San Francisco Bay Area
The San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California. The region encompasses the cities and metropolitan areas of San Jose, San Francisco. The Bay Areas nine counties are Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma. The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the Bay Area has the second-most Fortune 500 Companies in the United States, and is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics and diversity. The eastern side of the bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay, the inner East Bay is more densely populated, with generally older buildings, and a more ethnically diverse population. The word Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes, Moraga, walnut Creek is situated east of Lamorinda and north of the San Ramon Valley and, together with Concord and Pleasant Hill comprises Central Contra Costa County.
The cities of Antioch, Brentwood and the areas surrounding them comprise East Contra Costa County. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador, the Livermore, and the San Ramon Valleys and Pleasanton comprise the Amador Valley, Livermore lies in the Livermore Valley, and the San Ramon Valley consists of Alamo, Danville and its namesake, San Ramon. The outer East Bay is connected to the inner East Bay by BART, Interstate 580 to the south, and State Routes State Route 4 to the north, the outer East Bays infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades, the region north of the Golden Gate Bridge is known locally as the North Bay. This area encompasses Marin County, Sonoma County, Napa County, the city of Fairfield, being part of Solano County, is often considered the easternmost city of the North Bay. With few exceptions, this region is affluent, Marin County is ranked as the wealthiest in the state.
The North Bay is relatively rural compared to the remainder of the Bay Area, with areas of undeveloped open space, farmland. Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bays largest city, with a population of 167,815 and a Metropolitan Statistical Area population of 466,891, making it the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area. The North Bay is the section of the Bay Area that is not currently served by a commuter rail service. The area from San Francisco to the Silicon Valley, geographically part of the San Francisco Peninsula, is known locally as The Peninsula, many of these families are of foreign background and have significantly contributed to the diversity of the area. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local terms, San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides, the north and west. The city squeezes roughly 870,000 people in under 47 square miles, on any given day, there can be as many as 1 million people in the city because of the commuting population and tourism
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge
San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge is a 13, 190-acre National Wildlife Refuge in California established in 1970. It extends along the shore of San Pablo Bay, from the mouth of the Petaluma River, to Tolay Creek, Sonoma Creek. The refuge encompasses the largest remaining patch of pickleweed-dominated tidal marsh in the northern San Francisco Bay. Historically, the wetlands surrounding San Pablo Bay were one of the largest tidal marsh complexes on the Pacific Coast of North America. However, the area has significantly impacted by human activities such as hydraulic mining, salt production, draining, agriculture. All told, about 85% of San Pablo Bays tidal marshes have been altered, the Refuge includes a variety of habitats including open water, mud flat, tidal marsh and seasonal and managed wetlands. The refuge hosts millions of shorebirds and waterfowl, including the largest wintering population of canvasbacks on the west coast. The Refuge provides habitat for sensitive species including the endangered California clapper rail.
Public access to the refuge is provided by the Tolay Creek Tubbs Island Trail and this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Provides a brief history of the marshes of San Pablo Bay
Coyote Hills Regional Park
Coyote Hills Regional Park is a regional park encompassing nearly 978 acres of land and administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. The park, which was dedicated to use in 1967, is located in Fremont, California. In addition to the hills themselves, the park encloses an area of wetlands. There are a number of sites within the park, preserving evidence of habitation by Native Americans of the Ohlone group of tribes. Access to these sites is not allowed for visitors. There is a network of hiking trails in the park, most of them available to equestrians. Most of the trails are wide fireroads that go around the hills and the marshes, there are few narrow trails which are off limits to bikers and equestrians. These trails connect to others in the east bay, and the San Francisco Bay Trail passes through the park, cross country meets for local schools are held occasionally in the park. The waters to the south and west of the park part of the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Coyote Hills is home to the remnants of a large Project Nike missile base and it has intact facilities that are in disrepair and some still in place are used as radio transmission & microwave antenna stations.
Guard stations are still visible throughout the park, a firing range and aquifer exist on the southernmost hills. The East Bay areas original inhabitants were the ancestors of the Ohlone Indians, at Coyote Hills Regional Park, some of this rich wetland is preserved, along with 2, 000-year-old Tuibun Ohlone Indian shellmound sites. Programs at the main shellmound site allow visitors to see a reconstructed tule house, shade shelter, pit house, large collection of photos and trail descriptions of Coyote Hills Coyote Hills official website Coyote Hills Trail Map
Bair Island is a marsh area in Redwood City, California covering 3,000 acres, and includes three islands, Inner and Outer islands. Bair Island is part of the larger Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge and it is surrounded by the Steinberger slough to the northwest and Redwood Creek to the southeast. The California Department of Fish and Wildlifes Bair Island Ecological Reserve consists of 1,985 acres on the Middle and Outer islands, Bair Island is the largest undeveloped island in the San Francisco Bay and was used for farming and salt production since the 19th century. A residential development called South Shores had been proposed to build an estate with 4000 houses on the marshland. It was approved by the Redwood City council, but a citizens referendum narrowly defeated the project in 1982 by just 44 votes, in 2013, a pedestrian bridge was opened to connect to trails around the island to allow access to the naturally restored wetlands. Islands of San Francisco Bay Port of Redwood City San Francisco Bay Official website
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, east of Fresno, California. The park was established in 1940 and covers 461,901 acres and it incorporated General Grant National Park, established in 1890 to protect the General Grant Grove of giant sequoias. The park is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park and they were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976. Humans have inhabited the area for thousands of years, the first Native Americans in the area were Paiute peoples, who moved into the region from their ancestral home east of Mono Lake. The Paiute Nation people used deer and other animals for food. They created trade routes that extended down the slope of the Sierra into the Owens Valley. Kings Canyon had been known to white settlers since the mid-19th century, United States Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes fought to create the Kings Canyon National Park. He hired Ansel Adams to photograph and document this among other parks, the bill combined the General Grant Grove with the backcountry beyond Zumwalt Meadow.
Kings Canyons future was in doubt for nearly fifty years, some wanted to build a dam at the western end of the valley, while others wanted to preserve it as a park. The debate was settled in 1965, when the valley, along with Tehipite Valley, was added to the park, Kings Canyon National Park consists of two sections. The parks Giant Sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and this section of the park is mostly mixed conifer forest, and is readily accessible via paved highways. Both the South and Middle Forks of the Kings Rivers have extensive glacial canyons, one portion of the South Fork canyon, known as the Kings Canyon, gives the entire park its name. Kings Canyon, with a depth of 8,200 feet, is one of the deepest canyons in the United States. The canyon was carved by glaciers out of granite, the Kings Canyon, and its developed area, Cedar Grove, is the only portion of the main part of the park that is accessible by motor vehicle. Both the Kings Canyon and its Middle Fork twin, Tehipite Valley, are deeply incised, U-shaped glacial gorges with relatively flat floors and towering granite cliffs thousands of feet high.
In addition, the canyon has several systems, one of which is Boyden Cave. To the east of the canyons are the peaks of the Sierra Crest, which attain an elevation of 14,248 feet NAVD88 at the summit of North Palisade. This is classic high Sierra country, barren ridges and glacially scoured lake-filled basins
The Marin Islands are the two small islands, named East Marin and West Marin, in San Rafael Bay, an embayment of San Pablo Bay in Marin County, California. The Marin Islands are located offshore from the city of San Rafael, the islands comprise the Marin Islands National Wildlife Refuge, which was established in 1992. The surrounding submerged tidelands are included in the refuge, the islands are the property of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and require special permission to visit. The islands are named after the Coast Miwok man known as Chief Marin and he is thought to have hidden out there in the 1820s after escaping from Mission San Rafael, before being recaptured and incarcerated at the Mexican San Francisco Presidio. The islands were donated to the government by the Crowley family of San Francisco. They had been bought by Thomas Crowley at auction in 1926 for $25,000 in the hope that they would become the terminus of the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge. Instead, they became a vacation spot for more than sixty years.
West Marin Island, elevation 26 meters above the bay waters, supports the largest heron, nesting species include great egrets, snowy egrets, great blue herons, and black-crowned night herons. East Marin Island, a vacation retreat, now supports a variety of introduced and native plants and provides critical nesting material. The submerged tidelands support a variety of resident and migratory birds such as surf scoter, black oystercatcher, diving ducks. Islands of San Francisco Bay San Pablo Bay topics Martin, James A. Lee, the Islands of San Francisco Bay. San Rafael, CA, Down Window Press, Refuge profile Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
Channel Islands National Park
Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U. S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, the park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U. S. National Monument on April 26,1938, and it was promoted to a National Park on March 5,1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park, the Channel Islands were originally discovered in 1542 by the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1938 the Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands were designated a national monument, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands were combined with the monument in 1980 to form modern-day Channel Islands National Park.
On January 28,1969 an oil rig belonging to Union Oil experienced a blow-out 6 miles off the coast of California, the resulting spill was, at the time, the largest oil spill to occur in United States territorial waters. Following the spill, tides carried the oil onto the beaches of the Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and this spill had a large impact on native wildlife of the Channel Islands. Much of the seabird population was affected, with over an estimated 3,600 avians killed. Meanwhile, seals and other sea life died and washed ashore on both the islands and the mainland and this spill is the third largest oil spill in the United States, only surpassed by the Deepwater Horizon and the Exxon Valdez oil spills. It resulted in a 34,000 acres expansion of the Department of the Interior buffer zone in the channel, the islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J.
Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura, only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. The spotted skunk and Channel Islands fox are endemic, the island fence lizard is endemic to the Channel Islands. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands, Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years, the average annual visitation to the parks mainland visitor center was around 300,000 in the period from 2007 to 2016, with 364,807 visiting in 2016. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor Village, the visitor center contains several exhibits that provide information regarding all five islands, native vegetation, marine life and cultural history. Also, visitors can enjoy a film, free of charge. The visitor center is open day, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from 8, 30AM–5
Salt evaporation pond
Salt evaporation ponds, called salterns, salt works or salt pans, are shallow artificial ponds designed to extract salts from sea water or other brines. The seawater or brine is fed into large ponds and water is drawn out through natural evaporation which allows the salt to be subsequently harvested, the ponds provide a productive resting and feeding ground for many species of waterbirds, which may include endangered species. The ponds are separated by levees. Natural salt pans are geological formations that are created by water evaporating and leaving behind salts. Due to variable algal concentrations, vivid colors – from pale green to bright red – are created in the evaporation ponds, the color indicates the salinity of the ponds. Microorganisms change their hues as the salinity of the pond increases, in low- to mid-salinity ponds, green algae such as Dunaliella salina are predominant, although these algae can take on an orange hue. In middle- to high-salinity ponds, which is actually a group of halophilic Archaea, shift the colour to pink, other bacteria such as Stichococcus contribute tints.
Notable salt ponds include, the Salterns of Guérande, in Brittany, until World War II, salt was extracted from sea water in a unique way in Egypt near Alexandria. Posts were set out on the pans and covered with several feet of sea water. In time the sea water evaporated, leaving the salt behind on the post, salt pans are shallow open, often metal, pans used to evaporate brine for the production of salts. They are usually close to the source of the salt. In this case, extra heat is provided by lighting fires underneath
The Pacific Flyway is a major north-south flyway for migratory birds in America, extending from Alaska to Patagonia. Every year, migratory birds travel some or all of this both in spring and in fall, following food sources, heading to breeding grounds, or travelling to overwintering sites. Any given bird species travels roughly the route every year. Ornithologists and bird lovers can often predict to the day when a species will show up in their area. Along the Pacific Flyway, there are many key rest stops where birds of many species gather, sometimes in the millions, to feed, some species may remain in these rest stops for the entire season, but most stay a few days before moving on. Notable locations include, Boundary Bay, British Columbia, has listed as an Important Bird Area by the Canadian government in recognition of its value to migratory birds. Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges Complex consists of different wildlife refuges on the border of Oregon. The Summer Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, located on Hwy 31, across from the Summer Lake Lodge, sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex consists of several wildlife refuges in the northern Central Valley of California.
San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex consists of wildlife refuges in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Suisun Marsh, next to the exit of the inverted Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, has protected portions, San Francisco Bay, protected estuaries and mountain open space preserves. Coyote Valley, a section of the Santa Clara Valley with one of the highest recorded bird species richness. Great Salt Lake, Utah, a Great Basin hub of flyway, monterey Bay, protected estuaries and mountain open space preserves. Ballona Wetlands between the Los Angeles neighborhoods of Playa del Rey and Marina del Rey and adjacent city-owned lagoons, salton Sea, an inland Colorado Desert saline endorheic lake in Southern California, hosts many birds and has surrounding wildlife refuges. Seeking Refuge and Landscapes of the Pacific Flyway 245 pages Important Bird Areas of Canada