Minister for Communications (Australia)
The Australian Minister for Communications has overall responsibility for broadcasting, the information and communications technology industry, the information economy, telecommunications within Australia. Senator the Hon. Mitch Fifield served as Communications Minister from 21 September 2015 until 23 August 2018, following criticism of the leadership of Malcolm Turnbull. On 28 August, he was reappointed to the post by Turnbull's successor Scott Morrison; the current Minister for Regional Communications is Senator the Hon. Bridget McKenzie, since 20 December 2017. In the Government of Australia, the ministers administer the portfolio through the Department of Communications and the Arts and a range of other government agencies. Portfolio agencies and bodies include: Australian Broadcasting Corporation Australian Communications and Media Authority Australian Postal Corporation Special Broadcasting Service Australian Classification Board NBN Co The minister responsible for telecommunications policy has had various titles.
From 1901 until December 1975 it was the Postmaster-General, who administered the portfolio through the Postmaster-General's Department. The following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Communications, or any of its precedent titles: Notes 1 Barnard served as part of a two-man ministry together with Gough Whitlam for fourteen days, until the full ministry was commissioned. 2 On 24 July 1987, the third Hawke ministry implemented a two-level ministerial structure, with distinctions drawn between senior and junior ministers. This arrangement has been continued by subsequent ministries. Junior ministers are shown in the table below; the following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Regional Communications, or any of its precedent titles: On 24 July 1987, the third Hawke Ministry implemented a two-level ministerial structure, with distinctions drawn between senior and junior ministers. This arrangement has been continued by subsequent ministries. Senior ministers are shown in the table above.
The following individuals have been appointed as the Minister Assisting the Prime Minister for Digital Transformation, or any of its precedent titles: Department of Broadband and the Digital Economy Official website AUBroadband — Information about various broadband plans and availability of fibre optic broadband in Australia
Norman John Oswald Makin AO was an Australian politician and diplomat. He was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1919 to 1946 for Hindmarsh, from 1954 to 1955 for Sturt, from 1955 to 1963 for Bonython, he was Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives from 1929 to 1932 and served as Minister for the Navy, Minister for Munitions and Minister for Aircraft Production under John Curtin, Frank Forde and Ben Chifley. He was the first President of the United Nations Security Council in 1946, served as Ambassador to the United States from 1946 to 1951. Makin was born in the son of an itinerant worker, his family moved to Melbourne in 1891 and to Broken Hill in 1898, where he attended Broken Hill Superior Public School. He became a parcel boy for Boan Bros. drapers. He was a member of the Shop Assistants' Union at fourteen. Day & Co bookstore at eighteen, he was self-educated and became a keen reader, was involved in local debating and literary societies.
In 1909, while still a shop assistant, he was a witness for the defence at the conspiracy trial of trade unionist Tom Mann. At eighteen, Makin undertook an apprenticeship in pattern-making and engineering, was employed in various mines, he moved to Adelaide in 1911, married Ruby Florence Jennings on 10 August 1912. He worked in a Kapunda foundry, for James Martin & Co at Gawler, he had difficulty finding work at times due to his political activities, returned to Broken Hill for a period, but returned to Adelaide in 1914 to work at Gray Bros. at Port Adelaide, in the Islington Railway Workshops. Having been involved in the labour movement from an early age, Makin was president of the North Adelaide district branch of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers in 1914 and secretary of its political committee in 1917, he was an unsuccessful Labor candidate for Barossa at the 1915 state election riding over 2000 miles during the campaign, again for Wakefield at the 1917 federal election. He publicly campaigned against conscription during World War I, was president of the South Australian branch of the Labor Party from 1918 to 1919, in the aftermath of the 1916 Labor split over the issue.
In 1918, he published a book on the progress of the labour movement in South Australia entitled A Progressive Democracy. Makin was a lifelong Methodist, in 1977 received a certificate from the church commending him on having been a lay preacher for seventy years. Makin was elected to the House of Representatives for Hindmarsh at the 1919 federal election, defeating Nationalist MP and 1916 Labor defector William Archibald in an acrimonious campaign, he was re-elected without difficulty in 1922, 1925 and 1928, reverting Hindmarsh to its traditional status as a safe Labor seat. He spent ten years in Opposition before the election of the Scullin Labor government in 1929. While in opposition, he served as secretary to the Labor caucus and had been touted in 1925 as a potential successor to John Gunn as state Labor leader and Premier of South Australia. Upon the election of the Scullin government, Makin was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, defeating four candidates in the Labor selection vote.
As with his Labor predecessor Charles McDonald, he declined the ceremonial gown. He was described as having been a "well-respected" Speaker, was commended for his "dignity and impartiality" as Speaker as the 1931 Labor split unfolded. Following the defeat of the Scullin government in 1931 amidst the split, Makin was an outspoken loyalist of official Labor, alleging that he had been subject to an attempt to bribe him to leave the party, condemning both the pro-Premiers' Plan and Lang Labor defectors, clashing with Premier Lionel Hill, his staunch opposition to the Premiers' Plan led to him being rumoured as a potential challenger to Scullin for the federal Labor leadership, although he denied interest and no challenge eventuated. At the 1931 federal election, Makin was the only Labor member elected from South Australia. During his second stint in opposition in the 1930s, he was again secretary of the Labor caucus, served as federal president of the Labor Party from 1936 to 1938, he stood for leader of the Labor Party in 1935, following Scullin's resignation, but received only two votes.
He shifted his vote to John Curtin on the second ballot, allowing him to win by a single vote over Frank Forde. Makin was one of the three Labor members on the Advisory War Council from October 1940. By 1941, when Labor returned to power under John Curtin, of who Makin was a close supporter, Makin had an undeniable claim to office, became Minister for the Navy and Minister for Munitions – key posts in a wartime government. In 1945 he became Minister for Aircraft Production, he established good relations with service chiefs and played an important role in Australia's successful transition to a wartime economy. He advocated for munitions factories to be retained in government control and adapted to civilian use to boost post-war manufacturing; when Curtin died in 1945, Makin contested the leadership ballot along with Ben Chifley and caretaker Prime Minister Frank Forde. He was unsuccessful. Makin had sought a diplomatic post as early as 1944 and had been in consideration for the positions of High Commissioner to Canada and High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, but he had been convinced by Curtin that he could not be spared.
He was Acting Minister for External Affairs for four months during the abs
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
1961 Australian federal election
Federal elections were held in Australia on 9 December 1961. All 122 seats in the House of Representatives and 31 of the 60 seats in the Senate were up for election; the incumbent Liberal–Country coalition led by Prime Minister Robert Menzies defeated the opposition Labor Party under Arthur Calwell. In his first election as Labor leader, Calwell reduced the Coalition's margin, gaining 15 seats to leave the government with only a one-seat majority. Future opposition leader and Governor General Bill Hayden entered parliament at this election. Due to a credit squeeze, the economy had gone into a brief recession in 1961 and unemployment had risen to high levels; this saw an increase in popularity for Labor. The Herald, which had long supported Menzies, switched sides to support Calwell and Labor, which gave Calwell the confidence to mount a spirited campaign; these factors were enough to see a swing against the Menzies Government. NotesIn New South Wales and Victoria, the coalition parties ran a joint ticket.
Of the eight senators elected on a joint ticket, five were members of the Liberal Party and three were members of the Country Party. In Western Australia, the coalition parties ran on separate tickets. In South Australia and Tasmania, only the Liberal Party ran a ticket; the sole independent elected was Reg Turnbull of Tasmania. "Other" includes 2,599 votes for the Commonwealth Centre Party. Members in italics did not contest their seat at this election. For a long time, the 1961 election remained the closest Federal election in Australian history, with the Coalition being reduced to a one-seat majority; the election was decided in the seats of Bruce near Moreton near Brisbane. In Bruce, Labor's Keith Ewert led Liberal Billy Snedden on the first count, but on the second count more than two-thirds of the DLP's preferences flowed to Snedden, enough to give him the victory. However, the Coalition was not ensured of a sixth term in government until Jim Killen won Moreton by only 130 votes after receiving 93 vital Communist preferences.
Labor won 62 seats, the same as the Coalition. However, without Bruce, the best Labor could hope for was a hung parliament, since two of its seats were in ACT and Northern Territory. At the time, territorial MPs had limited voting rights and were not counted for the purpose of determining, to form government; the record for the closest election in Australia's history was beaten by the 2010 election, a 72-72 seat draw. The most notable casualty was Earle Page, the third-longest serving MP in Australia's history, Prime Minister, he had been the member for Cowper since 1919. Although he was 81 years old and gravely ill with lung cancer, he decided to fight his 17th general election, his Labor opponent, Frank McGuren, needed a daunting 11-point swing to win the seat, but won by a slim three-point margin on the second count. Page, too sick to campaign, died 11 days after the election without knowing he had been defeated. Candidates of the Australian federal election, 1961 Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1961–1963 Members of the Australian Senate, 1962–1965 University of WA election results in Australia since 1890 AEC 2PP vote Prior to 1984 the AEC did not undertake a full distribution of preferences for statistical purposes.
The stored ballot papers for the 1983 election were put through this process prior to their destruction. Therefore, the figures from 1983 onwards show the actual result based on full distribution of preferences
Minister for Defence (Australia)
The Minister for Defence in the Government of Australia is Christopher Pyne, who has held the position in the Morrison Government since 28 August 2018. The minister administers their portfolio through the Australian Defence Organisation, which comprises the Department of Defence which includes the Defence Science and Technology Group and Defence Strategic Policy and Intelligence Group and the Australian Defence Force which includes the Australian Army, the Royal Australian Navy, the Royal Australian Air Force. Over the years there have been a number of ministries with a variety of names involved the defence portfolio. Previous governments have included ministers with titles using one or more of the following: There was a Minister for Defence from 1 January 1901 until 13 November 1939, with the exception of two small breaks. Robert Menzies, the Prime Minister, abolished the position on the outbreak of World War II and created separate Ministers for the Navy, the Army and the Air, with himself as Minister for Defence Coordination in his first ministry.
He retained this position until the fall of his government, held the post in the brief government of Arthur Fadden. John Curtin followed the same arrangement as Menzies in his ministry until 14 April 1942, when he took the title of Minister for Defence; the separate titles of Ministers for the Navy, the Army and the Air were abolished in the second Whitlam Ministry on 30 November 1973, when the separate departments of Navy and Air were abolished. There had been a separate Navy portfolio between 1915 and 1921; the following have served as Minister for Defence: The following individuals have been appointed as Assistant Minister for Defence, or any of its precedent titles: The following served as Minister for the Navy: The following served as Minister for the Army: The following served as Minister for Air: Department of Defence Minister for Defence Industry Minister for Defence Personnel Minister for Veterans' Affairs www.defence.gov.au
Bill Ashley (politician)
William Patrick Ashley was an Australian politician. Ashley was educated at Hay, he went to South Africa in May 1902, but saw no action in the Second Boer War and returned to Australia in August. He established himself as a tobacconist in Lithgow and married Theresa Ellen Maloney in July 1921, he served as an mayor on Lithgow Council. Ashley was pre-selected for the Australian Labor Party Senate ticket for the 1937 election because his surname would appear high on the ballot paper under the alphabetical system in effect. With the fall of the Fadden government, he became Postmaster-General and Minister for Information in the Curtin government. In March 1943, he lost the portfolio of information, but gained the position of Vice-President of the Executive Council. In February 1945, he became Minister for Shipping. In a minor reshuffle in April 1948, Ashley became Minister for Shipping and Fuel, responsible for the Department of Shipping and Fuel. In June 1949, his handling of a scheme to introduce long-service leave for coal miners contributed to a major ensuing strike.
He had implied that the federal government would contribute financially to the scheme, but this proved not to be the case. In addition, the proposed scheme might have limited the right to strike, he attempted to support British economic recovery by buying oil from British companies—when they ran short of supplies, he was forced to impose petrol rationing. Both the coal miners' strike and the fuel rationing contributed to Labor's defeat at the 1949 election, he stayed in the Senate for the rest of his life and supported H. V. Evatt against the Industrial Groups. Ashley died in Sydney Hospital on 27 June 1958, survived by his daughter, he had suffered a stroke earlier in the month, while being driven to an appointment for his arthritis treatment. He was accorded a state funeral. Ashley died intestate
Hubert Lawrence Anthony
Hubert Lawrence "Larry" Anthony, Australian politician, founded the only three-generation dynasty in the history of the Australian House of Representatives. Anthony was born in Warren, New South Wales, had a limited education in bush schools. In 1914 he joined the Australian Army and spent World War I in the Signals Corps, seeing active duty in Gallipoli, he was discharged in 1916 following his return to Australia, where he was admitted to the first Auxiliary Hospital suffering from throat disease. After the war he settled at Murwillumbah on the NSW north coast. By the 1930s he was the biggest banana-grower in Australia and chairman of the Banana Growers Federation; this made him an influential figure in the politics of the Northern Rivers region. In 1937 Anthony was elected to the House of Representatives as Country Party member for the seat of Richmond; as a powerful figure in the party he had rapid promotion. He was an Honorary Minister 1940–1941, Minister for Transport in 1941. During the years of the wartime Australian Labor Party government, he was a senior member of the Opposition.
In 1949 the conservatives returned to power under Robert Menzies, Anthony became Postmaster-General, adding the post of Minister for Civil Aviation in 1951. He held these posts until his sudden death at Murwillumbah in 1957, he was succeeded as Member for Richmond by his son Doug Anthony aged 27. Doug Anthony was leader of the Country Party and Deputy Prime Minister of Australia 1971–1972 and 1975–1983. Doug's son Larry Anthony was Member for Richmond 1996–2004 and was a junior minister in the Howard government; the Anthonys are the only three-generation dynasty in the House of Representatives, although Alexander Downer is the son of a federal MP and the grandson of a Senator. Anthony family National Archives of Australia: – Military service extract: Anthony, Hubert Lawrence