of Chaeronea witnessed two battles of importance in Classical antiquity.
During Alexanders campaign against Thebes in 335 BC, Orchomenos took the side of the Macedonians, in recompense and Alexander rebuilt Orchomenos, when the theatre and the fortification walls, visible today, were constructed. The Second Battle of Chaeronea occurred when Roman forces under Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeated those of King Mithridates VI of Pontus near Chaeronea and this Second Battle of Chaeronea was followed by the Battle of Orchomenus, when Archelaus forces were completely destroyed. Orchomenos remained a town until Late Roman times, when the theatre was still in use. Most excavations have focussed on the early and Mycenean areas of the lower town, in 1880–86, Heinrich Schliemanns excavations revealed the tholos tomb he called the Tomb of Minyas, a Mycenaean monument that equalled the Tomb of Atreus at Mycenae itself. In 1893, A. de Ridder excavated the temple of Asklepios, in 1903–05, a Bavarian archaeological mission under Heinrich Bulle and Adolf Furtwängler conducted successful excavations at the site.
Research continued in 1970–73 by the Archaeological Service under Theodore Spyropoulos, uncovering the Mycenaean palace, a prehistoric cemetery, the Tomb of Minyas is one of the greatest burial monuments of the Mycenaean period. The tomb was built for the members of the royal family of Orchomenos in 1250 BC and was plundered in antiquity. The monument was visible for centuries after its original use
Istiaia-Aidipsos is a municipality in the Euboea regional unit, Central Greece, Greece. The seat of the municipality is the town Istiaia, the municipality has an area of 509.204 km2. It had the territory as the present municipality Istiaia-Aidipsos
Ricciotti Garibaldi was an Italian soldier, the fourth son of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Anita Garibaldi. Born in Montevideo, he was named in honour of it and he spent much of his youth in Nice and England. After a failed attempt to create market enterprises in America and Australia, in the Turkish-Greek War in 1897, he fought with the Greek Army against the Ottomans with other Garibaldines. Of his six sons, five including Peppino and it, Ezio Garibaldi were soldiers in World War I and he had a daughter, who died in 1962
Euboea (regional unit)
Euboea is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece. It consists of the islands of Euboea and Skyros, as well as a 395 km2 area on the Greek mainland, the Euboea regional unit is subdivided into 8 municipalities. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, the former municipalities of Anthidona and Avlida are on the mainland, attached to the northeastern part of Boeotia. Skyros is an island by itself, Chalkida Province - Chalkida Istiaeotis Province - Istiaia Karystiaea Province - Karystos Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. At the 2001 census the prefecture had a population of 215,136 inhabitants, whereas the island Euboea itself had a population of 198,130
Domokos, the ancient Thaumacus or Thaumacie, is a town and a municipality in Phthiotis, Greece. The town Domokos is the seat of the municipality of Domokos, the town is built on a mountain slope overlooking the plain of Thessaly, 38km from the city of Lamia. The area of Domokos became part of Greece in 1881, when the Ottoman Empire ceded Thessaly, until 1899, it was part of the Larissa Prefecture. In 1897, during the Greco-Turkish War, about 2,000 Italian volunteers under the command of Giuseppe Garibaldis son, Ricciotti Garibaldi, among them there was one of the members of Italian Parliament, Antonio Fratti, who died in fightening. The Turkish Army was victorious over Greek Army.953 km2, the province of Domokos was one of the provinces of Phthiotis. It had the territory as the present municipality
Greco-Turkish War (1897)
The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, called the Thirty Days War and known in Greece as the Black 97 or the Unfortunate War, was a war fought between the Kingdom of Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Its immediate cause was the question over the status of the Ottoman province of Crete and this was the first war effort in which the military and political personnel of Greece were put to test since the Greek War of Independence in 1821. For the Ottoman Empire, this was the first war effort in which the military personnel were put to test. The Ottoman army was under the guidance of a German military mission under Colmar von der Goltz who had reorganized it after the defeat in the Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman commissioners, repeatedly ignored the convention, causing three successive rebellions in 1885,1888 and 1889. To quell the unrest, Ottoman military reinforcements arrived while Greek volunteers landed on the island to support the Greek population, at the same time the fleets of the Great Powers patrolled the Cretan waters, leading to further escalation.
Nevertheless, an agreement was reached with the Sultan and the tensions receded, in January 1897 inter-communal violence broke out as both sides tried to consolidate their grip on power. The Christian district of Chania was set on fire and many fled to the fleet anchored outside the city. A struggle for independence and union with Greece was declared by Cretan revolutionaries, Greek Prime Minister Theodoros Deligiannis was subjected to fierce criticism by his adversary Dimitrios Rallis over his alleged inability to handle the issue. Continuous demonstrations in Athens accused King George I and the government of betrayal of the Cretan cause, the National Society, a nationalistic, militaristic organization that had infiltrated all levels of the army and bureaucracy, pushed for immediate confrontation with the Ottomans. On 25 January 1897 the first troopships, accompanied by the battleship Hydra, sailed for Crete, on 2 February, despite the guarantees given by the Great Powers on the Ottoman sovereignty over the island, Vassos unilaterally proclaimed its union with Greece.
The Powers reacted by demanding that Deligiannis immediately withdraw Greek forces from the island in exchange for a statute of autonomy, the Greek army was made of three divisions, with two of them taking positions in Thessaly and one in Arta, Epirus. Crown Prince Constantine was the general in the army. He took command of the forces on 25 March, the Greek army in Thessaly consisted of 45,000 men,500 cavalry and 96 guns, while that of Epirus comprised 16,000 men and 40 guns. The opposing Ottoman army consisted of eight divisions and one cavalry. In the Thessaly front it consisted of 58,000 men,1,300 cavalry and 186 guns, Edhem Pasha had overall command of the Ottoman forces. Apart from the difference in numbers, the two sides had significant differences in the quality of armaments. The Ottoman army was already being equipped with its generation of smokeless powder repeater rifles. There was the potential for a naval contest, in 1897 the Greek navy consisted of three Hydra class small battleships, one cruiser, the Miaoulis, and several older small ironclads and gunboats
Evrytania is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Central Greece, Evrytania is almost entirely formed of mountains, including the Tymfristos and the Panaitoliko in the south. Its rivers include the Acheloos in the west, Agrafiotis to the east and it is one of the least populated regional units in Greece. The area borders Aetolia-Acarnania to the west and south, Karditsa regional unit to the north, Evrytania features a famous skiing resort located near Karpenisi on the Tymfristos mountain. Its climate is a mixture of Mediterranean and mountainous in the western portion, much of the area receives snow in winter and is warm during the summer months. The Greek National Road 38 from Agrinio to Lamia passes through the part of Evrytania. On the border with Phthiotis, the GR-38 passes through the 1.4 km-long Tymfristos Tunnel since 2004, Evrytania dates to ancient times, the area was first settled around 6000 to 5000 BC. In classical antiquity, the Greek Eurytanes resided in the region, in the 2nd century BC it fell into Roman hands, and became part of the Roman province of Macedonia.
At the division of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century it joined the eastern part, in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 it became part of the Despotate of Epirus, which was conquered by the Ottoman Empire around 1450. After 400 years, Evrytania finally became part of Greece following the Greek War of Independence, as in all of Greece, the area was affected by World War II, and the Greek Civil War. Peace finally returned to Evrytania at the end of the 1940s and its economy expanded, the regional unit Evrytania is subdivided into 2 municipalities. These are, Agrafa Karpenisi Evrytania was created as a prefecture in 1947 out of the Aetolia-Acarnania prefecture, as a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Evrytania was created out of the former prefecture Evrytania. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. evrytania. gr Evrytania
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, historically known as Hellas, is a country in southeastern Europe, with a population of approximately 11 million as of 2015. Athens is the capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is strategically located at the crossroads of Europe, situated on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. Greece consists of nine regions, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Crete. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a vast number of islands, eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as polis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.
Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming a part of the Roman Empire and its successor. The Greek Orthodox Church shaped modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World, falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence. Greeces rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe, Greece is a democratic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, and a very high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001. Greeces unique cultural heritage, large industry, prominent shipping sector. It is the largest economy in the Balkans, where it is an important regional investor, the names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, all three stages of the stone age are represented in Greece, for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries and these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek. The Mycenaeans gradually absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC and this ushered in a period known as the Greek Dark Ages, from which written records are absent. The end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to 776 BC, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, in 508 BC, Cleisthenes instituted the worlds first democratic system of government in Athens
Chalcis or Chalkida is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός, in the late Middle Ages, it was known as Negropont, a name that was applied to the entire island of Euboea as well. The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad, where it is mentioned in the line as its rival Eretria. It is documented that the set for the Trojan War gathered at Aulis. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice and several important cities in Magna Graecia, such as Naxos and Cumae. Its mineral produce, metal-work and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, early in the 6th century BC, its prosperity was broken by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site.
Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues, in the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria and Mithradates VI of Pontus as a base for invading Greece, under Roman rule, Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity. The city is recorded as a city in the 6th-century Synecdemus and mentioned by the contemporary historian Procopius of Caesarea, the town survived an Arab naval raid in the 880s and its bishop is attested in the 869–70 Church council held at Constantinople. By the 12th century, the featured a Venetian trading station, being attacked by the Venetian fleet in 1171 and eventually seized by Venice in 1209. For Westerners, its name was Negropont or Negroponte. The town was a condominium between Venice and the Veronese barons of the rest of Euboea, known as the triarchs, who resided there. Chalcis or Negroponte became a Latin Church diocese, the first bishop being Theodorus, the Greek bishop of the see, a large hoard of late medieval jewellery dating from Venetian times was found in Chalcis Castle in the nineteenth century and is now in the British Museum.
The synagogue dated to around 1400 and that siege is the subject of the Rossini opera Maometto II. The Ottomans made it the seat of the Admiral of the Archipelago, in 1688, it was successfully held by the Ottomans against a strong Venetian attack. The modern town received an impetus in its trade from the establishment of railway connection with Athens. The old town, called the Castro, was surrounded by a circuit of defense walls until they were completely razed for urban development around the start of the 20th century
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world