Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar. The Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and the world in three categories: container and transhipment, it is located 20 km north-east of Tarifa on the Río de la Miel, the southernmost river of the Iberian peninsula and continental Europe. In 2015, it had a population of 118,920, it is the biggest city among those of its metropolitan area that includes the municipalities of Los Barrios, La Línea de la Concepción, Castellar de la Frontera, Jimena de la Frontera, San Roque and Tarifa, with a population of 263,739. The site of Roman cities called Portus Albus and Iuliua Tracta, the current name of Algeciras comes from the Arab period of the Iberian Peninsula: Al-Jazīra Al-Khadrā' Arabic الجزيرة الخضراء or Green Island. However, in modern dialectical Arabic it is referred to as Al Khuzurat in neighboring Morocco; the area of the city has been populated since prehistory, the earliest remains belong to Neanderthal populations from the Paleolithic era.
Due to its strategic position it was an important port under the Phoenicians, was the site of the relevant Roman port of Portus Albus, with two nearby cities called Caetaria and Iulia Transducta, founded by the Romans. It has been proposed that the site of Iulia Transducta was the Villa Vieja of Algeciras. After being destroyed by the Goths and their Vandal allies, the city was founded again in April 711 by the invading Moors, as the first city created by the Amazigh on the occupied Spanish soil. In the year 859 AD Viking troops on board 62 drekars and commanded by the leaders Hastein and Björn Ironside besieged the city for three days and subsequently laid waste to much of it. After looting the houses of the rich, they burnt the Banderas mosque. Reorganized near the medina, the inhabitants managed to recover the city and make the invaders run away, capturing two boats, it enjoyed a brief period of independence as a taifa state from 1035 to 1058. It was named al-Jazirah al-Khadra' after the offshore Isla Verde.
In 1055 Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville drove the Berbers from Algeciras. In 1278, Algeciras was besieged by the forces of the Kingdom of Castile under the command of Alfonso X of Castile and his son, Sancho IV; this siege was the first of a series of attempts to take the city and ended in failure for the Castilian forces. An armada sent by Castile was annihilated whilst trying to blockade the city's harbor. After many centuries of Muslim rule, the tide of the reconquista arrived at Algeciras. In July 1309 Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege to Algeciras as well as Gibraltar; the latter fell into Christian hands, but Muslim Algeciras held on for the following three decades, until Alfonso XI of Castile resumed its siege. Juan Nunez de Lara, Juan Manuel, Pedro Fernández de Castro, Juan Alfonso de la Cerda, lord of Gibraleón all participated in the siege, as did knights from France and Germany, King Philip III of Navarre, king consort of Navarra, who came accompanied by 100 horsemen and 300 infantry. In March 1344, after several years of siege, Algeciras surrendered.
On winning the city, Alfonso XI made it the seat of a new diocese, established by Pope Clement VI's bull Gaudemus et exultamus of 30 April 1344, entrusted to the governance of the bishop of Cadiz. The bishops of Cadiz continued to hold the title of Aliezira, as it called, until 1851, when in accordance with a concordat between Spain and the Holy See its territory was incorporated into the diocese of Cadiz. No longer a residential bishopric, Aliezira is today listed by the Catholic Church; the city was retaken by the Moors in 1368. It was destroyed on the orders of Muhammed V of Granada; the site was subsequently abandoned, but was refounded in 1704 by refugees from Gibraltar following the territory's capture by Anglo-Dutch forces in the War of the Spanish Succession. It was fortified to guard against British raids with installations such as the Fuerte de Isla Verde built to guard key points; the city was rebuilt on its present rectangular plan by Charles III of Spain in 1760. In July 1801, the French and Spanish navies fought the British Royal Navy offshore in the Battle of Algeciras, which ended in a British victory.
The city became the scene for settling a major international crisis as it hosted the Algeciras Conference in 1906. The international forum to discuss the future of Morocco, held in the Casa Consistorial, it confirmed the independence of Morocco against threats from Germany, gave France control of banking and police interests. In July 1942 Italian frogmen set up in a secret base in the Italian tanker Olterra, interned in Algeciras, in order to attack shipping in Gibraltar. During the Franco era, Algeciras underwent substantial industrial development, creating many new jobs for the local workers made unemployed when the border between Gibraltar and Spain was sealed by Franco between 1969 and 1982. In 1982 there was a failed plan codenamed Operation Algeciras conceived by the Argentinian military to sabotage the British military facilities in Gibraltar during the Falklands War; the Spanish authorities intervened just before the attack, deported the two Argentine Montoneros and military liaison officer involved.
Algeciras is principally industrial city. Its main activities are connected with the port, which serves as the main embarkation point between Spain and Tangier and other
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish writer, regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His novel Don Quixote has been translated into over dialects. Don Quixote, a classic of Western literature, is sometimes considered both the first modern novel and the best work of fiction written. Cervantes' influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is called la lengua de Cervantes, he has been dubbed El príncipe de los ingenios. In 1569, in forced exile from Castile, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal, he enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Barbary pirates. After five years of captivity, he was released on payment of a ransom by his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order, he returned to his family in Madrid. In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel, he worked as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada and as a tax collector for the government.
In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605, Cervantes was in Valladolid when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signalled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer, publishing Novelas ejemplares in 1613, Viaje del Parnaso in 1614, Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote in 1615, his last work, Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, was published posthumously in 1617. It is assumed that Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, a Castilian city about 35 kilometres north-east from Madrid on 29 September 1547; the probable date of his birth was determined from records in the church register, given the tradition of naming a child after the feast day of his birth. He was baptized in Alcalá de Henares on 9 October 1547 at the parish church of Santa María la Mayor.
The register of baptisms records the following: On Sunday, the ninth day of the month of October, the year of our Lord one thousand five hundred forty and seven, son of Rodrigo Cervantes and his wife Leonor, was baptised. Witnesses, Baltasar Vázquez, I, who baptised him and signed this in my name. Bachelor Serrano, his father, was a barber-surgeon of Galician extraction from Córdoba, who set bones, performed blood-lettings, attended to "lesser medical needs". His paternal grandfather, Juan de Cervantes, was an influential lawyer who held several administrative positions, his uncle was mayor of Cabra for many years. His mother, Leonor de Cortinas, was a native of Arganda del Rey and the third daughter of a nobleman, who lost his fortune and had to sell his daughter into matrimony in 1543; this led to a awkward marriage and several affairs by Rodrigo. Leonor died on 19 October 1593. Miguel at birth was not surnamed Cervantes Saavedra, he adopted the "Saavedra" name as an adult. Little is known of Cervantes' early years.
It seems he spent much of his childhood moving from town to town with his family enrolling in The Imperial School, a Jesuit educational establishment for boys in Madrid. Court records show a poor household. While it has been speculated that he studied at the University of Salamanca, there is no evidence supporting it. Based on the high praise of the Jesuits in the Dialogue of the Dogs, there has been speculation that Cervantes studied with them, but again there is no evidence, his siblings were Andrés, Luisa, Rodrigo and Juan – the latter known because he is mentioned in his father's will. The reasons that forced Cervantes to leave Spain remain uncertain. Possible reasons include that he was a "student" of the same name, a "sword-wielding fugitive from justice", or fleeing from a royal warrant of arrest, for having wounded a certain Antonio de Sigura in a duel. Like many young Spanish men who wanted to further their careers, Cervantes left for Italy. In Rome, he focused his attention on Renaissance art and poetry – knowledge of Italian literature is discernible in his work.
He found "a powerful impetus to revive the contemporary world in light of its accomplishments". Thus, Cervantes' stay in Italy, as revealed in his works, might be in part a desire for a return to an earlier period of the Renaissance. By 1570, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a regiment of the Spanish Navy Marines, Infantería de Marina, stationed in Naples a possession of the Spanish crown, he was there for about a year. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the Marquesa, part of the galley fleet of the Holy League that, under the command of John of Austria, the illegitimate half brother of Spain's Phillip II, defeated the Ottoman fleet on 7 October 1571, in the Battle of Lepanto. Though taken with fever, Cervantes refused to stay below, he d
Tristan known as Tristram or Tristain, is a knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend and the hero of the Tristan and Iseult story. Tristan made his first recorded appearance in the 12th century in British mythology circulating in the north of France and the Kingdom of Brittany, which had close ancestral and cultural links with the English counties of Cornwall and Devon by way of the ancient British kingdom of Dumnonia, as made clear in the story itself, the related Cornish and Breton languages. Although the oldest stories concerning Tristan are lost, some of the derivatives still exist. Most early versions fall into one of two branches: the "courtly" branch represented in the retellings of the English poet Thomas of Britain and his German successor Gottfried von Strassburg, in the Folie Tristan d'Oxford; the name Tristan is known as "Trischin" in the Maltese culture. Arthurian romancier Chrétien de Troyes mentioned in his poem Cligès that he composed his own account of the story. In the 13th century, during the great period of prose romances, Tristan en prose or Prose Tristan appeared and was one of the most popular romances of its time.
This long and lyrical work follows Tristan from the traditional legend into the realm of King Arthur where Tristan participates in the Quest for the Holy Grail. In the 15th century, Sir Thomas Malory shortened this French version into his own English-language The Book of Sir Tristram de Lyones, a part of Le Morte d'Arthur. In the story of Tristan and Iseult, Tristan is the son of Blancheflor and Rivalen, the nephew of King Mark of Cornwall, sent to fetch Iseult back from Ireland to wed the king. However, he and Iseult accidentally consume a love potion while en route and fall helplessly in love. In Malory's telling, Sir Tristram had fallen in love with Isolde earlier, his uncle, King Mark, jealous of Tristan and seeking to undermine him, appears to seek marriage to Isolde for just such a hateful purpose, going so far as to ask Tristram to go and seek her hand on his behalf. Of all the knights, Tristram most resembles Sir Lancelot as he too loves a queen, the wife of another. Tristan is considered to be as strong and able a knight as Lancelot, although they become beloved friends.
Because of King Mark's treacherous behavior, Tristram takes Isolde from him and lives with her for some time, but he returns Isolde to him. Nonetheless, Mark kills Tristram while he is "harping". There are obscure aspects to Tristan. Tristan could derive from the legendary Pictish Chronicle Drest or Drust which appears as the name of several ancient Pictish kings in modern Scotland far to the northwest, it may have originated from an ancient legend regarding a Pictish king who slew a giant in the distant past, which had spread throughout the isles, or the name may come from a 6th-century Pictish saint who bore another form of the name – or it may have migrated upwards from the southwest due to the fame of the legends of Arthur. In addition, there was a Tristan who bore witness to a legal document at the Swabian Abbey of Saint Gall in 807. Another strange aspect is his kingdom, for whose existence there is no evidence. However, there were two places called Leonais: one in Brittany, the other the Old French transcription of Lothian.
However, the Isles of Scilly have been proposed to be this place, since they were one island until Roman times and several islands are interconnected at low tide. Regardless, Tristan being a prince of Lothian would make his name more sensible, Lothian being on the borderlands of the Pictish High-Kingship. There are records of a Turstan Crectune, whose name gave the Lothian village of Crichton its name, he was granted lands in 1128 by King David I of Scotland. One other suggestion is that he could have been adopted into the family of Mark of Cornwall, a historical practice attested in Roman law. Researcher Sigmund Eisner came to the conclusion that the name Tristan comes from Drust, son of Talorc, but that the legend of Tristan as we know it, was gathered together by an Irish monk living in North Britain around the early 8th century. Eisner explains that Irish monks of this time would have been familiar with the Greek and Roman narratives that the legend borrows from such as Pyramus and Thisbe.
Eisner concludes that "the author of the Tristan story used the names and some of the local traditions of his own recent past. To these figures he attached adventures, handed down from Roman and Greek mythology, he lived in the north of Britain, was associated with a monastery, started the first rendition of the Tristan story on its travels to wherever it has been found." Possible evidence for his roots in South West England is the 6th-century inscribed granite pill
Alfonso XI of Castile
Alfonso XI of Castile, called the Avenger, was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. He was the son of his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who would hold regency, which were resolved in 1313. Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power, his achievements include solving the conquest of Algeciras. Alfonso XI was the son of King Ferdinand IV of Constance of Portugal, his father died. His grandmother, María de Molina, his mother Constance, his granduncle Infante John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, son of King Alfonso X of Castile and uncle Infante Peter of Castile, Lord of Cameros, son of King Sancho IV assumed the regency. Queen Constance died first on 18 November 1313, followed by Infantes John and Peter during a military campaign against Granada in 1319, which left Dowager Queen María as the only regent until her death on 1 July 1321. After the death of the infantes John and Peter in 1319, Juan Manuel and Juan el Tuerto split the kingdom among themselves according to their aspirations for regency as it was being looted by moors and the rebellious nobility.
As soon as he took the throne, he began working hard to strengthen royal power by dividing his enemies. His early display of rulership skills included the unhesitant execution of possible opponents, including his uncle Juan el Tuerto in 1326, he managed to extend the limits of his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar after the important victory at the Battle of Río Salado against the Marinid Dynasty in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. Once that conflict was resolved, he redirected all his Reconquista efforts to fighting the Moorish king of Granada, he is variously known among Castilian kings as the Avenger or the Implacable, as "He of Río Salado." The first two names he earned by the ferocity with which he repressed the disorders caused by the nobles during his long minority. Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile, but he could be bloody in his methods, he killed for reasons of state without any form of trial. He neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal, indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman, who bore him ten children.
This set Peter an example. It may be that his early death, during the Great Plague of 1350, at the Fifth Siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with Peter, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far. Alfonso died in the night of 25–26 March 1350. Alfonso XI first had the union annulled two years later, his second marriage, in 1328, was to his double first cousin Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal. They had: Ferdinand. By his mistress, Eleanor of Guzman, he had ten children: Pedro Alfonso, Lord of Aguilar de Campoo Sancho Alfonso, 1st Lord of Ledesma Henry II of Castile King of Castile; the marriage was annulled and in 1366 she married Felipe de Castro. "... King Alfonso was not tall but well proportioned, he was rather strong and had fair skin and hair." Chapman, Charles Edward and Rafael Altamira, A history of Spain, The MacMillan Company, 1922. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hannay, D..
"Alphonso". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press. León-Sotelo, María & González Crespo, Esther. "Notas para el itinerario de Alfonso XI en el periodo de 1344 a 1350". En la España Medieval. Vol. 8 no. 5. Complutense University of Madrid. Pp. 575–589. ISSN 0214-3038. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, Ed. E. Michael Gerli and Samuel G. Armistead, Routledge, 2003
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
Peñafiel is a town in the Valladolid Province and the greater autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. It is best known for the Peñafiel Castle and for its medieval square used for bullfights and named "Plaza del Coso"; the square is surrounded by private homes, but since medieval times the rights to use their windows and doorways during bullfights are owned by the town, which auctions them to the highest bidders. The town is full of deep excavated caveswhich were traditionally used to store the wine because of the constant temperature they kept all year around; these caves have chimney vents for ventilation and to evacuate the gases generated by the fermentation of the wine. These chimney vents dot the landscape around the town and the castle. In 2006 Peñafiel had a population of about 5,434. Peñafiel was a important centre in the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the fact that it had up to 19 churches; the town witnessed a clear expansion when the Spanish Rail System reached it, this profited the surrounding region.
Rail facilitated distribution of goods. Three factories were established dedicated to the production of flour; this expansion did not, serve to develop animal husbandry in the region. The name of Peñafiel derives from the Latin Pinna Fidelis; the name is not casual: the "Peña" served as protection through the years, as the Castle at its top attests. The castle can be seen from kilometers away, it is a typical postcard of the town; the castle now hosts the Wine Museum of Valladolid, offers an impressive view of the town and the surrounding region. Below the castle, but above the town, many of wine caves were built; the mountain contains tens of such caves. Many wineries are located near Peñafiel: the town is at the heart of the Wine Region of Ribera del Duero. Guided winery visits in La Ribera del Duero are a growing tourist activity. Peñafiel is twinned with: Villena, Spain Escalona, Spain Penafiel, Portugal
Ferdinand IV of Castile
Ferdinand IV of Castile called the Summoned, was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death. During his minority, his upbringing and the custody of his person were entrusted to his mother, Queen María de Molina, while his tutorship was entrusted to the Infante Henry of Castile the Senator, son of King Fernando III of Castile. At that time, for the rest of his reign, his mother tried to placate the nobility, confronted her son's enemies, prevented Ferdinand IV from being dethroned, he had to face the insubordination of the nobility, led at numerous times by his uncle, the Infante John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos and by Juan Núñez II de Lara, who were supported in some occasions by Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena and grandson of the King Ferdinand III. Like his predecessors on the throne, Ferdinand IV continued the Reconquista and, although he failed to conquer Algeciras in 1309, he captured the city of Gibraltar that same year, in 1312 the city of Alcaudete was conquered.
During the Cortes of Valladolid of 1312, he promoted the reform of the administration of justice, that of all areas of administration, while attempting to strengthen the royal authority to the detriment of the nobility. He died in Jaén on 7 September 1312 aged 26, his mortal remains are now in the Royal Collegiate Church of Saint Hippolytus. Ferdinand was born in the city of Seville on 6 December 1285 as the second child and eldest son of King Sancho IV of Castile and his wife María de Molina, he was baptized at Seville Cathedral by Archbishop Raimundo de Losana and was proclaimed heir to the Crown and received the homage of the nobles of the Kingdom. King Sancho IV entrusted to Fernán Pérez Ponce de León the raising of his newborn son, since he had been First Majordomo of King Alfonso X; the prince and his tutor left for the city of Zamora. The King appointed Isidro González and Alfonso Godínez as Chancellors of the prince, while appointing Samuel de Belorado almojarife of the prince. Fernán Pérez Ponce de León and his wife, Urraca Gutiérrez de Meneses, had a significant influence on Ferdinand's character, he would show them, as a King, a profound gratitude.
In his infancy the question of his marriage was raised, being the desire of Sancho IV to choose a princess from Kingdoms of France or Portugal. In the agreement signed by Sancho IV and King Denis of Portugal in September 1291, was established the betrothal between Ferdinand and the Infanta Constance, daughter of the Portuguese sovereign. In spite of the commitment contracted with the Portuguese monarch, in 1294, Sancho IV thought about the possibility of marrying his son with Margaret or Blanche, daughters of King Philip IV of France; the death of Sancho IV a year put an end to the negotiations with the French court. King Sancho IV of Castile died in the city of Toledo on 25 April 1295, leaving his eldest son Ferdinand as heir of the throne. After the burial of the sovereign at Toledo Cathedral, his widow María de Molina retired to the Alcázar of Toledo for a mourning of nine days; the now Dowager Queen was in charge of the regency of her 9-years-old son. Because the marriage between Sancho IV and María de Molina was without validity, all their children were illegitimate, so the Dowager Queen had to face numerous problems to keep her son on the throne.
To the incessant struggles with the Castilian nobility, led by the Infante John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos and by the Infante Henry of Castile the Senator, son of Ferdinand III and great-uncle of Ferdinand IV were joined the claims of the Infantes de la Cerda, who were supported by France and Aragon and by their grandmother Dowager Queen Violante of Aragon, widow of Alfonso X. To this were added the problems with Aragon and France, who tried to take advantage of the political instability that suffered the Kingdom of Castile in their own benefit. At the same time, Diego López V de Haro, Lord of Biscay, Nuño González de Lara, Juan Núñez II de Lara, among many others nobles, sowed confusion and anarchy in the kingdom. In the Cortes of Valladolid in 1295, Henry of Castile the Senator was appointed guardian of the King, but the Dowager Queen María de Molina got that the custody of her son was entrusted to her. While celebrating the Cortes of Valladolid, John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, left the city of Granada and tried to occupy the city of Badajoz, when failing in this attempt, he seized Coria and the castle of Alcántara.
He passed to the Kingdom of Portugal, where he pressed King Denis of Portugal to declare war to Castile and, at the same time, to support his claims to the Castilian throne. In the summer of 1295, when the Cortes of Valladolid were finished, the Dowager Queen and Henry of Castile met in Ciudad Rodrigo with King Denis of Portugal, to whom they delivered several localities located near the Portuguese border. In the meeting of Ciudad Rodrigo was renewed the betrothal between Ferdinand IV and Constance of Portugal, daughter of King Denis, in addition Infanta Beatrice of Castile, younger sister of Fernando IV, would marry Afonso, heir to the Portuguese throne. At the same time, Diego López V de Haro was confirmed the possession of the Lordship of Biscay, John of Castile, who recognized Ferdinand IV as his sovereign, was momentarily restored his property. Shortly after, King James II of Aragon returned the Infanta Isabella of Castile to th