Nijmegen is a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland, on the Waal river close to the German border. Nijmegen is the oldest city in the Netherlands, the first to be recognized as such in Roman times, in 2005 celebrated 2,000 years of existence; the municipality is part of the Arnhem-Nijmegen urban region, a metropolitan area with 736,107 inhabitants in 2011. The municipality is formed by the city of Nijmegen, incorporating the former villages of Hatert and Neerbosch, as well as the urban expansion project of Waalsprong, situated north of the river Waal and including the village of Lent and the hamlet of't Zand, as well as the new suburbs of Nijmegen-Oosterhout and Nijmegen-Ressen; the city lies a few kilometers from the border with Germany, to some extent the westernmost villages in the municipality of Kranenburg, function as dormitories for people who work in the Dutch city of Nijmegen in part due to the immigration of Dutch people from the region who were attracted by the lower house pricing just across the border.
The German city of Duisburg is about 78 km away. The first mention of Nijmegen in history is in the 1st century BC, when the Romans built a military camp on the place where Nijmegen was to appear. By 69, when the Batavians, the original inhabitants of the Rhine and Maas delta, revolted, a village called Oppidum Batavorum had formed near the Roman camp; this village was destroyed in the revolt, but when it had ended the Romans built another, bigger camp where the Legio X Gemina was stationed. Soon after, another village formed around this camp. In 98, Nijmegen was the first of two settlements in what is now the Kingdom of the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights. In 103, the X Gemina was re-stationed to Vindobona, modern day Vienna, which may have been a major blow to the economy of the village around the camp, losing around 5000 inhabitants. In 104 Emperor Trajan renamed the town, which now became known as Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum, Noviomagus for short. Beginning in the second half of the 4th century, Roman power decreased and Noviomagus became part of the Frankish kingdom.
It appeared around this time on the Peutinger Map. It has been contended that in the 8th century Emperor Charlemagne maintained his palatium in Nijmegen on at least four occasions. During his brief deposition of 830, the emperor Louis the Pious was sent to Nijmegen by his son Lothar I. Thanks to the Waal river, trade flourished; the powerful Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor was born at Nijmegen in 1165. In 1230 his son Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor granted Nijmegen city rights. In 1247, the city was ceded to the count of Guelders as collateral for a loan; the loan was never repaid, Nijmegen has been a part of Gelderland since. This did not hamper trade; the arts flourished in this period. Famous medieval painters like the Limbourg brothers were educated in Nijmegen; some of Hieronymus Bosch's ancestors came from the city. During the Dutch Revolt, trade came to a halt and though Nijmegen became a part of the Republic of United Provinces after its capture from the Spanish in 1591, it remained a border town and had to endure multiple sieges.
In 1678 Nijmegen was host to the negotiations between the European powers that aimed to put an end to the constant warfare that had ravaged the continent for years. The result was the Treaty of Nijmegen that failed to provide for a lasting peace. In the second half of the 19th century, the fortifications around the city became a major problem. There were too many inhabitants inside the walls, but the fortifications could not be demolished because Nijmegen was deemed as being of vital importance to the defence of the Netherlands; when events in the Franco-Prussian war proved that old-fashioned fortifications were no more of use, this policy was changed and the fortifications were dismantled in 1874. The old castle had been demolished in 1797, so that its bricks could be sold. Through the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, Nijmegen grew steadily; the Waal was bridged in 1878 by a rail bridge and in 1936 by a car bridge, claimed to be Europe's biggest bridge at the time.
In 1923 the current Radboud University Nijmegen was founded and in 1927 a channel was dug between the Waal and Maas rivers. World War IIIn 1940, the Netherlands was invaded by Germany with Nijmegen being the first Dutch city to fall into German hands. On 22 February 1944, Nijmegen was bombed by American planes, causing great damage to the city centre, it was subsequently claimed by the Allies that the American pilots thought they were bombing the German city of Kleve, while the Germans alleged that it was a planned operation authorised by the Dutch government in exile. The Dutch organization for investigating wartime atrocities, the NIOD, announced in January 2005 that its study of the incident confirmed that it was an accident caused by poor communications and chaos in the airspace. Over 750 people died in the bombardment. During September 1944, the city saw heavy fighting during Operation Market Garden; the objective in Nijmegen was to prevent the Germans from destroying the bridges. Capturing the road bridge allowed the British Army XXX Corps to attempt to reach the 1st British Airborne Division in Arnhem.
The bridge was defended by over 300 German troops on both the north and south sides with close to 20 anti-tank guns and two anti-aircraft guns, supported with artillery. The
Please see "Lieutenant General" for other countries which use this rank In the Canadian Forces, the rank of lieutenant-general is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a vice-admiral of the Navy. A lieutenant-general is the equivalent of a Naval flag officer. A lieutenant-general is senior to a major general or rear-admiral, junior to a general or admiral. Prior to 1968, Canadian Air Force officers held the equivalent rank of air marshal, abolished with the unification of the Canadian Forces; the rank insignia for a lieutenant-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid below two narrow braid on the cuff, as well as three silver maple leaves, beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, worn on the shoulder straps of the Service Dress tunic. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as three gold maple leaves, beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, worn on the shoulder straps of the Service Dress tunic.
The rank is worn on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Army uniform variations Air Force uniform variations Lieutenant-generals are addressed verbally as "general" and name, as are all general officer ranks. In French, subordinates thereafter use the expression "mon général". Lieutenant-generals are entitled to staff cars. A lieutenant-general holds only the most senior command or administrative appointments, barring only Chief of the Defence Staff, held by a full admiral or general. Appointments held by lieutenant-generals may include Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff. In November 2009, Prince Charles became an honorary lieutenant-general of the Canadian Forces Land and Air Command. In June 2015, Second World War Veteran Richard Rohmer was promoted to the rank of honorary lieutenant-general in his capacity as honorary advisor to the Chief of the Defence Staff. Canadian Forces ranks and insignia
RAF Tangmere, in Tangmere, 3 miles east of Chichester, West Sussex, was a Royal Air Force station famous for its role in the Battle of Britain. Famous Second World War aces wing commander Douglas Bader, the inexperienced Johnnie Johnson were at Tangmere in 1941; the aerodrome was founded in 1917 for use by the Royal Flying Corps as a training base. In 1918 it was turned over to the United States Army Air Force as a training ground, continued as such until the end of the Great War in November of that year, after which the airfield was mothballed. In 1925 the station re-opened to serve the RAF's Fleet Air Arm, went operational in 1926 with No. 43 Squadron equipped with biplane Gloster Gamecocks. As war threatened in the late thirties, the fighters became faster, with Hawker Furies, Gloster Gladiators, Hawker Hurricanes all being used at Tangmere. In 1939 the airfield was enlarged to defend the south coast against attack by the Luftwaffe, with Tangmere's only hotel and some houses being demolished in the process.
The RAF commandeered the majority of houses in the centre of the village, with only six to eight families being allowed to stay. It was only in 1966. In August 1940 the first squadron of Supermarine Spitfires was based at the satellite airfield at nearby Westhampnett, as the Battle of Britain began. By now the villagers had been evacuated, extensive ranges of RAF buildings had sprung up; the first and worst enemy raid on the station came on 16 August 1940 when hundreds of Stuka dive bombers and fighters crossed the English coast and attacked Tangmere. There was extensive damage to buildings and aircraft on the ground and 14 ground staff and six civilians were killed, but the station was kept in service and brought back into full operation. Throughout the war, the station was used by the Royal Air Force Special Duty Service when 161 Squadron's Lysander flight came down during the moon period to do their insertion and pick-up operations into occupied Europe; the SOE used Tangmere Cottage, opposite the main entrance to the base to house and receive their agents.
Today the cottage sports a commemorative plaque to its former secret life. In the war, as the RAF turned from defence to attack, the legendary Group Captain Douglas Bader, the legless fighter ace, commanded the Tangmere wing of Fighter Command. Today he is commemorated by a plaque outside the former Bader Arms public house, now a Co-operative Food outlet in the village. 616 Squadron, which included Johnnie Johnson and Hugh Dundas, arrived at Tangmere in late February 1941. Johnson went on to become the highest scoring Western Allied fighter ace against the Luftwaffe. Many of those killed at the base, from both sides in conflict, are buried in the cemetery at St Andrews Church, today tended by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. American RAF pilot Billy Fiske who died at Tangmere in 1940 was one of the first American aviators to die during the Second World War. After the war, the RAF High Speed Flight was based at Tangmere as part of Central Fighter Establishment. In September 1946, a world air speed record of 616 mph was set by Group Captain Edward "Teddy" Mortlock Donaldson in a Gloster Meteor.
In September 1953, Squadron Leader Neville Duke became holder of the world air speed record when he flew a Hawker Hunter at 727 mph – the 50th anniversary of this event was commemorated in 2003. No 38 Group Tactical Communications Wing RAF and 244 Signal Squadron were the last units to leave the base, relocating to RAF Benson. On 1 June 1950, a Gloster Meteor flying eastwards over Portsmouth reported a UFO at 20,000ft, it is seen by the radar at RAF Wartling, was described as Britain's first flying saucer, led to the Flying Saucer Working Party that year. In the late 1950s the flying was restricted to ground radar calibration and the Joint Services Language School moved there. Amongst those taking a one-year course was Richard Marquand, better known as being the director of the Star Wars film The Return of the Jedi. In 1960 the station was granted the "Freedom of Chichester" and the event was marked by a march through the town and service in the Cathedral; some of the last flying units to be based at the station included: No. 245 Squadron RAF.
No. 98 Squadron RAF No. 115 Squadron RAF'B' Flt, No. 22 Squadron RAF In 1963-64 the last flying units left. The station closed on 16 October 1970. Following the closure of the RAF station, some of the land around the runways was returned to farming. Tangmere Airfield Nurseries have built large glasshouses for the cultivation of peppers and aubergines; until 1983 37 acres of barracks, admin blocks and repair workshops remained derelict until bought by Seawards Properties Ltd. Housing soon spread around the airfield, much RAF building was demolished and officers' houses retained as homes. However, a few original RAF buildings remain, including three T.2 type hangars, the Control Tower, fire station, NAAFI/Airmen's Institute and one of the ‘H Block’ accommodation buildings. The majority of the airfield is now farmed, since 1979 the runways have been removed thus returning the whole airfield back to large scale farming once again; the derelict control tower forms part of the farm but is now bricked up
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
A fighter pilot is a military aviator trained to engage in air-to-air combat while in the cockpit of a fighter aircraft. Fighter pilots undergo specialized training in aerial dogfighting. A fighter pilot with at least five air-to-air kills becomes known as an ace. Fighter pilots are one of the most regarded and desirable positions of any air force. Selection processes only accept the elite out of all the potential candidates. An individual who possesses an exceptional academic record, physical fitness, healthy well-being, a strong mental drive will have a higher chance of being selected for pilot training. Candidates are expected to exhibit strong leadership and teamwork abilities; as such, in nearly all air forces, fighter pilots, as are pilots of most other aircraft, are commissioned officers. Fighter pilots must be in optimal health to handle the physical demands of modern aerial warfare. Excellent heart condition is required, as the increased "G's" a pilot experiences in a turn can cause stress on the cardiovascular system.
One "G" is equal to the force of gravity experienced under normal conditions, two "G"s would be twice the force of normal gravity. Some fighter aircraft accelerate to up to 9 Gs. Fighter pilots require strong muscle tissue along the extremities and abdomen, for performing an anti-G straining maneuver when performing tight turns and other accelerated maneuvers. Better-than-average visual acuity is a desirable and valuable trait. Modern medium and long range active radar homing and semi-active radar homing missiles can be fired at targets outside or beyond visual range. However, when a pilot is dogfighting at short-range, his position relative to the opponent is decidedly important. Outperformance of another pilot and that pilot's aircraft is critical to maintain the upper-hand. A common saying for dogfighting is "lose sight, lose fight". If one pilot had a greater missile range than the other, he would choose to fire his missile first, before being in range of the enemy's missile; the facts of an enemy's weapon payload is unknown, are revealed as the fight progresses.
Some air combat maneuvers form the basis for the sport of aerobatics: Basic Split S Immelmann turn Thach Weave The Scissors Chandelle Complex Pugachev's Cobra Herbst maneuver Pilots are trained to employ specific tactics and maneuvers when they are under attack. Attacks from missiles are countered with electronic countermeasures and chaff. Missiles like the AIM-120 AMRAAM, can home in on jamming signals. Dogfighting at 1 to 4 miles is considered "close". Pilots perform stressful maneuvers to gain advantage in the dogfight. Pilots need to be in good shape. A pilot flexes his legs and torso to keep blood from draining out of the head; this is known as the AGSM or the M1 or, sometimes, as the "grunt". Many early air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles had simple infrared homing guidance systems with a narrow field of view; these missiles could be avoided by turning which caused the missile to lose sight of the target aircraft. Another tactic was to exploit a missile's limited range by performing evasive maneuvers until the missiles had run out of fuel.
Modern infrared. Supercooled infrared detectors help the missile find a possible exhaust source, software assists the missile in flying towards its target. Pilots drop flares to confuse or decoy these missiles. Radar homing missiles could sometimes be confused by surface objects or geographical features causing clutter for the guidance system of either the missile or ground station guiding it. Chaff is another option in the case that the aircraft is too high up to use geographical obstructions. Pilots have to be aware of the potential threats and learn to distinguish between the two where possible, they use the RWR to discern the types of signals hitting their aircraft. When maneuvering fiercely during engagements, pilots are subjected to high g-force. G-Forces express the magnitude of gravity, with 1G being equivalent to Earth's normal pull of gravity; because modern jet aircraft are agile and have the capacity to make sharp turns, the pilot's physical body is pushed to the limit. When executing a "positive G" maneuver like turning upwards the force pushes the pilot down.
The most serious consequence of this is that the blood in the pilot's body is pulled down and into their extremities. If the forces are great enough and over a sufficient period of time this can lead to blackouts, because not enough blood is reaching the pilot's brain. To counteract this effect pilots are trained to tense their legs and abdominal muscles to restrict the "downward" flow of blood; this is known as the "grunt" or the "Hick maneuver", both names allude to the sounds the pilot makes, is the primary method of resisting G-LOCs. Modern flight suits, called g-suits, are worn by pilots to contract around the extremities exerting pressure, providing about 1G of extra tolerance. Notable fighter pilots include: Gregory "Pappy" Boyington Medal of Honor Adolf Galland Adolph Malan Adolphe Pégoud Alexander Pokryshkin Alexandru Șerbănescu Antonio Bautista Billy Bishop Buzz Aldrin Charles Nungesser Chuck Yeager Constantin Cantacuzino Douglas Bader Erich Hartmann Ernst Udet
416 Tactical Fighter Squadron
416 "City of Oshawa" Tactical Fighter Squadron was a unit of the Canadian Forces and the Royal Canadian Air Force. The squadron operated the CF-18 Hornet fighter jet from CFB Cold Lake in Canada. In 2006, 416 TFS stood down and was amalgamated with 441 Tactical Fighter Squadron to form 409 Tactical Fighter Squadron; the unit was formed during the Second World War as a unit of the Royal Canadian Air Force. No. 416 Squadron RCAF was formed at RAF Peterhead, Scotland in 1941 as a fighter squadron for service during the Second World War and was based at various RAF stations in Scotland and continental Europe. The squadron was disbanded in March 1946; the squadron was reformed in 1952 at RCAF Uplands in Ottawa, Ontario for operations in Europe as part of Canada's Cold War presence. The squadron was located at France. By 1957, the squadron was relocated to Canada at RCAF St Hubert near Montreal as an air defence squadron flying Avro Canada CF-100 all weather fighters. In 1962, the CF-100s were replaced with the CF-101 Voodoo and the squadron was moved to RCAF Chatham, New Brunswick, where they flew the interceptor until the end of 1984.
416 Squadron thus became the world's last front-line unit flying Voodoos. In 1988 the squadron relocated to CFB Cold Lake as a Tactical Fighter Squadron flying CF-188s, merged with 441 Tactical Fighter Squadron to reform 409 Tactical Fighter Squadron in 2006; the squadron's nickname was City of Lynx. Defence of Britain 1942-44 English Channel and North Sea 1943 Fortress Europe 1942-44 Dieppe France and Germany 1944-45 Normandy 1944 Arnhem Rhine Gulf and Kuwait Supermarine Spitfire North American P-51 Mustang Canadair T-33 Canadair Sabre Avro Canada CF-100 Avro Canada CF-100 McDonnell Douglas CF-101 Voodoo McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet Notes Bibliography DND - History of 416 Squadron History of 416 Squadron 416 Squadron bases 1939 - 1945
Royal Canadian Air Force
The Royal Canadian Air Force is the air force of Canada. Its role is to "provide the Canadian Forces with relevant and effective airpower"; the RCAF is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2013, the Royal Canadian Air Force consists of 14,500 Regular Force and 2,600 Primary Reserve personnel, supported by 2,500 civilians, operates 258 manned aircraft and 9 unmanned aerial vehicles. Lieutenant-General Al Meinzinger is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force and Chief of the Air Force Staff; the Royal Canadian Air Force is responsible for all aircraft operations of the Canadian Forces, enforcing the security of Canada's airspace and providing aircraft to support the missions of the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army. The RCAF is a partner with the United States Air Force in protecting continental airspace under the North American Aerospace Defense Command; the RCAF provides all primary air resources to and is responsible for the National Search and Rescue Program.
The RCAF traces its history to the Canadian Air Force, formed in 1920. The Canadian Air Force was granted royal sanction in 1924 by King George V to form the Royal Canadian Air Force. In 1968, the RCAF was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army, as part of the unification of the Canadian Forces. Air units were split between several different commands: Air Defence Command, Air Transport Command, Mobile Command, Maritime Command, as well as Training Command. In 1975, some commands were dissolved, all air units were placed under a new environmental command called Air Command. Air Command reverted to its historic name of "Royal Canadian Air Force" in August 2011; the Royal Canadian Air Force has served in the Second World War, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, as well as several United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations. As a NATO member, the force maintained a presence in Europe during the second half of the 20th century; the Canadian Air Force was established in 1920 as the successor to a short-lived two-squadron Canadian Air Force, formed during the First World War in Europe.
John Scott Williams, MC, AFC, was tasked in 1921 with organizing the CAF, handing command over the same year to Air Marshal Lindsay Gordon. The new Canadian Air Force was a branch of the Air Board and was chiefly a training militia that provided refresher training to veteran pilots. Many CAF members worked with the Air Board's Civil Operations Branch on operations that included forestry and anti-smuggling patrols. In 1923, the CAF became responsible including civil aviation. In 1924, the Canadian Air Force, was granted the royal title. Most of its work was civil in nature. After budget cuts in the early 1930s, the air force began to rebuild. During the Second World War, the RCAF was a major contributor to the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan and was involved in operations in Great Britain, the north Atlantic, North Africa, southern Asia, with home defence. By the end of the war, the RCAF had become the fourth largest allied air force. During WWII the Royal Canadian Air Force were headquartered in London.
A commemorative plaque can be found on the outside of the building. After the war, the RCAF reduced its strength; because of the rising Soviet threat to the security of Europe, Canada joined NATO in 1949, the RCAF established No. 1 Air Division RCAF consisting of four wings with three fighter squadrons each, based in France and West Germany. In 1950, the RCAF became involved with the transport of supplies to the Korean War. Members of the RCAF served in USAF units as several flew in combat. Both auxiliary and regular air defence squadrons were run by Air Defence Command. At the same time, the Pinetree Line, the Mid-Canada Line and the DEW Line radar stations operated by the RCAF, were built across Canada because of the growing Soviet nuclear threat. In 1957, Canada and the United States created the joint North American Air Defense Command. Coastal defence and peacekeeping became priorities during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces.
This initiative was overseen by Liberal Defence Minister, Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger maintained several existing organizations and created some new ones: In Europe, No. 1 Air Division, operated Canadair CF-104 Starfighter nuclear strike/attack and reconnaissance under NATO's 4 ATAF. Aviation assets of the Royal Canadian Navy were combined with the RCAF Canadair CP-107 Argus long-range patrol aircraft under Maritime Command. In 1975, the different commands, the scattered aviation assets, were consolidated under Air Command. In the early 1990s, Canada provided a detachment of CF-18 Hornets for the air defence mission in Operation Desert Shield; the force performed combat air patrols over operations in Kuwait and Iraq, undertook a number of air-to-ground bombing missions, and, on one occasion, attacked an Iraqi patrol boat in the Persian Gulf. In the late 1