Marshall County, Alabama
Marshall County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 93,019, its county seat is Guntersville. A second courthouse is in Albertville, its name is in honor of John Marshall, famous Chief Justice of the United States. Marshall County is a dry county, with the exception of the four cities of Albertville, Arab and Boaz. Marshall County comprises the Albertville, AL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area. Marshall County was established on January 9, 1836. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 623 square miles, of which 566 square miles is land and 57 square miles is water; the Tennessee River runs both south within the county. Tennessee River Jackson County - northeast DeKalb County - east Etowah County - southeast Blount County - south Cullman County - southwest Morgan County - west Madison County - northwest Alabama and Tennessee River Railway As of the census of 2000, there were 82,231 people, 32,547 households, 23,531 families residing in the county.
The population density was 145 people per square mile. There were 36,331 housing units at an average density of 64 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.38% White, 1.47% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.24% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 5.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Marshall County were English 68.2%, Scots-Irish 12.31%, Scottish 5.1%, Irish 4.22%, Welsh 2.3% and African 1.47%. There were 32,547 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,167, the median income for a family was $38,788. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $20,807 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,089. About 11.70% of families and 14.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.90% of those under age 18 and 19.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 93,019 people, 35,810 households, 25,328 families residing in the county; the population density was 164 people per square mile. There were 40,342 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 87.6% White, 1.6% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.8% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 12.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 35,810 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families.
25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 8.58% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,661, the median income for a family was $47,440. Males had a median income of $36,024 versus $27,478 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,875. About 15.3% of families and 19.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.3% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010: Southern Baptist Convention Catholic Church The United Methodist Church Church of God Churches of Christ Assemblies of God Episcopal Church The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Albertville Arab Boaz Guntersville Douglas Grant Sardis City Union Grove Joppa Red Apple Marshall County is home to numerous outdoor recreation areas including Lake Guntersville State Park, Cathedral Caverns State Park, Buck's Pocket State Park.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Marshall County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Marshall County, Alabama Marshall County Economic Development Council Marshall County Convention & Visitors Bureau
A touchdown is a scoring play in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, a team scores a touchdown by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone. To score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. In all gridiron codes, the touchdown is scored the instant the ball touches or "breaks" the plane of the goal line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone; this particular requirement of the touchdown is the exact opposite of the prerequisite to score most sports in which points are scored by moving a ball or equivalent object into a goal where the whole of the relevant object must cross the whole of the goal line for a score to be awarded. The play is dead and the touchdown scores the moment the ball touches plane in possession of a player, or the moment the ball comes into possession of an offensive player in the end zone; the slightest part of the ball touching or being directly over the goal line is sufficient for a touchdown to score.
However, only the ball counts, not a player's foot, or any other part of the body. Touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes "breaking the plane" as well. Touchdowns are scored by the offense by running or passing the ball; the former is called a rushing touchdown, in the latter, the quarterback throws a touchdown pass or passing touchdown to the receiver, who makes a touchdown reception. However, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, or on a return after a missed or blocked field goal attempt or blocked punt. In short, any play in which a player carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. In the NFL, a touchdown may be awarded by the referee as a penalty for a "palpably unfair act," such as a player coming off the bench during a play and tackling the runner, who would otherwise have scored.
A touchdown is worth six points. The scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion. Afterwards, the team that scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team, if there is any time left. Unlike a try scored in rugby, contrary to the event's name, the ball does not need to touch the ground when the player and the ball are inside the end zone; the term touchdown is a holdover from gridiron's early days when the ball was required to be touched to the ground as in rugby, as rugby and gridiron were still similar sports at this point. This rule was changed to the modern-day iteration in 1889; when the first uniform rules for American football were enacted by the newly formed Intercollegiate Football Association following the 1876 Rugby season, a touchdown counted for 1⁄4 of a kicked goal and allowed the offense the chance to kick for goal by placekick or dropkick from a spot along a line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through the point where the ball was touched down, or through a process known as a "punt-out", where the attacking team would kick the ball from the point where it was touched down to a teammate.
If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, or resume play as normal. The governing rule at the time read: "A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns. In 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field. Two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, a touchdown counted as four points. A goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to be touched to the ground was removed. A touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, the goal after touchdown added another point. In 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points. The end zone was added. Before the addition of the end zone, forward passes caught beyond the goal line resulted in a loss of possession and a touchback; the increase from five points to six did not come until much in Canada, the touchdown remained only five points there until 1956. In addition, the score continued to be called a try in Canada until the second half of the twentieth century; the ability to score a touchdown on the point-after attempt was added to NCAA football in 1958, high school football in 1969, the CFL in 1975 and the NFL in 1994. The short-lived World Football League, a professional American football league that operated in 1974 and 1975, gave touchdowns a 7-point value. American football scoring Conversion Touchdown celebration Touchdown Jesus Touchdown pass Conversion
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American global aerospace, defense and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995, it is headquartered in Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin employs 100,000 people worldwide as of December 2017. Lockheed Martin is one of the largest companies in the aerospace, defense and technologies industry, it is the world's largest defense contractor based on revenue for fiscal year 2014. In 2013, 78% of Lockheed Martin's revenues came from military sales. In 2009 US government contracts accounted for $38.4 billion, foreign government contracts $5.8 billion, commercial and other contracts for $900 million. Lockheed Martin operates in four business segments: Aeronautics and Fire Control and Mission Systems, Space Systems; the company has received the Collier Trophy six times, including in 2001 for being part of developing the X-35/F-35B LiftFan Propulsion System, most in 2006 for leading the team that developed the F-22 Raptor fighter jet.
Lockheed Martin is developing the F-35 Lightning II and leads the international supply chain, leads the team for the development and implementation of technology solutions for the new USAF Space Fence, is the primary contractor for the development of the Orion command module. The company invests in healthcare systems, renewable energy systems, intelligent energy distribution and compact nuclear fusion. Merger talks between Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta began in March 1994, with the companies announcing their $10 billion planned merger on August 30, 1994; the headquarters for the combined companies would be at Martin Marietta headquarters in North Bethesda, Maryland. The deal was finalized on March 1995, when the two companies' shareholders approved the merger; the segments of the two companies not retained by the new company formed the basis for the present L-3 Communications, a mid-size defense contractor in its own right. Lockheed Martin later spun off the materials company Martin Marietta Materials.
Both companies contributed important products to the new portfolio. Lockheed products included the Trident missile, P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft, U-2 and SR-71 reconnaissance airplanes, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, C-130 Hercules, A-4AR Fightinghawk and the DSCS-3 satellite. Martin Marietta products included Titan rockets, Sandia National Laboratories, Space Shuttle External Tank, Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers, the Transfer Orbit Stage and various satellite models. On April 22, 1996, Lockheed Martin completed the acquisition of Loral Corporation's defense electronics and system integration businesses for $9.1 billion, the deal having been announced in January. The remainder of Loral became Loral Communications. Lockheed Martin abandoned plans for a $8.3 billion merger with Northrop Grumman on July 16, 1998, due to government concerns over the potential strength of the new group. For the Mars Climate Orbiter, Lockheed Martin incorrectly provided NASA with software using measurements in US Customary force units when metric was expected.
The development of the spacecraft cost $193.1 million. In addition to their military products, in the 1990s Lockheed Martin developed the texture mapping chip for the Sega Model 2 arcade system board and the entire graphics system for the Sega Model 3, which were used to power some of the most popular arcade games of the time. In May 2001, Lockheed Martin sold Lockheed Martin Control Systems to BAE Systems. On November 27, 2000, Lockheed completed the sale of its Aerospace Electronic Systems business to BAE Systems for $1.67 billion, a deal announced in July 2000. This group encompassed Sanders Associates, Fairchild Systems, Lockheed Martin Space Electronics & Communications. In 2001, Lockheed Martin won the contract to build the F-35 Lightning II. In 2001, Lockheed Martin settled a nine–year investigation conducted by NASA's Office of Inspector General with the assistance of the Defense Contract Audit Agency; the company paid the United States government $7.1 million based on allegations that its predecessor, Lockheed Engineering Science Corporation, submitted false lease costs claims to NASA.
On May 12, 2006, The Washington Post reported that when Robert Stevens took control of Lockheed Martin in 2004, he faced the dilemma that within 10 years, 100,000 of the about 130,000 Lockheed Martin employees – more than three-quarters – would be retiring. On August 31, 2006, Lockheed Martin won a $3.9 billion contract from NASA to design and build the CEV capsule named Orion for the Ares I rocket in the Constellation Program. In 2009, NASA reduced the capsule crew requirements from the initial six seats to four for transport to the International Space Station. On August 13, 2008, Lockheed Martin acquired the government business unit of Nantero, Inc. a company that had developed methods and processes for incorporating carbon nanotubes in next-generation electronic devices. In 2009, Lockheed Martin bought Unitech. On November 18, 2010, Lockheed Martin announced that it would be closing its Eagan, Minnesota location by 2013 to reduce costs and optimize capacity at its locations nationwide. In January 2011
The Montreal Alouettes are a professional Canadian football team based in Montreal, Quebec. Founded in 1946, the team has been revived twice; the Alouettes compete in the East Division of the Canadian Football League and last won the Grey Cup championship in 2010. Their home field is Percival Molson Memorial Stadium for the regular season and as of 2014 home of their playoff games; the original Alouettes team won four Grey Cups and were dominant in the 1970s. After their collapse in 1982, they were reconstituted under new ownership as the Montreal Concordes. After playing for four years as the Concordes, they revived the Alouettes name for the 1986 season. A second folding in 1987 led to a nine-year hiatus of CFL football in the city; the current Alouettes franchise was established in 1996 by the owners of the Baltimore Stallions. The Stallions were disbanded at the same time as the Alouettes' re-establishment after having been the most successful of the CFL's American expansion franchises, culminating in a Grey Cup championship in 1995.
Many players from the Stallions' 1995 roster signed with the Alouettes and formed the core of the team's 1996 roster. The CFL considers all clubs that have played in Montreal as one franchise dating to 1946, considers the Alouettes to have suspended operations in 1987 before returning in 1996. Although the Alouettes' re-establishment in 1996 is considered a relocation of the Stallions, neither the league nor the Alouettes recognize the Baltimore franchise, or its records, as part of the Alouettes' official team history; the latest incarnation of the Alouettes were arguably the best CFL team of the 2000s. The Alouettes had from 1996 to 2014 the CFL's longest active playoff streak, only having missed the playoffs three times since returning to the league; the streak came to an end in 2015. They have hosted a playoff game every year except 2001, 2007, 2013, from 2015 to 2017, their five losing seasons came in 2007, 2013 and from 2015 to 2017. The years 2015 to 2017 marked the first time the team missed the playoffs in consecutive years since their re-activation.
Major stars of the recent era include Mike Pringle, the CFL career leader in rushing yards, quarterback Anthony Calvillo, who leads all of pro football in career passing yards. The Alouettes are owned by American investment banker Robert Wetenhall, it is the only CFL team to have non-Canadian ownership. Jim Popp served as the team's general manager. Canadian football has a long history in Montreal, dating to the 1850s; the Alouettes were first formed in 1946 by Canadian Football Hall of Famer Lew Hayman along with businessmen Eric Cradock and Léo Dandurand. They named themselves after "Alouette", a work song about plucking the feathers from a skylark, which had become a symbol of the Québécois; the origin of the team’s name comes from the 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron – the Royal Canadian Air Force’s first French Canadian squadron. They won their first Grey Cup championship in 1949, beating Calgary 28–15 led by quarterback Frank Filchock and running back Virgil Wagner; the 1950s were a productive decade for the Als, with quarterback Sam Etcheverry throwing passes to John "Red" O'Quinn, "Prince" Hal Patterson, with Pat Abbruzzi carrying the ball, Montreal fielded the most dangerous offence in all Canadian football.
From 1954 to 1956, they reached the Grey Cup in three straight years, but questionable defensive units led the Alouettes to defeat against the Edmonton Eskimos all three times. The team was purchased in 1954 by Ted Workman – and while the team continued to enjoy success, that all changed at the end of the 1960 season. To be more specific, the team was shaken by an announcement on November 10 – namely the trade of Hal Patterson and Sam Etcheverry to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats for Bernie Faloney and Don Paquette. Workman had concluded the deal without consulting with general manager Perry Moss; the deal fell apart because Etcheverry had just signed a new contract with a no-trade clause. The deal was reworked and Patterson was traded for Paquette. Sam Etcheverry went on to play in the NFL with the St. Louis Cardinals for 2 years followed by the San Francisco 49ers in 1963. Faloney remained in Hamilton, teamed with Patterson to form one of the most deadly quarterback-receiver combinations in CFL history.
This episode remains one of the most lopsided trades made in the Alouettes history, it ushered in a dark decade for the team. During that time, they failed to register a single winning season. From 1968 to 1976 the team played in the Autostade stadium—which had been built as a temporary stadium for Expo 67; the stadium's less-than-desirable location on Montreal's waterfront near the Victoria Bridge led to dismal attendance, putting more strain on the team's finances. The Als bottomed out in 1969, finishing 2–12. After that season, Workman sold the team to the capable Sam Berger, a former part-owner of the Ottawa Rough Riders. Berger made immediate changes to the team. On December 9, the team announced that Sam Etcheverry was returning to the organization—this time as the team's new head coach; the team unveiled new uniforms—their home jerseys were now predominantly green, with red and white trim. The white helmets with the red "wings" used during the 1960s disappeared, replaced by a white helmet with a stylized green and red bird's head that formed a lower-case "a".
As one might expect from a team that had won only two games in
Guntersville is a city and the county seat of Marshall County, United States. At the 2010 census, the population of the city was 8,197. Guntersville is located in a HUBZone as identified by the U. S. Small Business Administration; the 2014 Bassmaster Classic was held on Lake Guntersville, part of Guntersville. Guntersville is located at 34°20′54″N 86°17′40″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 42.4 square miles, of which 25.4 square miles is land and 17.0 square miles, or 40.14%, is water. Guntersville is located at the southernmost point of the Tennessee River on Lake Guntersville, formed by the Guntersville Dam. Geologically, the lake occupies a southern extension of Sequatchie Valley, which continues south as Browns Valley. Guntersville was founded by the great-grandfather of American humorist Will Rogers. John's own great-great-grandfather, of Welsh-English descent, had emigrated to the New World in 1644. John Gunter was the wealthy owner of a salt mine in the early 19th century.
In order to obtain more land to mine, John struck a deal with the Cherokee tribe that inhabited the area to use in his household as servants. As part of the deal, John married the daughter of the tribe's chief and agreed to give salt to the tribe. A town was named after Gunter; the town of Guntersville puts on a festival every July to celebrate Will Rogers, this festival involves many activities of interest to Will Rogers. Incorporated as Gunter's Landing in 1848, it won the contest to become county seat from Warrenton, it formally changed its name to Guntersville in 1854. For much of the 20th century, the economy of Guntersville revolved around cotton processing with the Saratoga Victory Mill. Guntersville sits on a 69,000 acre lake, Lake Guntersville, the biggest lake in Alabama; the lake is managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Bass anglers from around the country recognize this lake as one of the best in the country. Researchers have put this lake as the third best bass fishing lake in America.
Guntersville has one school system in the town, made up of four schools. In 2006 Guntersville High School won the 4A football state championship, the only football state championship recorded by a school in Marshall County, Alabama; the current mayor is Leigh Dollar, the daughter of a previous mayor, the first female to hold mayor's office in Guntersville. Guntersville was the last place in which Ricky Nelson performed as a singer, his last performance was at PJ's Alley in Guntersville on Monday, December 30, 1985. His private plane departed Guntersville the next day, New Year's Eve, crashed near DeKalb, Texas. In Hunting Mister Heartbreak: A Discovery of America, the British author Jonathan Raban becomes a temporary resident of the city, to which he takes a liking in his conservative persona as John Rayburn, he is aware, that were his real views known the people of Guntersville might have been less welcoming. Scratch John Rayburn, he'd confess my own thoughts on politics, religion − thoughts that wouldn't wash in Guntersville.
At the 2000 census, there were 7,395 people, 3,061 households and 1,971 families residing in the city. The population density was 312.7 per square mile. There were 3,518 housing units at an average density of 148.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.17% White, 8.53% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 1.45% from two or more races. 2.87% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,061 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.88. Age distribution was 22.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males. The median household income was $29,882, the median family income was $39,464. Males had a median income of $36,175 versus $20,480 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,503. About 11.2% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 16.3% of those age 65 or over. At the 2010 census, there were 8,197 people, 3,388 households and 2,167 families residing in the city; the population density was 347.3 per square mile. There were 3,872 housing units at an average density of 152.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.8% White, 7.8% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.5% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. 3.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,388 households of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband pr