The 33 (film)
The 33 is a 2015 English-language American-Chilean biographical disaster-survival drama film directed by Patricia Riggen and written by Mikko Alanne, Craig Borten and José Rivera. The film is based on the real events of the 2010 mining disaster, in which a group of thirty-three miners were trapped inside the San José Mine in Chile for more than two months; the film stars Antonio Banderas as trapped miner Mario Sepúlveda. Dozens of people from Copiapó, work in the San José mine; the owner ignores the warnings of the failing stability of the mine, which collapses a short time later. The only path inside the mine is blocked, the thirty-three miners manage to get to the rescue chamber, they discover that the radio is useless, the medical kit is empty, the ventilation shafts lack the required ladders, there is little stored food. Mario Sepúlveda becomes the leader of the miners, dividing the foods rations and stopping the outbursts of violence and despair; the mine company does not attempt any rescue, the relatives of the miners gather around the gates.
The government of Chile decides on active intervention, orders the use of drills to reach the chamber. The first exploratory boreholes move off-target, but a one reaches the required destination; the miners attach a note to the drill bit to announce their survival. They receive new food and clothing, television communication with the surface. A second, drill system is prepared to retrieve the miners one by one. There is drama and tension during the weeks before the successful rescue of all 33 miners, over two months after they became trapped; the story is derived from subsequent rescues in Copiapó, Chile. The film is based on the events of the 2010 Copiapó mining accident known as the "Chilean mining accident", it is written by Mikko Alanne and José Rivera. Producer Mike Medavoy, who produced Apocalypse Now, worked with the miners, their families, those involved to put the film together. On 13 August 2014, it was announced that The 33 would be the first film to receive the Colombian Film Commission's incentive, which includes 40% for film services and 20% for film logistics services of the amount spent in the country.
Antonio Banderas, who portrays "Super" Mario Sepúlveda, is the public face for the miners who sent videos to the rescuers to update them on the miners' condition. The actual Sepúlveda expressed his approval towards having Banderas in the role. Brazilian actor Rodrigo Santoro plays Laurence Minister of Mining. On 17 June 2013, it was announced that Jennifer Lopez had joined to lead the cast of the film, but left due to scheduling conflicts with American Idol, she was replaced by Juliette Binoche. On 10 January 2014, Cote de Pablo joined the cast of the film. On 27 January 2014, Gabriel Byrne joined the cast of the film, to play the role of Andre Sougarret, the engineering genius who masterminded the miraculous rescue of the 33 trapped miners. Next day on 28 January, Bob Gunton joined the cast of the Chilean miner filming shooting in Colombia. Principal photography began in December 2013 in Colombia. Before shooting began, Riggen interviewed each of their families. After the shooting wrapped up in Nemocón, Colombia in January, crews started filming again in Copiapó, Chile on 5 February 2014, the actual place of the incident.
On 18 February 2014, news told that more than half of the filming was done in the salt mine of Nemocón, rescue scenes were being filmed in Tierra Amarilla, Chile. Filming wrapped up on 20 February 2014. In October 2014, James Horner was hired to compose the music for the film, it was the second of two scores he had completed before his death on June 22 of that year. The 33 was released across Latin America through 20th Century Fox starting from 6 August 2015 in Chile, it debuted in Colombia on 20 August 2015, along with the rest of Central America. Brazil was the last, where the film was released on 29 October 2015, its United States and Canada theatrical releases were handled by Warner Bros. on 13 November 2015. The premiere in Santiago was attended by most of the leading cast, in addition to several of the miners, former President Sebastián Piñera and former minister Laurence Golborne. On 28 April 2015, Alcon Entertainment acquired North American and the majority of international distribution rights to The 33, with Warner Bros. to distribute it.
On the same day, Warner Bros, where Alcon has its output deal, set the film's release date for 13 November 2015. The 33 grossed $12.2 million in North America and $12.7 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $24.9 million, against its production budget of $26 million. In North America, The 33 opened alongside Love the Coopers and My All American on 13 November 2015 with a poor performance. In its opening weekend, the film was projected to gross $7–8 million from 2,452 theaters; the film grossed $1.8 million on its opening day and $5.8 million in its opening weekend, finishing below studio projections. In Chile, the film grossed $1.6 million on its opening weekend, 6 August 2015, showing on 140 screens. This is the second biggest opening for a Chilean film, despite coinciding with a severe storm that caused flooding in Santiago and other parts of the country and marked the sixth-highest opening for Fox International Productions, it topped the box office there for five consecutive weekends and became the second highest-grossing Chilean film.
The film grossed a total of $4.9 million in Chile. In Mexico it opened at No. 3 with $1.3 million, but ended up grossing only a total of $3
Sábado Gigante is a Spanish-language television program broadcast by Spanish International Network in the United States. It was Univision's longest-running program and the longest-running television variety series in history. Sábado Gigante is an eclectic and frenetic mix of various contests, human-interest stories, live entertainment. From its start in 1962, it was hosted by Chilean TV star Mario Kreutzberger under the stage name of Don Francisco. Rolando Barral began serving as a co-host in 1986; the three-hour program aired on Univision each Saturday night at 8:00 p.m. A new episode was produced every week throughout the show's history, with no reruns and only rare pre-emptions due to special programming. On April 17, 2015, Univision announced that Sábado Gigante would end after 53 years, with its final episode airing on September 19, 2015. For the first time during the show's run, the final episode aired live in Chile and the U. S. After the finale, Univision replaced it with a prerecorded Mexican show, which premiered on October 30, 2010 on Televisa and September 2012 on Univision.
It was replaced with Crónicas de Sábado and Sal y Pimienta on Univision as Sabadazo was moved back to its original afternoon time slot on KMEX-DT. Kreutzberger originated the weekly program on August 8, 1962, airing on Canal 13 in Chile as Show Dominical, he had been inspired by television shows he had seen in the United States and Argentina but, as he explained, "My idea was mixing all the programs that I saw into one program." The program's broadcasts were subsequently moved to Saturdays, henceforth, was renamed Sábados Gigantes in 1963 and developed a loyal following in Chile, throughout Latin America. In Chile, during the 1970s and 1980s, the show reached peak audiences of 80%. During this period, some episodes of the program lasted up to eight hours. In its early years, the series was broadcast live with the exception of short segments. On April 12, 1986 Kreutzberger and the program moved to Los Angeles, California where it began to be produced by KMEX-DT. At that time, the show's title was changed to the singular Sábado Gigante, although some longtime fans in Chile still call it by the pluralized title.
On June 18, 2005 the series celebrated its 1,000th episode on Univisión, on May 20, 2006 it celebrated its 20th anniversary in the U. S. and on May 21, 2011 it celebrated its 25th anniversary on the Univision. On October 27, 2012, Sábado Gigante celebrated its 50th anniversary. For several years, two programs were recorded each week from identical sets: One in Miami, Florida for broadcast in most Latin American countries, as well as Canada, Europe. One in Santiago, Chile for broadcast in that country In 2000, the show was remotely broadcast from Los Angeles, California to coincide with the Mexican Independence Day celebrations. In June 2010, the final hour of the show was again remotely broadcast at the Home Depot Center in Carson to celebrate the start of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. In 2011, following the Haiti earthquake, the show aired a special three-hour telethon benefiting the American Red Cross. One of the show's signature segments, six contestants are given the chance to sing a song, with the bad performers being eliminated mid-song by "El Chacal", a ghost-like character who blows an old trumpet to end such acts.
Unlike The Gong Show, El Chacal does not have to wait a specific amount of time before eliminating someone. Don Francisco would always get into the act, wear silly hats and wigs to intimidate the contestant. On some occasions, the eliminated performer would be "fed" to a lion in his cave, with Don Francisco chanting "A los leones"; the "Lion" character was phased out and would be "replaced" with an Alex the Lion doll. The "surviving" performers are voted on by the audience, with the one receiving the most applause winning a prize or cash; the performer has the chance to win an additional $1,000 by acquiring "La Córona", which would pre-qualify that performer into the "Reyes del Chacal" competition, held every two to four years. From 1987 to 1993, any performer who advanced received a six-pack of Coca-Cola. Whenever Don Francisco sings during this segment, El Chacal would blow the trumpet mid-song insulting the host, who responds by kicking El Chacal, he would kick the character if a bad call was made.
El Chacal's name translates to "the Jackal," and his antics are more in line with such, similar to a laughing hyena. However, there is a bit darker meaning behind his appearance, he has more similarities to an "Executioner" or a "Hooded Hatchetman", who used to kill people on the gallows or gui
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Univision is an American Spanish-language free-to-air television network, owned by Univision Communications. It is the country's largest provider of Spanish-language content, followed by American competitor Telemundo; the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic Americans and includes telenovelas and other drama series, sitcoms and variety series, news programming, imported Spanish-language feature films. Univision is headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, has its major studios, production facilities, business operations based in Doral, Florida. Univision is available on pay television providers throughout most of the United States, with local stations in over 60 markets with large Latin American communities. Most of these stations air full local newscasts and other local programming in addition to network shows. Chief operating officer Randy Falco has been in charge of the company since the departure of Univision Communications president and CEO Joe Uva in April 2010. In March 2018, it was announced Falco would be retiring and stepping down as CEO.
Univision's roots can be traced back to 1955, when Raúl Cortez started KCOR-TV, an independent station in San Antonio, the nation's first Spanish-only TV outlet. The station was not profitable during its early years, in 1961, Cortez sold KCOR-TV – now known as KWEX-TV – to a group headed by Mexican entertainment mogul Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta, owner of Mexico-based Telesistema Mexicano. Cortez's son-in-law Emilio Nicolás Sr. who helped produce variety programs for the station, held a 20% stake and remained as KWEX general manager for three decades. The new owners helped to turn around the station's fortunes by investing in programming, most of it sourced from Telesistema Mexicano. On September 29, 1962, Azcárraga and his partners launched a second Spanish-language station, KMEX-TV, in Los Angeles. KWEX and KMEX formed the nucleus of the Azcárraga-owned Spanish International Network, created in late 1962. SIN was the first television network in the United States to broadcast its programming in a language other than English.
From 1963 until 1987, SIN was managed from offices in New York by Rene Anselmo, an American who had worked for Azcárraga in Mexico City for eight years as head of Telesistema's programming export subsidiary. Having supervised the launch of KMEX, Anselmo spearheaded SIN's expansion, first into the New York City area, when it founded WXTV in Paterson, New Jersey, next in Fresno, by acquiring WLTV in Miami in 1971; that year, Azcárraga and his partners incorporated these five stations as the Spanish International Communications Corporation, with Anselmo named as president. Over the next 15 years, SIN and SICC would create other top-rated Spanish-language television stations throughout the United States; the Mexican ownership interest in SIN and SICC transferred posthumously from Emilio Azcárraga Vidaurreta to his son, Emilio Azcárraga Milmo, in 1972. On July 4, 1976, the network began distributing its national feed via satellite, delivered as a superstation-type feed of San Antonio's KWEX-TV, before switching to a direct programming feed of SIN, allowing cable television providers to carry the network on their systems at little cost.
Between the mid-1970s and late-1980s, SIN began affiliating with startup Spanish-language stations in markets such as Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston, as well as with independent stations that broadcast in English. In Chicago, SIN moved its programming from WCIU-TV to new full-time affiliate WSNS-TV in July 1985. After WSNS was sold to Telemundo in 1988, what had become Univision moved its programming back to WCIU-TV, which agreed to air Univision programming on weekday evenings and weekends. In 1994, the network purchased English-language independent WGBO-TV after WCIU-TV turned down Univision's request to become a full-time affiliate in favor of maintaining its longtime multi-ethnic programming format. WGBO-TV became an Univision-owned station on December 31, 1994; the initial logo under the Univision name Spanish International Network, used from 1987 to 1989. Televisa still uses this logo today. 1987 became a pivotal year for the Spanish International Network and its owned-and-operated station group.
The Federal Communications Commission and SIN's competitors had long questioned whether the relationship between SIN and the Azcárraga family was impermissibly tight. Both the FCC and other Spanish-language broadcasters had long suspected that Televisa was using Nicolas to skirt FCC rules prohibiting foreign ownership of broadcast media; the FCC and the U. S. Justice Department encouraged a sale of the network to a properly constituted domestic organization. Spanish International Communications began discussions with various prospective buyers, culminating in Hallmark Cards, private equity firm First Chicago Venture
William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, author and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000, he transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals and ranking against those with wealth, not able to be ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, held it from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German and Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, a younger sister, Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, once damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early on in his life, Gates observed; when Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
The family encouraged competition. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing". At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school and wrote his first software program; when Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the school's students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine; when he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine." After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, he modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls." He stated that "it